This resource was originally published by Loyola University Medical Center here.
Screening Guidelines for the Early Detection of Gynecologic Cancers
Screening tests are used to look for disease before you exhibit any symptoms, and are effective when they detect disease early, leading to more effective treatment and positive outcomes.
American Cancer Society recommends the following screening guidelines for early detection and prevention of gynecologic cancers:
- Cervical cancer – Regular testing for cervical cancer should begin at age 21 for cervical cancer prevention. If you are between the ages of 21 and 29, you should have a screening test every three years. Between the ages of 30 and 65, you should have a screening test every five years. If you are over the age of 65 with normal cervical cancer test results, you should no longer be tested. Women over the age of 65 with a history of cervical pre-cancer should continue to be tested for at least 20 years.
- Uterine cancer – The American Cancer Society recommends that at the time of menopause, all women should be told about the risks and symptoms of endometrial cancer, which may include abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge, or pelvic pain and pressure. Some women, due to their history, may need to consider having a yearly endometrial biopsy.
- Ovarian cancer – There are not currently any screening tests available for ovarian cancer. Doctors often perform a pelvic exam, which includes checking the ovaries, but this exam does not generally detect ovarian cysts unless they are very large. Doctors rely on the common symptoms of bloating, abdominal pain and change in urinary symptoms to guide them in the detection of ovarian cancer. If you believe you are at risk for ovarian cancer, Loyola offers a cancer risk assessment program, which provides detailed risk assessments for patients with a susceptibility to ovarian cancer.
- Vaginal and vulvar cancer – Currently, there are no screening tests available for vaginal and vulvar cancer. The best way for you to know if you might have these cancer types is to get regular check-ups and notify your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms. Your doctor may perform a pelvic exam to look for lumps or changes in your vagina or changes in the skin of your vulva.
Each specific type of gynecologic cancer has its own unique set of risk factors, and there is no way to know who will get gynecologic cancer. Doctors at Loyola are committed to working with you to understand your specific family and medical history and symptoms to develop a screening program specific to your needs.
What Screening Tests are Available for Gynecologic Cancer?
Cervical cancer is the only gynecologic cancer for which there is a specific screening test, the Pap smear. The Pap test helps prevent cervical cancer by finding precancerous cells that might eventually become cervical cancer. If these cells are detected, doctors at Loyola are able to remove cells and prevent cancer development.
In addition to the Pap test, an HPV test can be performed to look for the HPV virus, a common sexually transmitted virus that, if left untreated, may cause gynecologic cancers. If you are between the ages of 30 and 65, your doctor should perform an HPV test in conjunction with your Pap test.
Young women can receive an HPV vaccine that will protect against the types of HPV that most commonly cause cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancers. The vaccine is given in a series of three shots, and is recommended for girls ages 11 and 12.
Other gynecologic cancers rely on you to understand your body and work with your doctor if you develop any unusual symptoms or changes in order to detect any cancers early.
If you are concerned about the possibility of gynecologic cancer due to family history, symptoms or screening results, contact your primary care physician who can make additional recommendations for your specific concerns.