April 2021 Notable News

April 2021 Notable News

Eating mushrooms, lowering your BMI, personalized vaccines, a rare plant compound, and targeted treatments are all ways to treat or prevent cancer, which is a good thing, because it looks like cancer alters your cardiovascular health, and the entire cancer landscape is going to change in the next 20 years, so the more mushrooms you can eat, the better.

People seem to either love or hate mushrooms. A 2019 survey puts mushrooms on the top ten list of the most hated vegetables, but now their popularity is on the rise, and with good reason. Those little fungi could reduce your cancer risk, reports psu.edu. A study from Penn State University showed that people who eat a lot of mushrooms, about 1/8th to 1/4th cup daily, had a 45 percent lower cancer risk than those who did not eat mushrooms. All mushrooms are rich in vitamins, nutrients, and antioxidants, so any variety provides the cancer preventing benefits. Mushrooms are also the highest dietary source of a unique cell-protecting antioxidant called ergothioneine. Learn more about the study here, and for an interesting and deep dive all about mushrooms, check out this article at civileats.com.

Mushrooms are low in calories and high in protein so they are a great dietary addition if you are trying to lower your BMI, which you may want to consider if you’ve had breast cancer. A new study shows that women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer have a higher risk of being diagnosed with a second cancer if their weight increases, reports breastcancer.org. The study found that women who had an increased body mass index (BMI) after breast cancer treatment also had a seven percent greater risk of a second primary cancer, a 13 percent greater risk of an obesity related cancer, an 11 percent greater risk of a second breast cancer, and a 15 percent greater risk of a second estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. The 13 types of cancer linked to being overweight and obese include multiple myeloma, thyroid cancer, pancreatic cancer, and uterine cancer. Find more about the study and the other cancers linked to obesity here.

Researchers are finding better and better ways to treat cancers and early trials are proving that a personalized cancer vaccine is possible, says webmd.com. A personalized vaccine called PGV-001 was developed with custom peptides, which are types of amino acids. The vaccine was given to 13 patients who had a high risk of cancer recurrence after initial treatments. The types of cancers the patients had were head and neck cancer, multiple myeloma, lung cancer, breast cancer, and bladder cancer. Eleven of the 13 patients received all ten doses of the vaccine. Half of the patients experienced mild adverse effects, including reactions at the injection site and low-grade fever, and after about two years, four of the patients had no evidence of cancer and had received no further treatment. Four other patients were receiving other types of treatments, and three of the patients have died. Two of the patients could no longer be contacted for the study. Researchers are hopeful that personalized vaccines to treat a variety of tumor types is a viable option. Read more here.

Being able to keep cancer from spreading could make treatments more effective, and researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) may have figured out a way to do it, reports mit.edu. Researchers set out to understand the physical changes that occur in a cancer cell when they metastasize, and were able to measure the properties of aggressive, metastatic tumor cells as they passed through the lining of the blood cells. The study shows that tumor cells actually become softer, which allows them to squeeze through the wall of blood vessels and spread. Researchers still don’t know what causes the cells to soften but believe that the development and use of drugs to prevent the cancer cells from softening could stop or slow down metastasis. See how they made their discovery here.

Not to be outdone by MIT, researchers at Purdue University have turned to the plant world in search of cancer treatment and have discovered that a rare compound in a plant could help treat many cancers, reports purdue.edu. A chemist from Purdue University studied a compound called curcusone D, which proved very effective at stopping cancer cells, and found a way to recreate it in the lab. The compound fights a cancer protein called BRAT1 which was believed to be “undruggable”. BRAT1 is found in many cancers including breast, brain, colorectal, prostate, lung, and liver cancers, and curcusone D is the first BRAT1 inhibitor. The plant, Jatropha curcas, or the purging nut, is native to North America, and is known for its medicinal properties, but only produces a small amount of the compound. The lab-created version of the compound can be produced in large amounts and is also effective at killing cancer cells and stopping their migration. Learn more about the curcusone D research here.

Researchers are also getting closer to finding better treatment for hard-to-treat cancers. Early studies in Japan show that there may be a way to make pancreatic cancer more responsive to chemotherapy, says eurekalert.org. The researchers discovered that targeting a gene regulator called TUG1 could interrupt its activity which helps make pancreatic cells resistant to chemotherapy. The team plans to further test their strategy. Learn more here.

Having cancer is already linked to a greater risk of heart issues, but new research shows that some types of cancer may actually alter the heart, says medicalxpress.com. The study found that people with cancer had reduced volume of the left ventricle and their hearts pumped less blood per heartbeat. Their hearts also showed signs of elevated strain and inflammation. Until now, the research has looked at how treatments like chemotherapy are detrimental to the heart, but this study shows that cancer itself can affect heart health. Questions like how cancer causes the changes to the heart and how long the changes might last after treatment still need to be answered. Learn more here.

The cancer landscape is changing and will look very different by 2040, reports ajmc.com. A new study shows that there will be more cases of melanoma and there will be more deaths from pancreatic and liver cancers. By 2040 breast cancer, melanoma, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer will have the highest number of cases in that order.

While breast cancer will lead in number of cases, it will cause fewer deaths. Prostate cancer, which is currently one of the most common cancers, will move to 14th place. Lung cancer will continue to be the leading cause of cancer deaths, followed by pancreatic, liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer, which will move down from the number three spot to the fifth spot. The future cancer landscape study was done so that plans could be made to fund research, provide healthcare, and inform policy making. Learn more about what cancer will look like in 2040 and how it was determined here.