Myeloma Induction and Consolidation Therapy Defined

Myeloma Induction and Consolidation Therapy Defined from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Myeloma expert, Dr. Krina Patel, defines the role and purpose of induction therapy and consolidation therapy in myeloma care.

Dr. Krina Patel is an Associate Professor in the Department of Lymphoma/Myeloma at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas. Dr. Patel is involved in research and cares for patients with multiple myeloma. Learn more about Dr. Patel, here.

Related Resources:

Expert Advice for Newly Diagnosed Myeloma Patients

The Role of a Myeloma Specialist on Your Care Team

Relapsed and Refractory Myeloma Defined

Transcript:

Katherine:    

What is induction therapy?

Dr. Patel:      

So, induction therapy is usually referred for newly diagnosed patients who have never had therapy before and we are now trying to give something to knock that myeloma down. A diagnosis usually is when we have the most myeloma for somebody because they really didn’t know necessarily that they had myeloma before. And our goal is to knock that myeloma down, so it doesn’t cause any more clinical problems.

Katherine:  

What is consolidation therapy?

Dr. Patel:     

So, consolidation means that we’ve knocked that myeloma down now and we’re trying to keep it down, or there’s a little bit of myeloma left that maybe that initial induction therapy didn’t kill; that we try to kind of sweep it all up with the consolidation. So, usually the best example that I can give of consolidation therapy is high-dose melphalan (Alkeran) with stem cell rescuer or what we call autologous stem cell transplant. That, for patients who are in some type of response; then we do that transplant to really kill as many myeloma cells as possible. And then, we do maintenance.

The other part of consolidation therapy is, sometimes after transplant for some of our high-risk patients, or for patients that still have some myeloma even after stem cell transplant, we might give them three or four drugs again to knock the rest of that myeloma down for a little while. Sometimes we do four cycles or so. So, that’s another consolidation strategy.

Katherine:   

How long is a cycle?

Dr. Patel:      

So, each therapy is different but most of our different myeloma therapies cycles are either three or four weeks.

Relapsed and Refractory Myeloma Defined

Relapsed and Refractory Myeloma Defined from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Myeloma expert Dr. Krina Patel reviews the difference between relapsed and refractory myeloma and how these distinctions may impact care and treatment.

Dr. Krina Patel is an Associate Professor in the Department of Lymphoma/Myeloma at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas. Dr. Patel is involved in research and cares for patients with multiple myeloma. Learn more about Dr. Patel, here.

Related Resources:

Expert Advice for Newly Diagnosed Myeloma Patients

The Role of a Myeloma Specialist on Your Care Team

Myeloma Induction and Consolidation Therapy Defined

Transcript:

Katherine:  

Dr. Patel, could you define what relapsed myeloma is?

Dr. Patel:     

Yes, so as of today, for the majority of our patients we can’t cure myeloma to the point where we treat it, and it’s gone forever, right? I’m hoping one day we get there. And we’re getting better, but we’re not there yet. However, myeloma’s very, very treatable. So, what relapsed means is that, once you’ve had initial therapy after you’ve been diagnosed, our goal is to get that myeloma to as low as possible level so that it hibernates as long as possible. But eventually, that myeloma’s going to start waking back up. So, when it does, that’s called a relapse. That now, the proteins are coming up, the myeloma cells are growing and we need to do something to knock it back down again. So, that’s relapsed disease.

Katherine:

How is that different from refractory myeloma?

Dr. Patel:

That’s a great question. We talk about relapsed refractory all the time for myeloma. So, refractory actually means that your myeloma started waking up while on a certain medication. So, if you were on no medicines and then your myeloma came up, that’s considered relapsed. That’s not refractory. However, biggest example I can give you is when patients are on maintenance therapy after stem cell transplant, for instance. When they’re all on maintenance and their myeloma starts coming up while on maintenance, then they are considered refractory to that drug; so, if it’s lenalidomide (Revlimid), if it’s bortezomib (Velcade), whichever one it is.

So, any time the myeloma’s coming up while on active treatment, you become refractory. So, we talk about triple refractory or penta-refractory, and what that really means is how many drugs is your myeloma refractory to.

So, if you’re refractory to a proteasome inhibitor plus an immunomodulatory drug plus a CD38 antibody, right – I can give you examples of all of those, but basically different categories –then you’re considered triple refractory. And the more refractory it is, the harder it is to treat and the more novel therapies we need.

Katherine:

So, if a patient is taking three or four different drugs, how can you pin it down to know which drug or all of them are causing the refractory myeloma?

Dr. Patel:

So, it would be all of them. Let’s say, salvage therapy. You’re on three different medications or four different medications, usually three. We would say, if the myeloma’s coming up while you’re on all of them, you’re technically refractory to now all those medications.

Katherine:

All of those. Okay, all right.