Tools for Choosing Myeloma Therapy

Tools for Choosing Myeloma Therapy from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

When faced with choosing a myeloma treatment, what should be considered? This animated video reviews factors that impact treatment decisions, provides a list of questions to ask your healthcare team about therapy and advice for engaging in your myeloma care.

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Transcript:

Whether a patient is newly diagnosed with myeloma or is facing a relapse, choosing a treatment approach can feel overwhelming.   

Shared decision-making is a process where patients and healthcare providers communicate and collaborate to make care decisions. This approach encourages patients to take a more active role in their care and treatment and can help them feel more confident when choosing a therapy. 

So, what can impact myeloma treatment decisions? 

  • There are patient-related factors, such as a patient’s age, fitness level, and pre-existing conditions. 
  • And, disease-related factors, including the aggressiveness of the patient’s disease and its location in the body. 
  • And, treatment-related factors, such as past treatments a patient has received or if they are refractory to medicines. 

How can you play a role in making treatment decisions?  

You can start by making a list of questions in advance of your appointment. This can help you to organize your thoughts before you meet with your healthcare team.  

And, when working with your doctor to choose a treatment, consider asking the following questions: 

  • What type of myeloma do I have?  
  • Are there test results that may impact my treatment choices? 
  • What are the risks and benefits of each treatment option? 
  • What approach do you recommend and why?  
  • How is the treatment administered, and what side effects might I expect? 
  • What are my options if this treatment stops working? 
  • Are there newer treatment options available to me, including immunotherapy?  
  • And, is there a clinical trial that might be right for me?  

It’s also a good idea to bring a friend or loved one to your appointment for support to take notes and help you recall information. Afterwards, discuss the appointment together – you can use this time to talk about your care plan and do your own research to learn more about your options.   

The patient portal is another useful tool in your care. You can use it to view lab and test results. And you can use the messaging feature to communicate with your healthcare team when you have more urgent questions to address before your next visit. 

Now that you know more about how to make myeloma treatment decisions, how can you take action? 

  • First, consider a second opinion or a consult with a specialist. 
  • Then, ensure you have had all relevant myeloma testing. 
  • Next, understand and participate in treatment decisions. This includes learning about your options, so you can weigh the pros and cons of each approach. And be sure to speak up and share your personal preferences and goals with your care team. 
  • Communicate regularly with your healthcare team – don’t wait to share information only when you have an appointment.  
  • And finally, bring a friend or loved one to appointments and always write down any questions or concerns in advance. 

Visit powerfulpatients.org/myeloma to learn more about myeloma and access tools for self-advocacy. 

What Is CAR T-Cell Therapy for Myeloma?

What Is CAR T-Cell Therapy for Myeloma? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

How does CAR T-cell therapy work to treat myeloma? This animated video provides an overview of the CAR T-cell process, explains which patient this treatment could be appropriate for, and reviews potential side effects.

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Transcript:

CAR T-cell therapy is a type of treatment in which a patient’s own immune system cells, also known as T cells, are reprogrammed in a laboratory to attack cancer cells.  

The process involves removing T cells from the patient’s blood. Then, the T cells are sent to a laboratory where a gene for a special receptor that binds to a protein on the patient’s cancer cells is added to the T cells. The special receptor is called a chimeric antigen receptor.  

When this process is complete, the cells are put back into the patient’s body by infusion. The altered T cells then attack and destroy cancer cells in the patient’s body. 

In myeloma patients, the FDA-approved CAR T-cell therapies recognize a protein called B.C.M.A. on the surface of myeloma cells. 

Now that you know how CAR T-cell therapy works, who is CAR T-cell therapy right for? 

  • While still a new treatment, CAR T-cell therapy is currently approved for people with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who have already received four or more lines of therapy. 

While every patient reacts differently to CAR T-cell therapy, some of the potential side effects may include: 

  •  Cytokine Release Syndrome, which occurs when the immune system responds to infection or immunotherapy drugs more aggressively than it should. Symptoms may include fever, nausea, fatigue, and body aches.
  • Another potential side effect is neurotoxicity, which may cause negative effects on the nervous system such as confusion, difficulty speaking or understanding, loss of balance or consciousness, tremors and seizures. 
  • And blood count recovery can be slower following CAR T-cell therapy.   

So, what should you ask your doctor about CAR T-cell therapy? 

  • Is CAR T-cell therapy available at this cancer center? 
  • Is CAR T-cell therapy an option for me now or in the future? 
  • What is the cost of this therapy? 
  • What are the risks and benefits of this approach? 
  • What can I expect during the recovery process? 

To learn more about innovative myeloma therapies and to access tools to help you become a pro-active patient, visit powerfulpatients.org.  

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How Is CAR T-Cell Therapy Changing Myeloma Care?

How Is CAR T-Cell Therapy Changing Myeloma Care? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Dr. Abdullah Khan discusses how CAR T-cell therapy works to treat myeloma, the currently approved CAR T-cell therapies, and the outcomes related to progression free survival (PFS) for patients with heavily pre-treated myeloma.

Dr. Abdullah Khan is a hematologist specializing in multiple myeloma and plasma cell disorders at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – The James. Dr. Khan is also an assistant professor in the Division of Hematology at The Ohio State University. Learn more about Dr. Khan.

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Transcript:

Katherine:

Let’s talk about CAR T-cell therapy. How is CAR T-cell therapy changing the field?  

Dr. Khan:

Myeloma was a little late to the CAR-T game, but we’re very happy it’s here. The two products approved in myeloma are idecabtagene vicleucel, ide-cel for short, and ciltacabtagene autoleucel, or cilta-cel for short. 

So, the way CAR Ts work, they are customized T cells for each individual patient. You collect the T cell from the patient with myeloma. You reengineer them in the laboratory to produce proteins on their surface called chimeric antigen receptor. That’s CAR portion of the CAR T therapy. And these CARs recognize and bind specific proteins on the surface of multiple myeloma.  

So, these genetically modified T cells are then expanded or multiplied to make millions of cells. They’re sent back to the hospital where they were collected, where the patient is. And they’re infused back into the patient. The hope is that these modified cells, these CAR T cells, will continue to multiply in the patient. And with guidance from that engineered receptor, they will recognize and kill multiple myeloma very effectively. 

So, I can provide some numbers to the outcomes of the two approved CAR T cells – CAR T products in multiple myeloma. The first approved was ide-cel in patients with a median of six prior lines of therapy, a single dose of CAR T was able to produce an objective response rate – that’s how many people responded to the treatment – of 73 percent, and the median, the middle person, progressed after 8.8 months of getting this treatment. The other product, cilta-cel, was also studied in patients with a median of six prior lines of therapy, and the objective response rate was an astounding 98 percent.  

Katherine:

Wow.  

Dr. Khan:

And the median progression-free survival is actually not yet reached. So, these are remarkable results with heavily pre-treated myeloma. And the myeloma community’s very excited to actually bring these treatments to earlier lines of therapy such as a newly diagnosed patient with multiple myeloma. 

What Are the Risks of CAR T-Cell Therapy?

What Are the Risks of CAR T-Cell Therapy?  from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Dr. Melissa Alsina, a myeloma expert from Moffitt Cancer Center, reviews the potential side effects of CAR T-cell therapy for myeloma patients, and discusses how these side effects may be managed.

Dr. Melissa Alsina is an associate professor of medicine in the Blood and Marrow Transplant Program at Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa, Florida where she also serves as head of the Multiple Myeloma Transplant Program. Learn more about Dr. Alsina, here.

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Transcript:

Katherine:

What are the risks of CAR T-cell therapy? 

Dr. Alsina:

So, in myeloma, it is, in general, pretty safe. There are two main – well, actually, I would say three main side effects that we can see with CAR-T. Number one is called cytokine release syndrome, and we are getting these cells from the patient’s immune systems, sending them a lab to be manufactured so that they can recognize this protein, BCMA, in the myeloma cells. 

And then, those cells are grown, so essentially, what we’re doing is that we’re taking the immune system of the patient, and we’re making it very specific against the myeloma cell. And then we’re growing it, so we’re making a hyperactive immune system, and then giving it back to the patient. And then, those cells, they are going to go ahead and react against the myeloma cells and start killing the myeloma cells, and in doing that, that reaction, that immune reaction will elicit release of a lot of proteins – cytokines – and that can cause side effects. 

When that happens, that is called cytokine release syndrome, and the most common finding with that is a fever. Patients can have a high fever. And then, it varies depending on the CAR-T that the patients are getting. So, for example, with this Abecma, usually, the reaction happens right away after you get the cells – the next day, so that’s why these patients, we admit them to the hospital because we know that this cytokine release syndrome is going to happen right away.  

And, it could be just a fever. In the majority of the patients, it happens like this, is just a fever, but it may be about 20 percent of the patients, that reaction can be more severe, and it could be a fever with low blood pressure or shortness of breath, and it could be a fatal complication, but that’s very, very rare.  

And we know – we can identify, obviously, when it’s happening, and there’s a medication that we can give to actually sort of counteract that reaction and don’t let it progress, and in the majority of the patients, that works quite well.  

Katherine:

What other side effects are there for CAR T-cell therapy? 

Dr. Alsina:

Yeah, so besides the main one that I discussed, cytokine release syndrome, the other thing that could happen is neurotoxicity, meaning that T cells can actually cross to the brain and cause toxicity in the brain, and depending on the type of CAR-T that the patient is getting, it could be less or more risk.  

But essentially, what could happen is that the patient could have some aphasia, like for example, difficulty finding words. It could also be just a headache. Patients could have seizures, so we do give the patients medication to prevent seizures while they are undergoing CAR-T. 

They can have difficulty writing, so we make every patient write a sentence every day to make sure that’s not being affected. And we do a mini mental status every day. Every day, we’ll go see the patient and ask them 10 different questions, like “Where are you? What day is it? Who’s the president?”, we show them an object, and so on so we can monitor these things very closely. If we see any changes, then we can intervene. Usually, for neurotoxicity, we give steroids. 

The good news, though, is that this is very rare. With Abecma, it’s very rare that a patient would have severe neurotoxicity. With ciltacabtagene autoleucel (Carvykti), which is the one that was approved more recently, from 100 patients that were treated, there were five patients that had this delayed neurotoxicity, some of them with movement disorders, like Parkinson’s-like systems, and these were delayed. These didn’t happen in the first few weeks. 

But we learned what are the risks associated with these, the majority of the patients that have very high tumor burden, so what we do is that we monitor the patients very closely, especially the patients with high tumor burden. The ideal situation is that we can control the disease a little bit better before taking them to CAR-T, but even when that’s not possible, what we do is that we intervene early on if we see that these patients are getting any side effects and being more aggressive with the intervention. 

And then, the third, more important side effect is these CAR-T cells can prevent blood counts to recover. For CAR-T, we give chemotherapy.  

That would allow the T cells to expand, and this chemotherapy can drop the blood counts, but usually, they recover quickly, but in some patients, this recovery doesn’t happen quickly, and patients can have low counts for months, and obviously, that would bring increased risk of infection. 

So, that is a potential complication, especially in patients that have received a lot of prior therapies, and it’s not common that a patient would take a long time, but it could happen, and sometimes, occasionally, we’ve had to give these patients a stem cell boost from stem cells that we have stored to actually make their counts recover. So, those are essentially the three most common complications, but in general, it’s a treatment that is well tolerated and very manageable, and I can tell you the majority of the patients that I’ve treated, they’ve said this is easier than a transplant.  

How Is CAR T-Cell Therapy Changing the Myeloma Treatment Landscape?

How Is CAR T-Cell Therapy Changing the Myeloma Treatment Landscape?  from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Myeloma expert Dr. Melissa Alsina discusses the evolution of myeloma treatment over the past several years, including an explanation of the two FDA-approved CAR T-cell therapies available for myeloma patients.

Dr. Melissa Alsina is an associate professor of medicine in the Blood and Marrow Transplant Program at Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa, Florida where she also serves as head of the Multiple Myeloma Transplant Program. Learn more about Dr. Alsina, here.

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Transcript:

Katherine:

I’d like to start by talking about innovations in myeloma therapy. How have treatment options for myeloma evolved over the past several years? 

Dr. Alsina:

Yeah, well, the easy answer to that is dramatically. It’s really amazing, the number of advances that we’ve had in the treatment. When I think 20 to 25 years ago, we had two drugs for myeloma, rare opportunity to get any patient in complete remission. 

And now, we have many, many drugs, we continue to have bone marrow transplants, now we have CAR-T cellular immunotherapies, and able to get patients – over 80 percent of the patients in remission up front, and even in the relapse setting, many of them with CAR-T, for example. One of the CAR-Ts is able to get 80 percent of the patients in remission, so it’s really incredible, the amount of advances. 

Katherine:

Yeah. How is CAR T-cell therapy changing the field? 

Dr. Alsina:

So, we – probably everyone knows that there have been two CAR-T products approved for myeloma in the past year. We’re not doing as good as the lymphoma group. Those were the first CAR-T cells, were approved for lymphoma/leukemia, and for those patients with lymphoma and leukemia, there’s an opportunity for a cure, whereas in myeloma, in the setting that we’re using CAR-T right now, which is for patients that have failed multiple lines of therapy, at least four prior lines of therapy, those patients are not cured.   

Katherine:

Yeah. You mentioned that there are two CAR T-cell therapies available right now for myeloma patients. What are they? 

Dr. Alsina:

So, the first one, that was approved in March of last year the commercial name is Abecma. This is made by a company that is called BMS. It targets BCMA, which is B-cell maturation antigen, which is the protein that is preferentially expressed in the myeloma cells, so it’s a really good target for myeloma, and this is the one that studies show that we get response rates at about 75 to 80 percent with remission rates about 40 percent, and in the real world, since Abecma was approved, we’ve treated many patients – at Moffitt, actually, I think we have the largest number in the whole United States, close to 60 patients, and we’re seeing the same.  

So, really, when we translate that to the real world, we’re seeing the same results, and I would argue that perhaps better because the patients that go on trial are very selective patients – they need to have good counts, they cannot have renal insufficiency, all this different criteria, and actually, when we looked at it, we found that 71 percent of the patients that we treated in the real world with Abecma would not have been eligible for trial, but yet, we’re getting the same results – the same results in terms of efficacy and the same results in terms of safety.  

Katherine:

What is the second CAR T-cell therapy available? 

Dr. Alsina:

The second CAR-T was approved just recently, in February of this year, and that is cilta-cel. The commercial name for this is Carvykti, and this one, we do not have a lot of real-world experience because the manufacture and availability of the product is still very limited, so we only have been able to do two patients per month with Carvykti. However, the studies show this agent to be extremely effective, with response rates close to 100 percent and a complete remission rate of 80 percent, which is… 

Katherine:

That’s phenomenal. 

Dr. Alsina:

Right? It’s phenomenal for this patient population. So, we’re definitely very excited with this. I think a major issue with CAR-T that you may or may not have heard – I’m pretty sure all the patients are aware of this, but it’s the availability. When these products are approved, because these products have to be manufactured from the patient cells, the companies cannot release – cannot meet the demand, so there are a lot more patients that need CAR-T than product availability.  

So, we have a waiting list, and this is true for all centers. With the first product, with ide-cel/Abecma, now, at least, in our center, we have been able to catch up a little bit. We’re getting about eight slots per month, so it’s a significant amount. We still are not able to offer it to every single patient that needs it at the moment, but we’re doing much better than the beginning. 

As I mentioned before, with Carvykti, it’s still a significant challenge, and again, we’re getting maybe one or two slots per month. Talking with these companies, they expect that is going to improve by early next year, so we’re keeping our fingers crossed because right now – and this is true for us and many myeloma centers – we have over 100 patients in the waiting list. 

But in any case, even with that, I would encourage any patient that needs CAR-T to go to a center because even though we have a long list, for example, some of those patients that are on the list, they don’t need CAR-T right now, so it doesn’t mean that 120 patients on the list need CAR-T at the moment. So, we normally would go down the list according to when we saw the patient, and then the needs of the patient at the moment that we have a slot, and that’s how we make our selection. 

So, the ideal situation is the patient seeks a CAR-T consult early on. Don’t wait until you have failed four therapies to go. When you start your third line of therapy, go, because then you get on the list. By the time you really need it and are eligible to get it, then it might be accessible to you. 

Myeloma Treatment & Research Updates From 2022 ASCO and EHA Meetings

Myeloma Treatment & Research Updates From 2022 ASCO and EHA Meetings from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Myeloma specialist and researcher Dr. Krina Patel discusses highlights from the recent American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting and the European Hematology Association (EHA) 2022 Congress. Dr. Patel shares promising research updates related to approaches including: stem cell transplant, CAR T-cell therapy, and bispecifics.

Dr. Krina Patel is an Associate Professor in the Department of Lymphoma/Myeloma at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas. Dr. Patel is involved in research and cares for patients with multiple myeloma. Learn more about Dr. Patel, here.

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How Does Immunotherapy Treat Myeloma?

What Is Myeloma CAR T-Cell Therapy?

Immunotherapy: Which Myeloma Patients Is It Right For?

Transcript:

Katherine:   

Dr. Patel, cancer researchers recently came together at the annual ASCO and EHA meetings. Are there any highlights from the meetings that myeloma patients should know about?

Dr. Patel:    

Yeah, so we had some amazing trials that were presented at both. And I got to actually go to Chicago for the ASCO meeting, and I’ll say we actually had a plenary session that was presented for myeloma. That doesn’t happen as often as we like. So, basically that was a study presented by Dana-Farber and all of the different groups around the U.S. that did a transplant study. And basically, they’re looking at patients who got induction therapy when they’re newly diagnosed with transplant versus they didn’t get transplant upfront. And it’s called the determination study, and it was to determine should everybody be getting a stem cell transplant.

Katherine:  

Right.

Dr. Patel:   

And this is a trial that’s been going on for over 10 years; that’s why it was so highly anticipated. And basically, the biggest thing that we saw was what we call progression-free survival; so, the time that the myeloma hibernates is what I call it, for PFS. Basically, patients who got transplant upfront, it was 21 months longer that it stayed hibernating than if you didn’t get transplant upfront. So, that’s the trial, that’s what it was looking at, and that’s all they could really say about it. The good news is, even patients who didn’t get transplant upfront but then got transplant in second remission tended to have a really good, long progression-free survival or hibernation in that second remission.

So, it still tells us that right now, a transplant is still important for the majority of our myeloma patients. And basically, that’s sort of what that trial showed.

Now, the difference is we do different types of upfront therapies and we have new things like CAR T and bispecifics that are coming up earlier. So, we’ll see in the future if it still holds up. But as of right now, it still holds up for transplant. The other big studies, of course, were some of our bispecific studies that use different antigens. So, antigens are the flags that are on the myeloma that we make these receptors for CAR T, so they can find the myeloma, or bispecifics go after that.

And basically, there are other antigens. BCMA, B-cell maturation antigen, is the big one that we use for everything right now. But now, we found even more antigens, which is fantastic.

So, we have something called FcHR5. We have something called GPRC5D. It’s like alphabet number soup, basically. But what’s really exciting is that these new antigens give us a different way of getting to that myeloma, especially if someone has already had a BCMA therapy and they’ve relapsed on that. Well, now we have even new ways to get to that myeloma cell. So, I think that’s some really, really exciting data.

And then, I’ll say the other big one was one of the CAR Ts, Cilta-Cel was something that they presented.

Again, this was two years after the last patient had gotten treated on the trial. And so far, they still have about 71 percent of patients that are still in remission two years after. So, that is huge.

Katherine:                  

Wow.

Dr. Patel:  

We’ve never seen that in relapsed refractory patients before, so we’re really, really excited to kind of have gotten that data to say, “Okay, we found a brand-new way of treating myeloma.” And it really is changing how we’re looking at even earlier lines of therapy now.

Katherine:   

Such promising news. That’s great.

What Are the Side Effects of Myeloma Immunotherapy?

What Are the Side Effects of Myeloma Immunotherapy? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Myeloma specialist and researcher Dr. Krina Patel discusses the common side effects of immunotherapy and reviews tools that may be used to prevent complications.

Dr. Krina Patel is an Associate Professor in the Department of Lymphoma/Myeloma at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas. Dr. Patel is involved in research and cares for patients with multiple myeloma. Learn more about Dr. Patel, here.

Related Resources:

How Does Immunotherapy Treat Myeloma?

What Is Myeloma CAR T-Cell Therapy?

Myeloma Treatment & Research Updates From 2022 ASCO and EHA Meetings

Transcript:

Katherine:   

Are there other side effects that patients should know about and side effects that they might experience?

Dr. Patel:  

Yeah, so neurotoxicity is one that we don’t see as much as we see in lymphoma patients, which is again great but sometimes people can get something called ICANS, which is a type of neurotoxicity in the first 30 days after CAR T.

And basically, it can be as bad as seizures, but thankfully we don’t see that very often, or I haven’t seen it at all. But it can cause confusion. It can cause people to be extra sleepy. So, we have different treatments that we give to turn that around. Longer term, really, the big side effects are the counts being low. So, what we call cytopenias. So, white count, hemoglobin, platelets.

And so, that is something we see quite often in our patients who have had a lot of therapy for myeloma already, and then are getting something like CAR T.

So, a lot of my patients will still need transfusions even a month or two or three after, and we’re giving GCSF to help their white count come back up, et cetera.

Katherine:    

What’s that?

Dr. Patel: 

So, G-CSF is basically a growth factor that helps your neutrophil; so, a different type of white blood cell – come back up, which helps fight against bacterial infections.

So, it’s the same medicine for anyone who’s had a stem cell transplant. It’s the same medicine you get to get your stem cells into your blood but it’s at a lower dose. But again, it’s to avoid infections, to help present bacterial infections. The other one is infections can also be caused because of low IgG levels or what we call immunoglobulins; these are our antibodies that we have.

And the good news is, when CAR Ts or bispecifics or some of these immune therapies work really well, they’ll kill as many myeloma cells as we possibly can.

But they also kill good cells. So, they kill good plasma cells that make us antibodies and good B cells that make us antibodies. So, when that happens, people’s IgG levels will go down and that puts you at risk for infection too. So, we actually aggressively give people IVIG to help prevent those infections.

Immunotherapy: Which Myeloma Patients Is It Right For?

Immunotherapy: Which Myeloma Patients Is It Right For? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Dr. Krina Patel, a myeloma specialist and researcher, explains how newer therapies, such as CAR T-cell therapy, are being used in myeloma and which patients these treatments are most appropriate for.

Dr. Krina Patel is an Associate Professor in the Department of Lymphoma/Myeloma at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas. Dr. Patel is involved in research and cares for patients with multiple myeloma. Learn more about Dr. Patel, here.

Related Resources:

How Does Immunotherapy Treat Myeloma?

What Are the Side Effects of Myeloma Immunotherapy?

Myeloma Treatment & Research Updates From 2022 ASCO and EHA Meetings

Transcript:

Katherine:   

Now, in reference to immunotherapy and CAR T-cell therapy, who are these types of treatments right for?

Dr. Patel:    

So, I think it’s really exciting that we finally are getting standard of care therapies for all these new immune therapies. So, our first CAR T for myeloma got approved a little over a year ago. Our second CAR T got approved just a couple of months ago, and we’re hoping our first bispecific will be approved in just a couple months.

Our fingers crossed. On the clinical trials, I will say our patients who had a good performance status, meaning they’re able to do everything else normally life-wise, those are the patients that got onto those clinical trials; and the reason is safety-wise.

So, T cells when we use them to kill myeloma, they release cytokines or enzymes, you can say, that are inside the T cells and that’s what they use to communicate with other immune cells to come help them kill.

Those are the same cytokines that make people feel really ill when they have the flu, for instance. So, as our immune system tries to fight infections when people get fevers, they feel chills, they feel just fatigued and tired, it’s those same kind of cytokines that, even when you try to kill the myeloma with T cells, people can get that same type of symptoms.

And really, the main, fevers and things like that, we can take care of. But when patients’ blood pressure drops or if their oxygen levels drop really low, that’s where we can run into some trouble. Now, the good news is, in myeloma, most of these new therapies don’t cause really bad CRS [Cytokine Release Syndrome] or really bad neurotoxicity that we can sometimes see. And so, thankfully most patients are okay, but really it’s making sure that none of our patients have bad toxicity. So, most of our myeloma patients, I will say, are eligible for these therapies. However, if someone has really bad heart disease or really bad lung disease, those are patients that maybe these are not the right therapies for.

What Is Myeloma CAR T-Cell Therapy?

What Is Myeloma CAR T-Cell Therapy? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

How does CAR (chimeric antigen receptor) T-cell therapy work to fight myeloma? Dr. Krina Patel, a myeloma specialist and researcher, explains how this novel therapy uses your immune system to treat the disease.

Dr. Krina Patel is an Associate Professor in the Department of Lymphoma/Myeloma at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas. Dr. Patel is involved in research and cares for patients with multiple myeloma. Learn more about Dr. Patel, here.

Related Resources:

How Does Immunotherapy Treat Myeloma?

Immunotherapy: Which Myeloma Patients Is It Right For?

Myeloma Treatment & Research Updates From 2022 ASCO and EHA Meetings

Transcript:

Katherine:   

What is CAR T-cell therapy?

Dr. Patel:    

So, CAR-T cells are sort of a biologic immune therapy where we are able to take T cells, a type of lymphocyte which help us, normally. All of us have them in our blood.

They come from our bone marrow, go into our blood, and they sort of go around in the blood and look for bad things, pathogens. So, infections, even cancer cells, our T cells help get rid of all of those bad things that we’re not supposed to have. And they each have a receptor. And so, T cells have this night vision, and they’re made for a specific type of pathogen out there that we aren’t supposed to have that can hurt us.

And so, what we can is to either take your own T cells out, or sometimes with something called allo CAR-T use a normal donor’s T cells. And when we take them, we basically can put a new receptor in there, a new night vision; and so, now they are trained to go after something that’s specific on the myeloma instead of a bacteria or a virus or anything. And basically, we grow those cells, and then we give those cells back to our patient after a low dose of chemotherapy, just so these T cells can go in, find the myeloma, use that night vision to find that myeloma wherever it is, kill, and then it actually causes other immune cells in your system to come there and start helping to kill as well.

And then, they start coming back down again. And so, really, it’s a novel way of using your own immune system, or somebody else’s, but to actually enhance both by the target to get that myeloma precisely as well as making more of them so that there’s enough to go around and kill all the cells that we possibly can.

How Does Immunotherapy Treat Myeloma?

How Does Immunotherapy Treat Myeloma? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Immunotherapy harnesses one’s own immune system to fight cancer. Dr. Krina Patel, a myeloma specialist and researcher, explains how this therapy changing the treatment landscape for myeloma.

Dr. Krina Patel is an Associate Professor in the Department of Lymphoma/Myeloma at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas. Dr. Patel is involved in research and cares for patients with multiple myeloma. Learn more about Dr. Patel, here.

Related Resources:

What Is Myeloma CAR T-Cell Therapy?

Immunotherapy: Which Myeloma Patients Is It Right For?

What Are the Side Effects of Myeloma Immunotherapy?

Transcript:

Katherine:   

We’ve been hearing a lot recently about immunotherapy. Would you tell us what it is and how it works to treat myeloma?

Dr. Patel:       

Yeah, so I think immunotherapy is sort of where everything is  really changing the way we look at myeloma. So, I’ll date myself a little bit, but 15 years ago when I was a first-year fellow most people thought that immunotherapy wouldn’t necessarily work for myeloma. So, in all cancer care we have surgery possibly in myeloma.

We don’t use it as much, but if someone has a bone lesion that we need to do we might do some surgery there. We use radiation sometimes if we really need, for painful lesions or something that might be at risk for fracture. And we use chemotherapy all the time for treatment.

Immunotherapy is actually different types of medications. Some are proteins. Some are biologics that we can talk about it. But really, they harness your immune cells, all the other white blood cells that are in your bone marrow and in your blood, to actually go after the myeloma themselves. And so, there’s different ways we can do that. And, again, 15 years ago most people said, “No, we’re not going to be able to use immune therapy for myeloma because plasma cells,” which are myeloma cells, “are a white blood cell. So, their sisters, brothers, cousins, whatever you want to call those other white blood cells, how do we turn those into the enemy, or how do we make myeloma the enemy?”

And so, it took a long time for us to figure it out, but really, it’s about using your immune cells to kill that myeloma.