Multiple Myeloma Archives

Plasma cells are cells in the immune system that make antibodies, which help the body fight infection and disease. Multiple myeloma cells are abnormal plasma cells (a type of white blood cell) that build up in the bone marrow and form tumors in many bones of the body.

More resources for Multiple Myeloma from Patient Empowerment Network.

Maintenance Therapy and Continuous Therapy in Myeloma: What’s the Difference?

Maintenance Therapy and Continuous Therapy in Myeloma: What’s the Difference? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Nurse Practitioner, Beth Faiman from the Cleveland Clinic, explains in maintenance therapy versus continuous therapy in multiple myeloma, which can sometimes be confusing.

Beth Faiman is a nurse practitioner in the department of hematologic oncology at Cleveland Clinic. More about this expert here.

See More From The Pro-Active Myeloma Patient Toolkit

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Transcript:

Beth Faiman:

I’d like to define the difference between maintenance therapy and continuous therapy. When patients have a stem cell transplant, they have a pre-therapy, the transplant consolidation is the second step, and then they have a maintenance to maintain that remission. For some people that don’t have a transplant, you can just stay on continuous doses of a therapy that’s very well tolerated. So, maintenance and continuous can sometimes be confused, but it’s — maintenance is lesser doses of something that got you into remission and continuous is just kind of staying on that same dose of tolerated medication.

How Side Effects Can Be Managed in Myeloma

How Side Effects Can Be Managed in Myeloma from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Beth Faiman, a nurse practitioner specializing in multiple myeloma, discusses side effects in myeloma and shares what can be done to prevent or reduce these issues in patients.

Beth Faiman is a nurse practitioner in the department of hematologic oncology at Cleveland Clinic. More about this expert here.

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Transcript:

Beth Faiman:

In multiple myeloma, there are numerous side effects, but the most common side effects of treatment are oftentimes the lowering of blood count. So, for example, depending on which type of therapy you’re on, maybe it’s lenalidomide or carfilzomib or some others, you can get some lowering of blood count.

So, those blood counts need to be regularly monitored. Another side effect might be peripheral neuropathy. Now, that’s more common in drugs such as bortezomib or thalidomide.

And so, it’s important to look for that symptom and report if you have any numbness or tingling in your fingers or feet, or dizziness, or anything odd to your healthcare team. Because by adjusting the medication doses, then those patients can actually stay in treatment longer with better control.

Other things with the monoclonal antibodies, some of the newer drugs that are currently available will produce an increased chance of infusion reactions. Now, that’s only at the very beginning of the infusion. So, once patients have received that therapy,  they can feel comfortable to keep taking that with lesser chance of side effects.

And then, finally, many drugs with myeloma have an increased risk of blood clots. So, patients should stay active, keep well-hydrated, and know that they’re at an increased risk. Most providers will recommend a baby aspirin for all patients taking these drugs like lenalidomide, thalidomide, pomalidomide, and carfilzomib. And that’ll lessen their chance of blood clots.

The last thing I’d like to add in is an increased risk of infections. Myeloma is a cancer of the bone marrow plasma cells that are responsible to protect you from getting sick, and unfortunately, they don’t work. Many therapies will further weaken the immune system. So, getting a seasonal influenza vaccine, a pneumonia vaccine every five years, and making sure they take shingles prevention is a very effective way of keeping yourself healthy.

Lab Tests in Myeloma: Key Results to Monitor

Lab Tests in Myeloma: Key Results to Monitor from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Nurse practitioner, Beth Faiman, discusses laboratory tests for multiple myeloma, including which results should be monitored closely and how different labs may vary.

Beth Faiman is a nurse practitioner in the department of hematologic oncology at Cleveland Clinic. More about this expert here.

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Transcript:

Beth Faiman:

Laboratory results can be quite anxiety-provoking for some patients and others are pretty easygoing about it. One of the most important things I share with patients whether they come to see me every month, every three months, or sometimes we share care with referral providers is always take ownership of your own care.

You are your best advocate and it’s important to find out what kind of myeloma you have and what they myeloma specialist thinks is important in monitoring your labs. So, for example, there are kappa and lambda light chains, and everybody has a different form of myeloma. Find out the best way that they can monitor their myeloma. Also, key lab results like blood creatinine level, reflect kidney function, hemoglobin carries oxygen and that’s your anemia number. So, finding out those important key lab values and keeping track of them over time can help feel — patients feel empowered often times in their care.

But with that, I always have the caveat, take the results with a grain of salt because there are lab variations within one’s own institution or when you’re going outside of institutions if we partner with care. So, that can be about 20/25 percent lab error each month depending on the test result.

Lab values can fluctuate quite rapidly. So, if I draw a serum creatinine level in the morning, and it might be high indicating kidneys might not be functioning normally, I can encourage them to have some hydration or — and then recheck that lab value and it might go down. The same with the serum-free light chains and M-Spikes.

The lab variation within a single day can be very, very, very diverse. So, it’s important to say, hey gosh, it’s abnormal one day or one hour of the day, but then the next time it can be normal. Or normal for you a well, because there are normal values for one patient that’s abnormal for the other, and vice-versa.

Key Considerations When Choosing Myeloma Treatment: What’s Available?

 

Key Considerations When Choosing Myeloma Treatment: What’s Available? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Beth Faiman, a nurse practitioner specializing in multiple myeloma at the Cleveland Clinic, shares tips for making treatment decisions and discusses the evolution of myeloma therapy in recent years. Need help speaking up? Download the Office Visit Planner and bring it to your next appointment here.

Beth Faiman is a nurse practitioner in the department of hematologic oncology at Cleveland Clinic. More about this expert here.

See More From The Pro-Active Myeloma Patient Toolkit

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Transcript:

Beth Faiman:

There are so many treatment options, and that’s one of the reasons why it’s so important for patients to at least seek an opinion once or twice with a myeloma specialist because treatment changes so rapidly. We have over 20 medications that are approved for the management of myeloma and so the patients need to figure out what’s important for them.

Oftentimes you think, father knows best or doctor knows best. And I hear from time to time that you’re the doctor, you should know what is best for me. But I say, “I understand what might be the best treatment for you in terms of response rate, but we have to balance quality and quantity of life. What are the things that you’re willing and your family’s willing to accept for treatment?”

Do you want to undergo a stem cell transplant which maybe takes you out of commission for a couple of months? Or take an oral therapy every day or an IV therapy intermittently? So, there are oftentimes more than one decision, and this is what we like to practice at my institution. It’s called shared decision making where you have a partnership between the patient and their caregiver, and the healthcare team and we work together to mutually decide what’s best for that patient.

So, sometimes just really trying to get that cure or eliminate the myeloma cell clone as best as possible might not be the right answer now, especially if you’re a single mom or a single dad or caring for a loved one. But maybe that might be a future goal. So, having that conversation is so important. And patients should feel empowered to be able to have that conversation with their healthcare team because if they don’t, then maybe they need to see a different doctor or specialist so they can feel comfortable with them.

I am so excited about all the new classes of drugs that are so — that are currently available. When I started managing myeloma in 1994 or 1995 there was only stem cell transplant and maybe melphalan or Cytoxan, and those drugs were not very effective in controlling the disease. I’m now able to mix and match treatments and give patients different opportunities to meet these milestones. You know, patients were so worried about not being here in two or three years, and now it’s 20 years later. So, forming those relationships and keeping them living healthy longer is so important.

We now have drugs available that can have the possibility of achieving what’s called minimal residual disease or MRD, where we’re eliminating in the bone marrow, the myeloma clone

That was unheard of five years ago even. So now we have the BiTE therapies and CAR T-Cell therapies, and some of the newer drug classes that will hopefully have a functional cure.

People ask me what a cure in myeloma is, and hopefully, we’ll have a real cure. But, living out your normal life span compared to people that don’t have myeloma, and really enjoying life as you do it. So, I always tell patients don’t forget about health maintenance and checking cholesterols, looking for secondary cancers, keep a primary care provider on hand because as a team, we can all work together, to have you live your best life as possible.

Diagnosed with Myeloma? Why to See a Specialist and What to Expect

 

Diagnosed with Myeloma? Why to See a Specialist and What to Expect from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Beth Faiman, a nurse practitioner specializing in multiple myeloma, provides insight into her relationships with patients and the importance of seeking a second opinion with a specialist, even for just a single consultation.

Beth Faiman is a nurse practitioner in the department of hematologic oncology at Cleveland Clinic. More about this expert here.

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Transcript:

Beth Faiman:

So, my role in treating patients with multiple myeloma is very variable. So, I am a member of a treatment team. I have doctors that I work with, as well as nurses, other nurse practitioners, and social workers.

Sometimes I’m the first face that patients will see when they come to the cancer center. And hopefully, I’ll be fortunate to follow them along with their treatment trajectory.

Some of the other things that I do for patients who have multiple myeloma  — I’m involved in the diagnosis and management of their care. I am responsible for obtaining and reviewing their laboratory results at each visit, and if they have a certain symptom that needs to be controlled, I am oftentimes the one that they call or reach out to for some answers.

I think it’s very important for patients to meet with a myeloma specialist at least once. I understand there are a lot of barriers from transportation to finances to just not feeling comfortable with going to an outside institution. But working at a major center which focuses on multiple myeloma for the last 20-plus years, I can really see the value in even just getting an opinion.

So, one of the things I try to encourage is for patients to come and meet with us once or twice because not only are we educating the community physician, but we’re also partnering in their care. So, if they’re getting an injection once or twice weekly, we can see them every couple months, review their laboratory values, and they can get care closer to home. And so, there’s that partnership that forms and then you’re not only educating the patient, but you’re oftentimes educating the community physician or provider that might only see one or two myeloma patients in a year.

So, when patients come to me all they know is that they’re in a cancer center. Oftentimes they have to go on whatever information they’ve been told. I see consultations independently at the Cleveland Clinic so sometimes they’ve been told by their outside physician or nurse practitioner that they might have a blood cancer. Sometimes they fall into a category of patients that have what’s called MGUS or monoclonal gammopathy, so these individuals might not even need treatment forever.

Others might have what’s called smoldering myeloma, which is a different second level, and those patients might need treatment within two to five years. But for those that have been told they have multiple myeloma, there’s a myriad of emotions, and oftentimes I like to take time, share with them first what I know about their case, get time to know them on a one-on-one basis. What they like, what they don’t like, what they do for a living, their hobbies. Because you’re building a relationship.

You might be with that patient for many, many years. So, taking the time to let them know what I know about their case, finding out about themselves, and then pooling it all together with what we need to do now, with this information is oftentimes a good way to start a relationship with the patient and their caregiver.

Evolving Approaches to Myeloma Treatment: Staying Up-to-Date

 

Evolving Approaches to Myeloma Treatment: How to Stay Up-to-Date from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Multiple myeloma research is fast-moving and showing promise. Dr. Peter Forsberg, a myeloma specialist, provides an overview of the changing treatment landscape and shares resources for keeping up with the latest news. Need help speaking up? Download the Office Visit Planner and bring it to your next appointment here.

Dr. Peter Forsberg is assistant professor of medicine at the University of Colorado School of Medicine and is a specialist in multiple myeloma. More about Dr. Forsberg here.

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Transcript:

Dr. Peter Forsberg:

I think research in multiple myeloma remains a really active area. It’s been a major evolution over the past 20 years. Myeloma’s been one of the real success stories of modern oncology in terms of how much research has translated into improved options for patients.

But, many new things continue to evolve. It can be challenging to feel like you’re abreast of what’s going on. I think there are great resources for patients. Organizations like the International Myeloma Foundation, the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation, or Leukemia and Lymphoma Society are good places for patients to start.

I also think that social media can be useful although those types of things can be a bit of a double-edged sword. I certainly find lots of things out via Twitter, and I think there’s a pretty active myeloma community in some of those areas, but you have to be a little bit careful about where you point your attention when you’re interacting with the internet. I think there can be lots of places where you might get less up to date or less thorough information and that can sometimes be concerning or challenging for patients So, I do think it is great that we have tools, but it is important to be thoughtful about how you approach them and trying to find good, reliable resources in that regard.

 I think there’s a lot of really exciting things on the horizon. That’s gonna include using tools that we have in better ways. I think we’re gonna be expanding our approaches to how we treat newly diagnosed patients. It looks like we’ll be starting to use four-drug regimens in patients with newly-diagnosed myeloma in the near future, hopefully with ever-improving results. We’re gonna be more cutting edge in terms of how we test and measure disease, using things like minimal-residual disease testing in different and expanded ways.

And then there’s a number of immunotherapeutic treatments especially that are looking very promising in relapsed myeloma.

That includes CAR T-Cell therapies, bispecific monoclonal antibodies, and antibody drug conjugates, all of them look like really promising approaches and really new things that hopefully in the not-distant future are gonna expand our toolbox for how we’re able to help maintain and improve life for patients with multiple myeloma.

What Does Remission Mean in Myeloma?

What Does Remission Mean in Myeloma? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

The concept of remission in multiple myeloma can be complex. Myeloma specialist, Dr. Peter Forsberg explains. Want to learn more? Download the Find Your Voice Resource Guide here.

Dr. Peter Forsberg is assistant professor of medicine at the University of Colorado School of Medicine and is a specialist in multiple myeloma. More about Dr. Forsberg here.

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Transcript:

Dr. Peter Forsberg:

I also think that one thing that can be a little challenging in multiple myeloma is the concept of remission. I think in multiple myeloma what we think of as remission may be a little bit different than in other diseases, and I know that can be confusing for patients. Remission may just mean an interval of myeloma control. It may still be a time where you’re on active therapy or where the active therapy that you’re receiving hasn’t changed too substantially, but where the myeloma is under control whether it’s still detectable or not. So, that name can be a little bit different than what we think of as remission in other types of cancer and that can be a little confusing.

Fertility Preservation in People with Cancer

This podcast was originally published by Cornell Weill Cancer Cast, on March 22, 2019, here.

Myeloma Patient Cafe® – Genetic Testing from A Myeloma Patient Perspective

Myeloma Patient Cafe® – Genetic Testing from A Myeloma Patient Perspective from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

PEN Board Member, Jack Aiello, leads a myeloma patient panel discussion on genetic testing.

See More From The Myeloma Patient Cafe®


Transcript:

Jack:

Thanks for joining us for this Patient Empowerment Network Myeloma Patient Café. I’m Jack Aiello. I’ve been living with myeloma since 1995, and the world has changed a lot since then, including the introduction of genetic testing. That’s gonna be our topic of discussion today. I personally have never had genetic testing because it wasn’t done back then, so I’m looking forward to learning from you all, our patient panel, who have been diagnosed more recently than I have.

We’ll talk exactly what genetic testing is about, why you might get genetic testing done, and more, but we won’t really go into the science of it. Instead, this is gonna be a conversation among patients and caregivers and serve off as a jumping point to pique your interest in genetic testing, and have a discussion with your doctor about it if you desire.

Before we dive in, I wanna meet our panel, and I’m gonna ask each of you to introduce yourself. Tell me when you were diagnosed and the treatments you’ve gone through, and I will start with Doug.

Doug:

I’m Doug Kenaley. I was diagnosed in 2015, and my initial induction treatment is a little different than most. It was really only – it turned out to be Velcade and dex, and it got me down to the level where I could have a stem cell transplant, so then, I had an auto stem cell transplant. And then, about five months after that, I joined the elotuzumab maintenance trial, so I’ve been on elotuzumab and Revlimid since that point.

Jack:

Okay. Peggy, tell us about yourself.

Peggy Lindley:

My name is Peggy Lindley, and I was diagnosed with this lovely disease on Valentine’s Day of 2019, and it was just from my regular doctor. I go every year for my bloodwork, and he found something with me, and he found it only – he was aware of it because his mother was diagnosed a couple of years before that, so he’s the one that got me there because I would have never thought that. He asked me, “Do you have any bone pain or anything?” I said, “Well, just my back,” and that was it.

Anyways, he told me what I had. Then, I had a bone marrow biopsy, and that showed it. So, I went through five rounds of the Revlimid, dex, and Velcade, and then, in July of last year, I had my stem cell transplant, and I got my stem cells back on July 12th, and then, in November of last year, I started with the maintenance therapy, which is elotuzumab with Revlimid, so I do that every 28 days now. It was a little bit sooner, and you start one week – it was a progression, so now, I go once every 28 days.

Jack:

Got it. Nancy, tell us about yourself.

Nancy:

My name is Nancy Raimondi, and I was initially diagnosed in 2006 with smoldering multiple myeloma, and I was followed over the next nine years – I just continued to smolder until 2015. I developed a plasma cytoma, and that got biopsied, and it was 60 percent myeloma cells, so I needed treatment, so I started treatment July of 2015, I was diagnosed as high risk, so I was put in a clinical trial that included carfilzomib.

I had five rounds of chemo, did tandem stem cell transplants, and finished everything about seven and a half months later. Went in maintenance therapy the first year, was when Ninlaro was just released, so I was on Ninlaro, Revlimid, and dex for a year, and then, that got changed to daratumumab, Revlimid, and dex, and I was on that for another year. And then, in December 2017, I was MRD-negative, and I’ve not been on any treatment for myeloma since then.

Jack:

We’ll talk more about MRD-negative because that’s important to this discussion. George, how about yourself?

George:

My name is George Burrell. I was diagnosed in April of 2011. Ironically, the day that I was diagnosed was Easter Sunday and my wife and I’s anniversary. The – doctor told us we had multiple myeloma, and that we needed to get the numbers down so that he could put me in a stem cell transplant. I’ve had two of those, and I’m currently on a three-stage regimen of Cytoxan, dexamethasone, and Kyprolis, and it seems to be working quite well. My numbers are down, and have been holding pretty steady for about four or five months now, so we’re really happy.

Jack:

I thought it was interesting, Peggy, how George introduced the fact that “we” were diagnosed with myeloma, so maybe you can talk about what that experience was like for you.

Peg Burrell:

Well, definitely, it is a journey of “we,” and it was very frightening. I’d only heard the word “multiple myeloma” one time, with a colleague from work whose father was much older, who’d had multiple myeloma. And, George’s symptom was low iron anemia, and he’d been sent to an oncologist for iron infusions, but he never presented any other symptoms.

The doctor would say, “How are you?”, and he would say, “I’m fine,” and a year later, he was rushed to the emergency room with bleeding ulcers, and that’s when the oncologist just happened to be in the ER, and they thought George was having a heart attack, his blood count was so low, so they did a CT scan, and his oncologist came in and said, “This is multiple myeloma, I’m pretty sure.”

So, it was devastating, very frightening, but once we had a game plan – and, the one thing that George told me – he says, “Stop treating me like I’m dead,” and I was running over curbs taking him to appointments, and I was just a wreck. He was like, “You’re gonna kill me.” But, it is quite a journey, and I’m happy that I’ve been able to be there with him.

Jack:

Good. Since this Patient Café is to focus on genetic testing, let’s first get agreement what genetic testing is, which is basically looking at potential mutations in your myeloma cells. So, with that in mind, other than me, who’s never had genetic testing, has every patient here had genetic testing?

Doug:

Yup.

Peggy Lindley:

I have.

Jack:

Probably, right? Because you begin maybe with a FISH and cytogenetics testing. Doug, when you had that, did that yield anything interesting for you?

Doug:

Mine was a bit interesting because I went to a local oncologist, even though I was here in Houston, who’s close to me, and he had done a stint at MD Anderson. And so, he presented it to me when I was diagnosed – “You should have genetic testing right away.” So, I looked into it and thought it was a good idea, even though four years ago, even, there wasn’t a whole lot more – you have a test, but then what? That kind of thing.

This emphasizes why a lot of times, you wanna go to a specialty place like MD Anderson, because they did the bone marrow biopsy, and the tech put it in the wrong solution, and it destroyed the sample. But they were gonna hold off my induction. So, the doctor was pretty mad, but my first attempt was a failure. But then, he said, “Well, ultimately, you’ll probably go for a stem cell transplant. We’re gonna hook you up with MD Anderson right away, even during your induction.”

And, the first thing they do here is genetic testing. So, at that point, I got a genetic test – successful genetic test – and it was interesting because the results came in, I got the labs, and I’ve done science – I’m a scientist, I’m a geologist – but it’s just a lot of alphabets, and it’s very complicated. They’re worse in the summaries. It said, “No deletions found, no translocations found,” things like that, but you really couldn’t understand the rest of what was in there, and you kind of suspect there was something hidden in there.

But I sat down with the doctor here, and he went over it. It said basically, I was a standard-risk patient, and my FISH and cytogenetics showed that I had tetrasomies – so, four versions of the genes instead of the normal two. And, he says, “So, if you wanna look at it, that’s kind of a good news thing because we have drugs that target certain things, you have lots of those things to target – multiple copies of those things,” so that kind of relaxed me a little bit. I think it actually impacted my standard of care a little bit, and certainly, my quality of life, because I think the doctors relaxed a little bit too. They wanna get ahead of it if you’re high-risk.

Jack:

So, Peggy, when Doug mentions he got a report from FISH and cytogenetics, which is essentially gobbledygook –

Peggy Lindley:

It is.

Jack:

What did you do when you got that?

Peggy Lindley:

They told me right off the bat that I had myeloma, and that I had an aggressive form. So, I went through the rounds, and I responded very well to induction therapy.

Jack:

And, by “aggressive form” – how did they find that?

Peggy Lindley:

They just said it was aggressive. They didn’t really – they said the FISH test – it was still Greek to me. So, now, two years later, I’m understanding it more and more, but what it was was the translocation of the 4-14. So, I find that, and I ask doctors about that, and they say, “Yes, it is aggressive, it’s on the aggressive form, but it’s still on the intermediate side.” So, I’m not as concerned, but at least the doctors know, and they’re aware.

Jack:

And, “4-14” means that chromosome 4 and chromosome 14 pieces have been swapped places?

Peggy Lindley:

I don’t really understand that yet, but I’m learning. That’s good, very good. See? I’ve learned something more.

Jack:

There you go. And, Nancy, you’ve been at this for a little while, so you probably understand a little bit more about genetic testing. What’s the impact been on you?

Nancy:

Well, I’m getting there, but it is – it’s a lot of alphabet soup. It’s hard to retain. But, yeah, I had genetic testing done right away once the myeloma became active, and I also had aggressive highrisk. I had abnormal female karyotype, monosomy 13, the P-53, and a translocation – but I forget which one. And, what was interesting is in my initial appointment with my oncologist, he thought I was low-risk and talked about treatment, but when all the final results came back, turned out I was high-risk, which meant completely different treatment. So, that was a shocker.

Jack:

So, expand on that a bit. How did that high risk change your treatment?

Nancy:

He recommended a clinical trial instead of what they were gonna put me in, which included being treated with carfilzomib, which, at the time – this was 2015 – carfilzomib was being used mostly for people who had relapsed, and they were doing a clinical trial to see about treating patients up front with it that are high-risk. Why wait until they relapse? So, I had that in addition to the PACE cocktail with thalidomide, something else – there were seven different chemos.

Jack:

So, that was important that that high risk for you helped determine a change for the treatment, but you got into that clinical trial, and that was an effective trial, by the way, so that’s good.

Nancy:

Yes. It was definitely effective for me.

Jack:

Good. And, George, when you did – or, you did genetic testing, I presume, and did it show anything?

George:

Yes. The first time we did it was to run tests to get ready for the first stem cell transplant, and at that time, I didn’t understand the importance of all that. The oncologist that I was working with at the time did explain as much as he could, and in layman’s terms as best he could, but it still mostly went over my head. I was more thinking about the actual transplant itself than anything else. But, when I came to MD Anderson and got ready for – I was getting ready to try one of their clinical trials, they ran some more tests then, just to see how things had progressed through that number of years, and so, I’ve actually had partially two of them.

Jack:

So, I was gonna ask – have any of you had subsequent genetic testing where results have changed after your treatment for myeloma? You’re nodding your head, Nancy.

Nancy:

Yeah. Over a year ago now, I had my genetics repeated, and all the abnormal stuff went away, so that was pretty exciting, because I was now MRD-negative, so that was very reassuring. And, I actually just had another bone marrow about 10 days ago now, so I’m still waiting for those results to see what’s happened.

Jack:

And, are they gonna test that bone marrow for genetics as well?

Nancy:

Yes.

Jack:

Because you might find there are changes. You might find there’s a translocation where there wasn’t one before, you might find there’s a deletion where there wasn’t one before, because this myeloma is a fairly tricky disease, and we talk about the myeloma clone as made up of a percentage of different mutations, some of which get cured by treatment, and others of which expand because they were not affected by the treatment. It’s pretty interesting, in a lousy sort of way. Anything else, Doug, that you thought was interesting that came out of your genetic testing?

Doug:

It looked pretty standard and fairly boring to people who liked exciting genetic testing. I did have two, so I had one – so, my original doctor says, “We like to get patients early to get an original profile.” That’s kind of like your baseline. And, I also had one right before my stem cell transplant because they like to check to see if anything happened, but the doctor says the chemo messes with myeloma – obviously, that’s why you have chemo – and he says, “You’ll probably see some differences, but that’s why we like an original one, too.”

So, I compared the two, and really, there were no extra risks – high risks or anything – that appeared. The only thing that popped up was instead of tetrasomies, I had trisomies also, but that was pretty much it. So, it didn’t really change anything in terms of treatment in terms of work that was being planned.

Jack:

And, tetra- and trisomies are basically quadruple and triple duplications of your chromosome. So, I’m wondering, both Peg and George, have you had a second MRD testing, and why did you end up doing that?

George:

I don’t know that we’ve had a second one. Have we?

Peg Burrell:

Yes.

George:

We have?

Jack:

Oh, you had MRD testing?

Peg Burrell:

Yes, I’m pretty sure we had. He was in a clinical trial in 2018 at MD Anderson, and I’m sure they did it then. They also did some very unusual – not normal, but they were genetic tests that they ran as part of the – at the beginning of this study so they could get a baseline, or find out what other things might be going on.

Jack:

And, he did this MRD trial testing to determine if he had a significant number of cells with this BCMA antigen in order to qualify for this CAR-T trial?

George:

Probably.

Peg Burrell:

In the beginning, yes. That was in 2012. And then, he had his – he was in a second trial that was called Amgen 224. That’s all we know. It’s a mystery. And, it worked for him for about a year. It brought his cancer numbers back down, and there was a lot of genetic testing for that particular trial.

Jack:

So, I think just about any of these new trials that are coming onboard these days incorporate MRD testing. As we all heard earlier and we know, MRD is a really good prognosticating factor in terms of if a patient becomes MRD-negative, they show that they have better progression-free survival and overall survival. It’s not really used to change or determine treatment, but those trials are going on as well, so I think that’s really important.

And, there’s so many other avenues – again, back to this genetic testing, I always wonder, well, suppose I’m MRD-negative, but I’m high-risk, versus I’m MRD-positive but I’m standard-risk. Which is better? I don’t know. I don’t think the community knows, and I think it may be individualized as well. What do you all think about that? Any feelings?

George:

For me, I think that’s probably what is gonna be revealed to us as we move forward with this because the genetic testing idea is fairly new, at least to the patient. I’m sure that the doctors could pull each and every one of our files and show us all sorts of information that they just haven’t shared with us because of – it can be kind of complicated and hard to understand. Sometimes, I think that they try not to give us too much information because then, we have a tendency to think we can get on the computer and try to diagnose ourselves or find something.

Jack:

Little Rock, Arkansas was kind of the pioneer in what’s called gene expression profiling. And, we all have 25,000 genes, let’s say, and Arkansas kind of developed a test which showed that there were about 70 genes that were very distinctive in resulting in high-risk myeloma, except they were distinctive across, say, 50 percent of patients, but not the other 50 percent of patients. And then, they tried to get it down to even 15 or 25 genes, let’s say, and therefore, it was less accurate.

So, I think you’re right, George. I think there’s still a lot of work that’s gonna be done in this area to make it something that really can be useful in terms of having the best treatment for patients. There’s an interesting trial going on right now that’s looking at treating myeloma patients according to a mutation. If we have a certain mutation and we have a drug to treat that mutation – it could be for a different cancer – then that patient will be given a baseline of treatment plus that drug to try to increase the amount of precision therapy that’s given for given patients.

So, this whole area of genetic testing, as I see it, is really fascinating, complex, difficult to understand at the patient level, but can mean a lot for us as we go forward. What do you think? Peggy, I think you’re the most newly diagnosed patient here. What does all this mean for you?

Peggy Lindley:

I think his analogy of the alphabet soup is exactly right because when I looked at mine, I was like, “Those are words? Yeah, no.” But, I tried not to worry about it because I figured I was going to the best when I came to MD Anderson, so I really didn’t worry about it too much because I figured it’s gonna be what it’s gonna be, and I wanna – the quality of life is what I’m looking for.

Jack:

Well, I think you’re really correct there. The fact that you’re going to MD Anderson, the fact that we are getting second opinions from myeloma specialists who have a much better shot at understanding this stuff than we do is really key to long-term treatment success for us. There are a lot of drugs out there. In fact, I’ll often tell patients when I was diagnosed in ’95, there weren’t many treatment options. Today, the good news is there are lots of treatment options, but the bad news is there are lots of treatment options. You really don’t know what’s best for you, and that’s why it’s so important to have a myeloma specialist on your side.

George:

Well, with that, the idea of being able to target certain things within myeloma is gonna be a big step forward, I think, because it’ll help eliminate some of the things – the trials that we might try, or have to make a decision – “Do we try this or not?” We’ll be able to say, “This didn’t work, so this will – let’s try this.”

Jack:

Yeah. There’s a drug called venetoclax, which has been shown to be effective in myeloma patients with a certain mutation – 11-14 – and it’s in trials now to hopefully, one day, get approved for that class of patients.

Doug:

One of the things I’d probably add to the discussion is there’s a lot of talk about patient advocacy, and if you follow any of the myeloma discussions, it is almost all genetics now. That’s kind of where cancer research has gone, even in other cancers. But, one of the things that I see genetic testing is doing is my ability to help the doctor help me.

So, if it was more difficult to get genetic testing – maybe not local to a major facility or something – I would still encourage it because that’s helping the doctor see your specific disease, and maybe helping them modify what you have as a standard treatment in terms of what you need instead of the standard treatment. Plus, you have it in the bank then. You have your test, and if something is discovered a year from now, that this particular drug works with this particular genetic profile, you can go back, and look, and say, “Do I have that? Is that something I should consider?”

Jack:

Good point. Nancy, how important do you think it is for patients to 1) Insist that they get some type of genetic testing, and 2) to try to understand what’s going on?

Nancy:

Well, I think it’s extremely important. For me, it was a major change in treatment. Without genetic testing, I doubt I would be MRD-negative right now because my treatment path went along a completely different way. So, I think it’s extremely important. What was the second part of your question?

Jack:

How important it is for the patient to understand it.

Nancy:

I think everybody has a different level of what they can understand, and that it’s important for your oncologist to give you that information in language that you can understand, and to the level that you want. A lot of that’s gonna depend on your background, your education, what makes sense to you. I came from a medical background, so I wanted a little more knowledge, and my doctor was great in giving that to me.

Jack:

Patients need to ask questions.

Nancy:

Yes, they definitely need to ask questions, and then, the physician needs to communicate in a way that the patient’s gonna understand because it is a lot of gobbledygook, and I often – I have a hard time understanding it with having a medical background, and I often wonder how you make sense of this without having a background. It’s difficult.

Jack:

This has been a good discussion, and I think we’ll wrap it up. Peg, maybe I’ll start with you. Folks listening to this discussion – what do you think they should take away from it?

Peg Burrell:

Well, definitely, talk your physician, learn as much as you can. Support group for us has been very beneficial and helpful. Our support group brings in different people in the medical profession and has explained a lot of the things and given us knowledge we wouldn’t have had otherwise. And then, working with – sometimes, insurance may not wanna pay for certain tests. I’ve found that in working with MD Anderson, their financial people – we had some tests that were gonna be – I think they said “non-concerted.” I’d not heard that before. It basically meant they were questioning the test and whether or not it was necessary. So, MD Anderson was very helpful with that.

Jack:

George, can you add on to what your better half says?

George:

For me, it’s been working closely with Dr. Patel and her team, both when I was part of the clinical trial and even now, with the three-track regimen that they have me on. Again, ask questions, try to understand as much as you can, and I, too, support the idea of working with a support group and sharing information with each other because you find out so much more of what someone else heard through their doctor and their team because we all do have different doctors.

Jack:

Nancy?

Nancy:

I think it’s real important for people to go to a center of excellence, at least for a second opinion, if not for your treatment. They are the cutting-edge people that are gonna be able to treat you the best, and you can just google “center of excellence, multiple myeloma,” and you’ll get a list of all the centers all across the United States. I think it’s made a huge difference. I was treated at UAMS in Little Rock, and I wouldn’t have had it any other way. I was fortunate to be able to go there.

Jack:

Good. Peggy?

Peggy Lindley:

I think as patients, we all need to be as informed as you can, and work with your doctor, and get confidence in your doctor. If that doctor doesn’t do it for you, find another one, but be confident in your doctor that they’re gonna do what’s right for you, but you have to be educated as well.

Jack:

I heartily agree. Doug?

Doug:

I’d stress the same as everyone else, and also recommend definitely having genetic testing. One of the things that are kind of an intangible benefit is even your own stress level. You would think that, for instance, if you’re tested and you find out you’re not high-risk, you’re standard-risk, that’d be the end of it, but it turns out, for instance, even with me, my doctors will actually modify – have modified my treatments, even my maintenance treatments, because I’m not high-risk and I have very stable myeloma.

So, they’ll say, “Well, we’re going to de-escalate. We’re gonna take you off all these drugs. You don’t need all of them, so we don’t wanna over-treat, either.” Nobody wants to be over-treated with all the symptoms and things like that. When they initially said that, I was like, “Wait a minute, I’d rather just start adding drugs. Let’s just kill this thing.” But, that’s right, and I think the fact that I can go back to genetic testing and look at what he was saying about stability over a period of years and things like that just gives me more of a comfort level that that’s probably the right answer, and I don’t need to be taking all these drugs if they’re not gonna benefit me in the long term, or I could switch drugs if I need to.

Jack:

So, I guess I’d summarize it by thanking you all. You’re all terrific examples of being your own best patient advocate. If we aren’t advocating for ourselves, who else should? It’s really up to us, and the good news is there are so many resources for good information out there.


Please remember the opinions expressed on Patient Empowerment Netowrk (PEN) are not necessarily the views of our sponsors, contributors, partners or PEN. Our discussions are not a substitute for seeking medical advice or care from your own doctor. That’s how you’ll get care that’s most appropriate for you.

Connect with Myeloma Groups

This resource was originally published by Myeloma Crowd here.

CONNECT WITH THE MYELOMA CROWD

Myeloma Crowd is a division of the CrowdCare Foundation and is a registered 501(c)3 non-profit, tax ID 45-5354811. Contact us at info@crowdcare.org. For donations, please donate online to the MCRI project here or mail checks to:

CrowdCare Foundation
PO Box 1286
Draper, UT 84020

 

JOIN MYELOMA FACEBOOK GROUPS

MULTIPLE MYELOMA SPANISH SITE

Financial Assistance Programs

These resources were originally published by Myeloma Crowd here.

Financial Resources

Before starting treatment, patients and their caregivers should meet with the financial counselor at the facility where they will be treated. Each hospital will have its own financial counselor within each specific clinic (like the myeloma clinic or myeloma/lymphoma clinic). The counselor will help determine coverage and estimate out of pocket costs. There may be restrictions on treatment options covered by Medicare and Medicaid. After you have met with the counselor, the resources below can help bridge financial gaps.

Myeloma advocate and financial planner Diahanna Valentine helped compile this list of helpful financial resources. To contact Diahanna for professional assistance, email her at dtvallentine@gmail.com

Pharmaceutical Company Patient Assistance Programs

Amgen Assist 360  (1-800-28-AMGEN) (Kyprolis, Xgeva, Neupogen, Neulasta)

BMS Access Support (1-800-861-0048) (Empliciti)

Celgene Patient Support (1-800-931-8691, EXT 4077(Revlimid, Pomalyst, Thalomid)

Genentech  (1-888-941-3331) (Venclexta)

(800-609-1083) (Doxil, Darzalex)

Novartis Patient Assistance (1-800-245-5356) (Farydak, Zometa)

Takeda Oncology (1-844-817-6468) (Ninlaro, Velcade)

Other Patient Assistance Programs

Be The Match (Post-transplant financial assistance)

CancerCare

CephalonCares Foundation

HealthWell Foundation

Help with Paying Bills

The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society’s Co-pay Assistance Program

Patient Financial Aid

The Max Foundation

National Cancer Institute

National Organization for Rare Disorders

NeedyMeds

Patient Access Network Foundation

Patient Advocate Foundation

Patient Advocate Foundation Co-Pay Relief Program

Ronald McDonald House Charities

Basic Living Expenses

American Childhood Cancer Organization

American Life Fund
The Bone Marrow Foundation

The CHAIN Fund Inc

Child Care Expenses

Family Reach Foundation

The Bone Marrow Foundation

CancerCare

Equipment /Supplies Expenses

American Kidney Fund

CancerCare

Lymphoma Research Foundation

Stupid Cancer

Government Assistance

Benefits.gov

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services

Eligibility.com (Medicare Resources)

Legal Services Corporation

Social Security Administration

Social Security Disability Resource Center

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

Home Health Care Assistance

AVON Foundation for Women

The Bone Marrow Foundation

CancerCare

Brenda Mehling Cancer Fund

Stupid Cancer

Housing During Treatment

American Cancer Society (Hope Lodges)

The Bone Marrow Foundation

Healthcare Hospitality Network Inc

Hospitality Homes

Joe’s House

Lymphoma Research Foundation

Insurance Premium Expenses

American Kidney Fund (dialysis patients)

American Life Fund

The Bone Marrow Foundation

CancerCare Co-Payment Assistance Foundation

The CHAIN Fund Inc

Fifth Season Financial Assistance

HealthWell Foundation (diagnosis-specific)

Patient Advocate Foundation Co-Pay Relief

Patient Services, Inc

Stupid Cancer

Legal Issues

American Bar Association

Cancer and Careers

Cancer Legal Resource Center

LawHelp.org

Legal Services Corporation

National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship

National Health Law Program(links to assistance programs)

Patient Advocate Foundation

Social Security Disability Resource Center

Medical Care Expenses

American Life Fund

Be the Match

The Bone Marrow Foundation

CancerCare

Cancer Warrior, Inc

Fifth Season Financial Assistance

Foundation for Health Coverage Education

Leukemia and Lymphoma Society

Patient Access Network Foundation

Patient Advocate Foundation

Post Treatment Financial Needs

Be The Match

Stupid Cancer

Prescription Expenses

The Bone Marrow Foundation

CancerCare Co-Payment Assistance Foundation

Cancer Financial Assistance Coalition

The CHAIN Fund Inc

Foundation for Health Coverage Education

GoodDays

HealthWell Foundation

Leukemia and Lymphoma Society

Needy Meds

Patient Access Network Foundation

Patient Advocate Foundation Co-Pay Relief

RxAssist

RxHope

RxOutreach

Together Rx Access

Transportation and Travel Resources

Angel Flight

Air Charity Network

American Cancer Society (Road to Recovery)

Angel Airline Samaritans

Angel Airlines for Cancer Patientsrg

Angel Flight Central

CancerCare

Chai Lifeline

Corporate Angel Network

Family Reach Foundation

Lifeline Pilots

Lymphoma Research Foundation

Mercy Medical Angels

National Patient Travel Center

Veterans Airlife Command

Co-pay Assistance Programs & Concerns – Myeloma

This video was originally published by Myeloma.org on Mar 31, 2017, here.

Recently, the International Myeloma Foundation’s InfoLine has been flooded with calls from patients and caregivers facing insurmountable financial challenges due to the high cost of drugs and increases in insurance copays. In the past, several services have been available to provide financial assistance to patients. We understand that funds for co-pay assistance are difficult to come by, and available funding will likely dry up quickly.

DOWNLOAD SLIDES

New Developments in Myeloma Therapy

This podcast was originally published by The Cancer Cast with Weill Cornell here.

 

 

Adriana Rossi, MD – Speaker Bio

Know What Your Doctors Know: Multiple Myeloma

This video was originally published by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network on April 15, 2019, here.

Experts discussed updates in the treatment of multiple myeloma during live webinars hosted by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) on April 15 and 16, 2019.

Essential Tests for Diagnosis and Monitoring

This resource was originally published by International Myeloma Foundation here.

Multiple myeloma tests are diverse and complex. Tests are used throughout the course of your disease — for initial diagnosis, discovering the type of myeloma you have, staging the disease, and for monitoring your response to treatment.

What Can Tests Tell Us?

Tests results are the most important tools that your doctor will use to:

  • Diagnose monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), and active myeloma.
  • Assess the risk of progression of MGUS or SMM to active myeloma.
  • Assess the stage of your myeloma.
  • Assess your genetic risk factors.
  • Evaluate your response to treatment.
  • Monitor remission periods and determine when to start treatment again.
  • Monitor for disease-related and treatment-related side effects.

Tests for multiple myeloma patients fall into three major categories:

  • Blood and urine tests
  • Bone marrow tests
  • Imaging studies

No Single Test Tells the Whole Story

Each test can be thought of a piece of puzzle. Only when the pieces are assembled together can a patient and their doctor make their proper conclusions and decisions. Myeloma is unique in each patient; therefore, it’s important not to compare your test results with other myeloma patients.

We encourage you to discuss all your test results with the doctor who is treating you. Your doctor will be able to put all the puzzle pieces together to put your results in context. The patterns of results viewed over time are more meaningful than any single test itself.

Save Copies of Your Test and Lab Results

It is important to request, print out, and save copies of your results. Bring a summary of results with you when you to all oncology visits or when getting a second opinion.

Variables That May Affect Your Test Results

Be aware that your lab results can be affected by many variables, including:

  • other medications and supplements that you may be taking
  • the amount and type of fluids you have consumed
  • whether you have eaten before the test

Before undergoing tests, consult with your doctor to make sure there are no special instructions about taking certain medications, supplements, food, or drinks.