Approximately 12% of all U.S. women will develop invasive breast cancer during the course of their lives. There are a number of common risk factors associated with breast cancer, such as excessive alcohol consumption, obesity, genetic mutations like BRCA1 and BRCA2, and a family history of breast cancer. In recent years, the link between diabetes, and particularly gestational diabetes, and cancer has been examined more closely to determine whether this group of women are especially at risk. A better understanding of gestational diabetes and its long-term effects make it significantly easier to understand its link to breast cancer.
What exactly is gestational diabetes?
Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy and can, when untreated, cause health complications for mother and baby. When a woman has gestational diabetes she will display high blood sugar levels that typically return to normal after the pregnancy. Although any complication during pregnancy can be alarming, it is important to note that gestational diabetes can generally easily be controlled through a healthy diet, regular exercise, and in extreme cases, medication. While gestational diabetes does not necessarily result in serious complications, it is important to be aware of the risks for both mom and baby.
The link between gestational diabetes and breast cancer
Although women with gestational diabetes do not present an increased risk of breast cancer according to studies that have been conducted, it does increase their risk of contracting type 2 diabetes later on. In fact, up to 10% of all women who had gestational diabetes will develop type 2 diabetes according to the National Institutes of Health. This can occur anywhere from within a few weeks after delivery to months or even years later.
Type 2 diabetes proven to increase breast cancer risk
The risk for developing breast cancer is significantly higher among women with type 2 diabetes according to findings published in Diabetes Care. Postmenopausal women above the age of 50 are most at risk with a 27% increased risk of breast cancer. Type 2 diabetes triggers a number of changes in the body such as high insulin level, high glucose levels, and increased inflammation that may increase breast cancer risk. The connection between type 2 diabetes and breast cancer may also be a two-way street as breast cancer survivors could be at an increased risk of developing diabetes following chemotherapy.
Despite gestational diabetes not having a direct impact on breast cancer risk it can, in a more indirect way, increase the risk. By following a healthy lifestyle after a gestational diabetes diagnoses it is possible to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes later in life which has directly been linked to the onset of breast cancer.