Tag Archive for: CLL treatment side effects

What Do You Need to Know About CLL Treatment Side Effects?

What Do You Need to Know About CLL Treatment Side Effects? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

CLL Expert Dr. Jean Koff discusses common side effects of CLL treatment and explains how they can be managed.

Dr. Jean Koff is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Hematology and Oncology at Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University. Learn more about Dr. Koff, here.

See More from Thrive CLL

Related Resources:

How Are CLL Symptoms Treated?

CLL Treatment Approaches: What Are the Types?

What is YOUR Role in Choosing a CLL Treatment Approach?

Transcript:

Katherine Banwell:

What are the common side effects of treatments, and how are they managed? 

Dr. Jean Koff:

So, each of the different classes of agents has a different profile of side effects. The BTK inhibitors, the first class that I mentioned with ibrutinib (Imbruvica) and acalabrutinib (Calquence), are usually very well tolerated. The most common side effects that we tend to see are things that the patients can feel or see, but also things that we can see on the labs when we’re monitoring patients. So, sometimes you can see a lower platelet counts or lower blood cell counts with ibrutinib. That’s something that you may not notice, but your doctor’s going to notice on the – the blood counts when you come to the office. Sometimes ibrutinib can cause a rash or GI upset, this is usually easily managed with supportive care from your physician.  

And then some more – some more common effects of the BTK inhibitors include joint pain and headache. And again, many physicians, because we’ve been using BTK inhibitors for a long time, have a good regimen for treating these side effects. More uncommon side effects of BTK inhibitors, particularly ibrutinib that we look out for would be abnormal heart rhythms and some tendency for bleeding. But these are relatively uncommon and with newer BTK inhibitors, we’re seeing lower rates of these side effects.  

Dr. Jean Koff:

So, in terms of venetoclax side effects we have a little bit of a different profile. This agent is much more likely to cause lower cell counts, especially in a white blood cell count known as neutrophil count, and so your doctor will be monitoring you for that. In terms of patient side effects that you can feel, it can cause a rash, it can cause some GI upset. These are usually relatively easily managed but we want you as the patient if you’re on venetoclax to talk to your doctor about these side effects so that they can help you feel better and help you manage those. In terms of the anti-CV20 monoclonal antibodies, which we use a couple in CLL more frequently, they have very similar side effect profiles.  

So, one is rituximab, and one is obinutuzumab. Obinutuzumab is usually used in combination with venetoclax in front-line CLL.  

Like I mentioned before, this is an infusion and most of the side effects that we think about and most commonly see in these anti-CV20s are side effects that patients have during the infusion. And these are referred to as infusion reaction. And these are relatively common, around 30 percent in these anti-CV20 monoclonal antibodies. So, what is an infusion center react – er sorry, what does an infusion reaction look like? This looks sort of like an allergic reaction. 

Katherine Banwell:

Hm. 

Dr. Jean Koff:

So, your nurses in the infusion center are going to be monitoring you very carefully once you start the infusion, and they’re going to start it at a low dose, very slowly. But the side effects they’re monitoring for, they’re looking for changes in your heart rate or blood pressure. You may start to feel hot or cold or sweaty, you may have chills. Sometimes patients can have swelling in their throat or their tongue. And what will happen is because these are fairly common, is we’re still able to give the anti-CV20, but what we do is the nurse will stop the infusion, they may give you some medications that calm down that infusion reaction. So, medications like antihistamines –  

Katherine Banwell:

Mm-hmm.  

Dr. Jean Koff:

Or steroids that help tamp down that immune response, and then they start the anti-CV20 infusion at a lower rate. The vast majority of patients will be able to receive an anti-CV20 antibody even if they have an infusion reaction. They may just need a little bit more of those immune tamping-down medications like antihistamines and steroids. And then the last thing to consider, which I think we’ve mentioned, especially in the venetoclax-containing regimens, is the tumor lysis syndrome. And so, that is a side effect like we mentioned is kind of like the venetoclax working really, really, really well, of the tumor breaking down too quickly.  

And so, patients who have tumor lysis, if they’re at high-risk, hopefully they’re already being monitored very closely with frequent lab draws, and they may receive medications that – that diminish the risk of adverse events happening because your electrolytes are out balance, for instance, your potassium is too high, or your calcium is too low. Because your doctors are monitoring you closely, they can give you medications that can help balance  out those – those electrolytes and help protect the kidneys. The tumor lysis is typically not a risk after the initial doses of venetoclax.  

So, the first couple weeks is when we typically monitor that, and then once the CLL has been broken down, or as I like to say, once it’s been cooled off a little bit, then you no longer have this risk of tumor lysis and it – it doesn’t require further monitoring. 

Katherine Banwell:

That’s great information, thank you.  

Are There Any Long-Term Side Effect Risks for CLL Patients?

Are There Any Long-Term Side Effect Risks for CLL Patients? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients are at-risk for some treatment side effects. Watch as Dr. Nadia Khan from Fox Chase Cancer Center shares how side effects can vary by treatment type and some side effects for CLL patients to be aware of.

See More from START HERE CLL

Related Programs:

How Often Do CLL Patients Develop a Second Gene Mutation?

How Often Do CLL Patients Develop a Second Gene Mutation?

What Is CAR T-Cell Therapy in CLL?

What Is CAR T-Cell Therapy in CLL?


Transcript:

Mary Leer: 

George asks, are there any long-term side effect risks for CLL patients? 

Dr. Nadia Khan: 

That’s a great question, George. It really would depend on the therapy being instituted and when in the chemoimmunotherapy era for CLL patients, we have a very different perspective of what short-term and long-term side effects were and are for those patients who have been treated with chemoimmunotherapy. For patients treated with targeted therapies and immunotherapy combinations today, there tends to be fewer serious long-term side effects when looking at the various drug classes. For example, BTK inhibitors, there is a risk of atrial fibrillation that remains constant throughout the course of therapy, and if a patient is on therapy for one year or 10 years, they can develop that particular side effect. High blood pressure can be significant with BTK inhibitors as well, and that risk also tends to be stable. In terms of infection risk, there is relative immunosuppression with all CLL therapeutics, and so our concern, more recently has been focused on COVID infection, serious bacterial and viral infections tend to be less frequent, we don’t institute prophylaxis for those infections because they tend to be so few and far between in the patients that we’ve treated.  

How to Approach Side Effects With CLL Medications

How to Approach Side Effects With CLL Medications from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients often experience treatment side effects. Watch as Dr. Nadia Khan from Fox Chase Cancer Center explains CLL medications that typically cause side effects and how the side effects can be managed.

See More from START HERE CLL

Related Programs:

What is the Prognosis of CLL?

What is Watch and Wait in CLL?

What is Watch and Wait in CLL?

CLL Patient-Expert Q&A

CLL Patient-Expert Q&A


Transcript:

Mary Leer: 

We have a question from Larry about side effects. Larry says: I’ve been fighting side effects with each medicine. Will the correct answer for side effects in CLL always be to stop the medicine? 

Dr. Nadia Khan: 

Larry, thank you for your question. It is an excellent one, and this is something that we encounter on a very regular basis in CLL patients who are on targeted therapies. The side effects occur frequently in patients taking BTK inhibitors, in patients taking PIK inhibitors, and we have some side effects reported on BCLT inhibitors as well. Typically, side effects on all of these targeted therapies can be managed with either dose reduction or supportive therapies, and we don’t necessarily have to stop a medication due to a side effect that is encountered. And, of course, it would depend on the type of side effect and the severity of the side effect before deciding to pause therapy for a time or to dose reduce or add other medications to help. 

Mary Leer: 

Sarah has a question about side effects. How can I tell if side effects are from CLL, my medicine, or just a part of aging? 

Dr. Nadia Khan: 

Thanks for that question, Sarah. It can be a challenge to tease out the cause of any given complaint, whether the symptom is due to underlying other medical conditions, the medications a patient is on, their CLL therapy, their CLLl itself is something that we find to be challenging, and it can often be a process of elimination and understanding when side effects started and how they are related to the known side effect profile of a therapy is often a starting point. Depending on the side effect, we may decide to institute a treatment holiday, and if the side effect improves or resolves during the treatment holiday, it’s more clear that the side effect is due to the medication in question. If the side effect persists during that period of time, then it’s more likely to be due to something else. 

CLL Patient-Expert Q&A

Dr. Nadia Khan | CLL Patient-Expert Q&A from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Is CAR T-cell therapy a cure for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)? What specific lab tests will I need to get a second opinion? CLL expert Dr. Nadia Khan answers questions from CLL patients and families. 

Have a question for a future Patient-Expert Q&A Email us: question@powerfulpatients.org with subject line: CLL Patient-Expert Q&A 

See More from START HERE CLL

Related Programs:

What is the Prognosis of CLL?

What is Watch and Wait in CLL?

What is Watch and Wait in CLL?

How to Approach Side Effects With CLL Medications

How to Approach Side Effects with CLL Medications


Transcript:

Mary Leer:

Dr. Khan, first of all, thank you for being part of this program. 

Dr. Nadia Khan:

Thank you so much for inviting me to participate.

Mary Leer:

We have a question from Larry about side effects. Larry says: I’ve been fighting side effects with each medicine. Will the correct answer for side effects in CLL always be to stop the medicine? 

Dr. Nadia Khan:

Larry, thank you for your question. It is an excellent one, and this is something that we encounter on a very regular basis in CLL patients who are on targeted therapies. The side effects occur frequently in patients taking BTK inhibitors, in patients taking PIK inhibitors, and we have some side effects reported on BCLT inhibitors as well, typically side effects on all of these targeted therapies can be managed with either dose reduction or supportive therapies, and we don’t necessarily have to stop a medication due to a side effect that is encountered, and of course, it would depend on the type of side effect and the severity of the side effect before deciding to pause therapy for a time or to dose reduce or add other medications to help.

Mary Leer:

Sarah has a question about side effects. How can I tell if side effects are from CLL, my medicine, or just a part of aging? 

Dr. Nadia Khan:

Thanks for that question, Sarah. It can be a challenge to tease out the cause of any given complaint, whether the symptom is due to underlying other medical conditions, the medications a patient is on, their CLL therapy, their CLLl itself is something that we find to be challenging, and it can often be a process of elimination and understanding when side effects started and how they are related to the known side effect profile of a therapy is often a starting point. Depending on the side effect, we may decide to institute a treatment holiday, and if the side effect improves or resolves during the treatment holiday, it’s more clear that the side effect is due to the medication in question. If the side effect persists during that period of time, then it’s more likely to be due to something else.

Mary Leer:

George asks, are there any long-term side effect risks for CLL patients? 

Dr. Nadia Khan:

That’s a great question, George. It really would depend on the therapy being instituted and when in the chemoimmunotherapy era for CLL patients, we have a very different perspective of what short-term and long-term side effects were and are for those patients who have been treated with chemoimmunotherapy. For patients treated with targeted therapies and immunotherapy combinations today, there tends to be fewer serious long-term side effects when looking at the various drug classes. For example, BTK inhibitors, there is a risk of atrial fibrillation that remains constant throughout the course of therapy, and if a patient is on therapy for one year or 10 years, they can develop that particular side effect. High blood pressure can be significant with BTK inhibitors as well, and that risk also tends to be stable. In terms of infection risk, there is relative immunosuppression with all CLL therapeutics, and so our concern, more recently has been focused on COVID infection, serious bacterial and viral infections tend to be less frequent, we don’t institute prophylaxis for those infections because they tend to be so few and far between in the patients that we’ve treated. 

Mary Leer:

Thank you, Dr. Khan. Here’s a question from Richard:  I am a CLL patient currently on “watch and wait.”  When is the right time and what tests should have been performed before seeing a CLL specialist? 

Dr. Nadia Khan:

Richard, thank you for your excellent question. There are a number of tests with respect to CLL that help us to prognosticate more accurately, and those would include either a FISH panel, fluorescence in situ hybridization for CLL which identifies this common amplification and deletions that have been described in CLL. Additionally, an IgVH mutational test and a TP53 sequencing test would be the three basic prognostic tests used to identify what kind of CLL a patient has. This testing should be repeated at any point wherein a patient is changing therapy or at any point where there’s a change in the clinical status of the patient. Outside of these standard tests, there are other molecular tests that can be ordered and are commercially available for use… For use by clinicians. These molecular tests can also identify changes within the CLL that can help to prognosticate at this time, outside of the standard tests that I mentioned to you, there are no proven benefits to other testing, but the results of additional testing can just really help inform your clinician about the likelihood of you needing treatment in the near future and the likelihood of response to therapy. 

Mary Leer:

This question comes from Laurie. How common is it for CLL patients to develop a second gene mutation? 

Dr. Nadia Khan:

Laurie, Thanks for that question. It is not common for most call patients to have significant alterations in the genetic landscape of the CLL. With that being said, there are a few notable exceptions for CLL with TP53 dysfunction or complex cytogenetics, there is a higher likelihood that there will be genetic instability in those CLL clones. Therefore, it’s important to retest for changes if there is a change in the biology of the CLL, if there is a progression on therapy, for example, or at the time when a new therapy is planned.

Mary Leer:

Yolanda’s question is, what is CAR T therapy and who is eligible? 

Dr. Nadia Khan:

Thank you, Yolanda. This is a question that I get asked very frequently. CAR-T therapy is an exciting cellular therapy that has been FDA-approved in a number of lymphomas, and it is currently not FDA-approved for patients with CLL. So at this time, CLL patients can receive CAR-T therapy in the setting of a clinical trial only, and it is typically reserved for those patients who have progressed or relapsed after multiple lines of therapy and for whom there is no alternative therapy for consideration. Often, it is considered in the context of the clinical trial prior to the use of allogeneic stem cell transplant, because the results of allo transplant and CAR-T seemed to be fairly comparable. CAR T therapy, however is much better tolerated than allo transplant, both of these modalities are very rarely employed for our CLL patient today because of the very effective targeted therapies and immunotherapies that we have to use. 

Mary Leer: 

Dr. Khan, Chuck’s question is, what are the side effects of CAR-T cell therapy? 

Dr. Nadia Khan: 

Thank you, Chuck. For your excellent question, CAR-T-therapy is associated with two main types of side effects, one is Cytokine Release syndrome or CRS, which happens within the first two weeks of receiving CAR cells, and that can manifest as fevers, chills, a drop in blood pressure, shortness of breath, and the requirement of oxygen. When that happens to patients, there are medications that are given to help improve those cytokine-mediated events. Another major side effect with CAR-T therapy is neurotoxicity, which also happens within the first 14 days in some patients who receive CAR therapy, and that can manifest as anything from a headache to more concerning confusion, seizures and coma. CRS happens commonly in patients who receive party therapy and is usually managed very successfully with anti-inflammatory therapies given intravenously in the hospital and can be used for patients even who get outpatient CAR-T therapy.

Dr. Nadia Khan: 

When patients do suffer with neuro toxicities, intravenous therapies are also employed to combat that, and when necessary, patients might require escalation to an intensive care setting when these toxicities are very severe.

Mary Leer: 

Dr. Khan, is CAR T therapy a cure for CLL? 

Dr. Nadia Khan: 

Thank you for your question, Bernard. CAR-T therapy has been curative for a minority of patients who have been treated with CARs on clinical trials, and unlike other lymphomas In CLL, there hasn’t been an FDA approval as yet for CAR-T therapy, and we are hopeful for that to change in the future as CARs are modified and may potentially become more effective at eradicating the CLL and hopefully resulting in better side effect profiles and patients who do receive CAR-T therapy, the majority of patients who have received CARs in CLL studies have not had durable remission, unfortunately.

Mary Leer: 

Dr. Khan, what is conditioning therapy and why is it given prior to infusion of the CAR T cells?

Dr. Nadia Khan: 

Thank you, Samuel. Conditioning therapy is a course of – a briefer course of chemotherapy that’s given just prior to CAR-T therapy, really to prepare the body in a way to receive the CARs, and it makes the CARs more effective when there has been a level of immunosuppression to allow the CARs to expand more freely after they have been re-infused into a patient.

Mary Leer: 

Okay, here’s a question that Sandra asks, I’m preparing for CLL treatment, can I take my vitamins, herbs, or other supplements during treatment?

Dr. Nadia Khan: 

Thanks for that excellent question, Sandra. It’s so important to review all of your medications with your provider before starting any therapy during the course of your CLL treatment, drug interactions with herbals and over-the-counter medications can result in serious side effects, some over-the-counters and Herbals can inhibit the effectiveness of CLL therapy. So it’s important to discuss these with your provider on a case-by-case basis.

Mary Leer: 

Dr. Khan, here’s a question that I think many are probably thinking of right now, what tests do you give patients to see if CLL treatment is working?

Dr. Nadia Khan: 

Thank you, Jessica. During the course of CLL treatment and at the end of a time-limited treatment course, we’re assessing for responses, so as a patient is going through their treatment, we may decide to re-image to determine if there has been debulking of lymph nodes. And depending on the treatment that we’re administering and where the lymph nodes are located, we may decide to do imaging sooner or later, so for example, if there are palpable lymph nodes while a patient is on therapy, and we can measure these readily by physical exam in the clinic, we may not feel as compelled to re-image at an early time point, if there is valiantly or in large seen that is hard to palpate. And we want to understand if treatment is working after approximately three to four cycles of therapy, we would assess for a good response to treatment if clinically, it also does appear that patients are responding, and if there was any question as to respond, we would image at an earlier time point when patients are being treated with a Venetoclax [VENCLEXTA] based regimen and there is significant adenopathy or an enlarged spleen, we may reassess the size of lymph nodes and spleen during the course of Venetoclax [VENCLEXTA] ramp-up to determine if patients can be transitioned from inpatient to outpatient ramp-up.

Mary Leer: 

Dr. Khan, this is our final question. Karen asks, with many new therapies available, will watch and wait be redefined for CLL patients? 

Dr. Nadia Khan: 

What an excellent question, Karen. Currently, the strategy for CLL patients is to institute therapy when there is likely to be a benefit with the intervention, and there are studies that are ongoing looking at earlier intervention with oral therapy, and once we see the readout for patients with particularly high-risk features. I think it is possible that we’ll have an alternative strategy for those patients. Thankfully, our CLL patients live very long lives, and what we’ve come to see over decades of treatment experience with our CLL patients is that early intervention to date has not resulted in longer… Longer survival. So at this point, it’s not something that’s recommended, but we may have more information soon.

Mary Leer: 

Dr. Khan, thanks for joining us today and answering all of these questions for our audience. Just a reminder to our audience, please take the CLL-Patient-Expert Q&A survey following this webinar.

Mary Leer: 

Dr. Khan, before we end this program,  what are you optimistic about for the future of CLL? 

Dr. Nadia Khan: 

So I’m very optimistic about the future of CLL therapeutics, we’ve already come to see excellent responses that are very durable with time-limited targeted therapy and immunotherapy approaches. In the future, it is likely that we will be using a more personalized approach to treating any given CLL patient using their genetic and molecular profile to decide on their treatment strategy, a single-agent approach versus multiple targeted therapies to eradicate CLL clones. In the future will be looking at endpoints like minimal residual disease, as well as clonal evolution to help guide our treatment strategy for patients with CLL

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Shirley’s Clinical Trial Profile

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Shirley’s Clinical Trial Profile from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patient Shirley felt she had a different experience not fitting the typical CLL patient demographic. Watch as she shares about her journey as a BIPOC patient, the value of clinical trials, and her advice to other patients for ensuring optimal outcomes.

See More from Patient-to-Patient Diverse CLL Clinical Trial Profiles

Related Programs:

Deirdre’s Clinical Trial Profile


Transcript:

Shirley:

In my late 30s, I started feeling extremely fatigued, and I went to my GYN. She ran a couple of tests, and she has sent me over to a hematologist because she just determined that it was something that she was not knowledgeable about. Then I had a physician contact me after several blood tests, and they had told me that it was a form of cancer, and it was leukemia, and it was called CLL, which is chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

When I heard the word chronic, I immediately thought, “Oh my God, this means like death instantly.” But they had told me that, “No, it was aggressive, but it’s definitely slow-moving,” and I have a great chance of fighting it. I was concerned because I did not feel like I wanted to be a lab rat, because I was told that I did not fit the demographics for having CLL. Most of the individuals were male of Caucasian descent, and they were much, much older than I was possibly in the late 60 to 70s, so I got a lot of stares and it made me feel very uncomfortable. So, I just didn’t want to feel like they were just like, “Okay, this is a different case. We can make a name for.” I wanted to make sure I was getting the best treatment.

I didn’t tell too many people in the beginning because I really didn’t know what was going on, but a lot of people was able to tell because no matter how much the time of sleep I got…I was always tired. The fatigue is just overwhelming. I decided to just remain optimistic about my future, because I know whenever you’re trying to battle any kind of ailment your attitude means a lot, you have to really put it out there into existence that you’re going to get better and you believe it, you have to really believe it in order to put that energy into finding out about the treatments and so forth. My doctors, they gave me a booklet that was maybe about it, and they said to me, “Take this home, study hematology and learn about your disease, how we’re going to be trying to treat it, and you know what you’re going to be feeling and you need to tell us everything if your nose itches, your eyes burn. We need to know everything that happens.”

And I was just not a complaining type of person, so there were plenty of times where I was experiencing like pain on my side and I was just like, “Oh, it’s probably just gas from the medication,” and then later found out that the medication they were giving me was enlarging my spleen, so it was pushing against my stomach, which was causing me an enormous amount of discomfort. So the doctors had to then give me other types of medication to help treat that issue that I was having, so it was definitely a long journey. This was an unusual diagnosis for someone of my heritage. The doctors explained to me that there was no blueprint for my treatment, this was, they were going to be trying things, they had a team of individuals, maybe it was like 10 or 15 of them, and they’re actually studying my case on this big screen in this room.

So it was constant medication, it was constant them trying, running the blood test, you were always, always getting blood tests, they were always giving you observations. Someone was always in your room, at least every two hours, checking to see what was going on. I just remember some time sitting in the hospital was just feeling very overwhelmed and definitely feeling isolated alone. I remember one time I was in so much pain, like my bones were hurting me so bad that I literally was just losing my mind in the bed. So they gave me some morphine, which I’ve never taken before in my life, and I wind up throwing up the chemo medication that they gave me. it was just so bad. So, the nurses and I were really overwhelmed at that point. I remember contacting family members and telling them, “I need to get out of here, I feel like they’re just trying whatever they want to try on me, and I don’t think it’s working. I don’t feel this is the place for me, like I need to really get out of here.”

So my doctor who was actually giving a seminar in Switzerland was just like…he was really amazing. He said to me, he said, “You are my prize patient. I am working every day really hard trying to get you back to being your 100 percent yourself,” He said, “You’re always like a light of sunshine.” The women that he worked with are always looking in the patient portal, and they’re like, “Shirley is coming in,” like, “Oh my gosh, she’s coming today.” And they’re excited because I always maintained a great attitude, and I always came in there dressed up.

So my doctor also recommended it when my treatment, a hospital stay was over for me to practice on taking out walks and exercising, yoga was very good meditation, they told me to get all these apps on my phone and therapeutic massages, those have been like a savior for me. I think having a good support system around you is extremely important, people who understand. Never be afraid to tell people what exactly you are experiencing. The mental fatigue that you go through is really unpredictable, and it’s off because that was not something that they, that no one prepared you for. So my doctor and his colleagues, they were just one of the greatest teams that I have experienced, them being very transparent about what was going on with me, even when I was at one time being very stubborn, I got so upset that I pulled the IV out of my arm and I was like, “You know what, I’m not doing this, I’m tired. I’ve got to get out of this hospital. I can’t stay here.”

I mean, people were just so sick, and this is not me. And they had to assure me, “It is you. You are sick, and you do have a blood cancer, and the sooner you come to terms with that, the more calm you’re going to be in being susceptible to accepting treatment. We’re here to help you, but we need you to tell us if something is not working, you don’t feel good on what’s going on in your body, we need to know.” The blood tests don’t lie, they tell them exactly what’s happening, the doctors know if the treatment is working, they monitor the CLL extremely closely. They were way more advanced at honing in on the type of treatment that I needed, so I was really assured that you’re in the right hands, and after when I started feeling a little bit better, then my trust totally opened up in staff, because I saw that they were excited about my treatment working. They were giving me the three combinations of chemo, and they were like, “This combination is working for you now.”

They started a new trial which was bringing in venetoclax (Venclexta) along with the rituximab (Rituxan), and that is what really started sending me on a better path, getting better. And then once I came off of the rituximab, which was an IV-infused chemo treatment, they decided to just keep me on the pill form of venetoclax, I was able to go into the office, which I was ecstatic about.

Advice I like to give to patients who are considering a clinical trial is definitely ask a lot of questions. Don’t be afraid, don’t be shy or hesitant and don’t feel like you feel like you’re ignorant. And always address it with a positive attitude. Keep in mind that they are there for your best interests and trying to get your health back to normalcy. Just know that you’re not in it alone. And always find someone that you can always have a conversation with if you don’t feel comfortable. Never be afraid to ask questions and just even if you do look different as opposed to everyone else that… and just get that everyone else that is sick. Don’t feel like you’re in it alone, regardless of how you look for what your demographic background is, just know that the team that’s there that’s in place is always fighting for you, and you can always say no or get a second opinion. That’s very important to know that you have options.

So, never feel afraid to ask about the clinical trials and do your research, it’s important. It’s inspiring to see people on the leukemia organization website that are exercising, they go for runs right after they receive treatment, that inspired me to say, I’m going to out and take the dog out for a walk or go out for a run and help myself get better,” and it works. It works, it really does.