Tag Archive for: MPN treatments

What Patients Should Know About Developing MPN Treatments and Research

What Patients Should Know About Developing MPN Treatments and Research from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

MPN expert Dr. Gabriela Hobbs provides an update on developments in myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) treatment and research. Dr. Hobbs explains how clinical trials and global research collaborations advance MPN care.

Dr. Gabriela Hobbs is a hematology-oncology physician specializing in the care of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), chronic myeloid leukemia and leukemia. Dr. Hobbs serves as clinical director of the adult leukemia service at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn more about Dr. Gaby Hobbs.

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Transcript:

Katherine:

Hello and welcome. I’m Katherine Banwell, your host for today’s program. Today we’re going to discuss the advancements in MPN research through clinical trials. Before we get into the discussion, please remember that this program is not a substitute for seeking medical advice. Please refer to your healthcare team about what might be best for you. Well, let’s meet our guest today. Joining me is Dr. Gabby Hobbs. Dr. Hobbs, welcome. Would you please introduce yourself? 

Dr. Hobbs:

Hi, how are you? Thank you so much for having me. My name is Gabby Hobbs. I’m the clinical director of the Adult Leukemia Service at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. And I dedicate my clinical time and research efforts to the care of patients with Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.  

Katherine:

Thank you so much for taking the time to join us today.  

Dr. Hobbs:

Thank you.  

Katherine:

I’d like to start by discussing your role as an MPN researcher. You’re on the front lines for advancements in the field. What led you to there and why is it so important to you?  

Dr. Hobbs:

Many things in my life led me to becoming an MPN clinician. First, I wanted to be a clinical investigator since I was very little, and I read a Louis Pasteur book about – you know. And I was fascinated by the fact that you could be both a scientist and a clinician. And after that, I had phenomenal teachers and mentors. And I was really always drawn to patients with hematologic malignancies. I thought that that interaction was very intense and intimate.  

And I was honored to be a part of that interaction. And then from a research perspective and from a scientific perspective, I very clearly remember seeing when the first targeted therapy, Imatinib, was approved when I was an undergrad. And I just thought that was the most fascinating thing. And so, I’ve basically continued to feel that way as I’ve gone through my training and I’m thrilled to be able to have actually become an MPN clinician so many years later.  

Katherine:

With the American Society of Hematology or ASH meeting taking place this month, it demonstrates how researchers work together around the world to advance care.   

Can you share with the audience how this collaboration works?  

Dr. Hobbs:

Yeah. So, the American Society of Hematology meeting – or the ASH meeting – is really one of my favorite events of the year.  

And it really highlights what you said. It is such a positive environment, and it’s so exciting to use that opportunity to talk to my collaborators from across the globe. And I really think that that’s where the scientific community shines because really all of us are actually trying to figure out how to work together and overcome sometimes a lot of obstacles – bureaucratic obstacles, regulatory obstacles – to make sure that we can share data, do it the right way. But really we always have one thing in mind.  

And that is to be able to advance the care that we give our patients. And so, that collaboration and really that collaborative environment is always very positive. And I always come back home very energized from that. And then just seeing all my colleagues presenting all the wonderful things that they are working on and getting updates on their research is just an exciting environment.   

Katherine:

In your view, why is it essential to present and share data at these larger conferences like ASH? 

 Dr. Hobbs:

So, for many different reasons. I mean, there are many different ways of presenting data that can be done through just publishing a paper. But the nice thing about conferences – and especially large conferences – is that you really get an opportunity to present work in progress. And some of these research projects may not end up turning into bigger projects or they may not become bigger trials. But all of them have at least an opportunity to learn something from them, whether or not they worked or they didn’t work.  

Oftentimes when things are published in journals, especially the high-impact journals, we are seeing trials that had positive results. But sometimes we don’t see those smaller trials that never went anywhere. And so, having a forum when we can discuss work that’s ongoing, discuss about projects that are maybe having issues, all those things actually really help us to change our research questions or develop new research questions based on what’s working and also really what’s not working. And so, having this large forum to present all of that data, I think, is really, really important to helping us design future clinical trials and projects.  

Katherine:

Yeah. Well, this is a great way to begin our clinical trial discussion, Dr. Hobbs. This research all requires MPN patients to participate in clinical trials. So, what should be considered when deciding whether to join a trial? 

Dr. Hobbs:

What a great question. Many things need to be considered when joining a trial. And I think some patients are really eager to join a trial, and they just need to be aware that they may be either too healthy, or they may have other things going on that may not make them eligible.  

And that’s okay. There are actually many ways of participating in research, even if it’s not a clinical trial that requires a medicine. For example, we often can send patients to what’s called a tissue bank where they have patients just give a sample of blood.  

So, patients can participate in research in many different ways. When considering whether or not a patient should enroll in an actual clinical trial with a new medicine, I think it’s really important for the patients to be informed and to not be afraid to ask questions. First, what is a clinical trial? Second, what will this trial involve? Is this a drug that has never been given to people before, or is this a drug that has already undergone many different clinical trials? And this trial that’s being offered is a Phase III trial where the purpose of the study is to get the drug to be approved.  

So, I think learning about the risk of the study, how it’s been utilized. And also the other more practical things. What is the time commitment of this clinical trial? How often are you going to have to be going to the office because of the clinical trial? Because there’s certainly a big investment in the part of the patients in terms of their time. Participating in a clinical trial most of the time requires more time than not participating in a clinical trial. That’s not always the case. There are some studies that definitely don’t require that many visits.  

But most clinical trials will require at least something extra from the patient. And I think it’s really important to ask about that, to read the consent that’s given to the patients. Oftentimes these consents are very long.  

And so, they can be overwhelming. I personally find them overwhelming. And I review a lot of those consents. And so, I think taking a minute to really ask those questions, speaking to the research staff, and getting the clarification on that is really important.  

Like you said, it is impossible to approve new therapies and improve the care that we offer our patients without patients participating in the clinical trial. But that doesn’t mean that absolutely every single patient needs to participate in a clinical trial if it just doesn’t make sense for them. [14:17]  

Katherine:

There have been huge developments in the last 10 to 15 years in the field of MPN. So, I’d like to dig a little deeper. We hear about the common driver mutations in MPNs like JAK2, CALR, and MPL. How are these being studied , and what is being discovered? 

Dr. Hobbs:

Yeah. So, it’s amazing how in the last 15 years really so much has been discovered. You know. The JAK2 mutation was first published out in 2005 and calreticulin in 2013. So, those are relatively recent discoveries. And I think a lot of efforts has been put into learning about what these mutations are doing and how they lead to disease. And so, we have the JAK inhibitors, which block the signaling through a pathway called JAK-STAT. And all of these mutations will activate that pathway within cells.  

And so, many of the approved drugs, for example, ruxolitinib (Jakafi), fedratinib (Inrebic), and pacritinib (Vonjo), work on blocking that pathway.  

But since then we’ve also learned that there are other mutations and other pathways that are likely involved in the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms and also their progression. And so, what we’re seeing now is that many of the clinical trials that are being conducted don’t just target the JAK-STAT pathway or the pathway that’s influenced by these main mutations.  

But also block other pathways to try to really block all the variant expression of signaling in the myeloproliferative neoplasms. And so, we’re trying to attack it by many different angles.  

Katherine:

Yeah. Is there a possibility of specific targeted therapies at MPNs similar to those in AML such as FLT3 inhibitors? 

Dr. Hobbs:

Absolutely. So, similarly to AML, we know that we have mutations in similar types of genes called tyrosine kinases. So, these are enzymes that are turned on and always active. And so, I think there is definitely hope that we can develop some targeted agents. For example, ruxolitinib or the other JAK inhibitors are similar. They’re tyrosine kinase inhibitors where they block an enzyme, specifically the JAK2 enzyme.  

But I think that we can definitely do better and develop more specific inhibitors, for example, a molecule that just blocks the JAK2 mutation and not just every JAK2 molecule in every cell. Similarly to AML, there are mutations, for example, in enzymes called IDH.  

And we have IDH inhibitors for AML. And there are some studies that are using IDH inhibitors for MPN. So, I think we’re going to continue to see more targeted therapies specific to the mutations that occur in MPN.  

Katherine:

Yeah. Let’s talk about ET for a moment. Is there any research being done to help better manage this condition? 

Dr. Hobbs:

Yeah. I would say that of the three MPNs, ET is certainly the one that has the least amount of drugs that are being currently studied for this group. But that doesn’t mean that there isn’t any research. Ropeginterferon (Besremi), which was recently approved in polycythemia vera, is now being studied in essential thrombocythemia.  

So, I would expect in the next couple of years, if those trials are successful, to have ropeginterferon as a therapy to offer patients. There is also a clinical trial that we have at our site.  

We’re using ruxolitinib or Jakafi for patients with ET that have symptoms of their disease to see if it can help them in the same way that it can help PV or myelofibrosis patients. So, there’s definitely some research going on in ET. But probably less than for PV and myelofibrosis.  

Katherine:

Mm-hmm. While ET is typically well-managed, what patient type might benefit from joining a trial? 

Dr. Hobbs:

It really depends on what the patient is experiencing. I think there are some patients that really are very asymptomatic and can expect to have an excellent outcome with their disease. But they can also participate in research, for example, by participating in a tissue bank and offering a sample of their blood or if they have a bone marrow by offering some bone marrow if there’s extra. Because that can really help to understand the disease biology, if a patient is going to progress from ET to myelofibrosis.  

So, we can learn a lot from that. But then there are maybe some ET patients that need to be on a medication to reduce their blood counts or a cytoreductive agent.  

And that’s a patient that could ask about participation in a clinical trial. For example, the ropeginterferon study or, like I mentioned, there may be some patients that maybe are already on a medication and their blood counts aren’t well controlled on the first drug that was used.  

So, before considering switching to a second-line agent or a second medication, that could inquire with their clinician if there’s a clinical trial available for second-line use. Or those patients that have a lot of symptoms with ET, they could potentially be eligible for a study that addresses just symptoms.  

Katherine:

Right. That’s really good news. I’m glad you talked about that.  

Dr. Hobbs:

Mm-hmm.  

Katherine:

There was recently an interferon approved for use in patients with PV. What other studies are showing promise for patients with PV?  

Dr. Hobbs:

Yeah. So, we as a community, there’s been a lot of excitement about this new interferon that was approved, the ropeginterferon study. And there are still some ongoing studies utilizing ropeginterferon to see if we can use it differently. Because currently the way that that drug is approved is that it has to be titrated up very slowly to get to the maximum dose. So, that’s something that is still ongoing. In addition, there’s a new drug that’s being studied called Rusfertide (PTG-300) from a company called Protagonist. And this drug has been very interesting. It acts through iron metabolism.   

And so far in preliminary results, it has shown that a lot of the participants that receive this medication no longer need phlebotomy. And I think what’s exciting about this is that phlebotomy is a very archaic way of treating patients.  

And I hope that we can stop utilizing it. So, it’s nice to have a compound that’s specifically asking that question. And the other thing to keep in mind is that this drug has been used in combination with other drugs, which is really reflective of how participants or patients show up to clinics.  

Some patients are not going to be on any medications. Some patients may be on hydroxyurea.  

Some patients may be on an interferon. Some patients may be on Jakafi. And these trials allow participants to be on a variety of different medications. So, that’s an exciting new compound.  

Katherine:

What about myelofibrosis, Dr. Hobbs? What advances are being made in the care of patients with this more advanced MPN?  

Dr. Hobbs:

Yeah. So, in myelofibrosis, I would say it is almost difficult to keep track of how many clinical trials are currently open. So, in 2011, we had ruxolitinib approved, or Jakafi. That was the first JAK inhibitor. Since then we’ve had two more JAK inhibitors approved, fedratinib and most recently pacritinib. And we’re currently awaiting the fourth JAK inhibitor to be approved, and that’s called momelotinib.   

And in addition to the JAK inhibitors, there are lots of other clinical trials underway right now that are either alone – a drug by itself or a drug in combination with ruxolitinib.  

So, there are several Phase III studies. And the reason why that’s important is that after Phase III we usually see a drug approval. So, we can expect, hopefully in the next couple of years, to see many more drugs available on the market to treat patients with myelofibrosis. Some of those include agents that block different pathways within a cell. And that includes a drug called parsaclisib. There’s a drug called pelabresib, which is a BET inhibitor.  

There’s another drug called navitoclax, which is a cousin of venetoclax (Venclexta), which is a drug that we’ve been using a lot in leukemia. So, there’s lots of different drugs that are being used in combination with Ruxolitinib. There’s also a drug called luspatercept (Reblozyl) that’s also been approved for myelodysplastic syndromes. And I suspect that that’ll be approved as well to help patients with anemia. So, really, there’s lots of drugs that are being studied right now. And I think the question that we’re all asking is, well, how are we going to use all of these different drugs? So, I look forward to seeing the results of those studies.  

Katherine:

Mm-hmm. Will some drugs work better for some patients and others not? 

Dr. Hobbs:

That is such a good question. And so, what I’m hoping to see is exactly that. I’m hoping to see that for patients, for example with anemia, perhaps we’re going to be using luspatercept and momelotinib. Perhaps we’re going to see that patients with certain mutations may respond better to certain medications like the BET inhibitors or navitoclax or the PI3 kinase inhibitor, parsaclisib. But as of now, we don’t have enough information.  

We haven’t seen enough results of these studies to start to be able to know, you know, what is the patient that’s going to do better with two drugs versus one drug? And so, I think that over the next couple of years we’re going to start to have answers to those questions.  

Katherine:

Yeah. I’d like to get specific about your research. What are you excited about right now? 

Dr. Hobbs:

A few different things. There’s a clinical trial that I’ve been leading for several years now that got somewhat delayed due to the pandemic that’s utilizing ruxolitinib before, during, and after transplantation for patients with Myelofibrosis.  

And that study is hopefully going to finish accrual in the next couple of months. So, I’m excited to see the results of that study. That study was presented at ASH of last year, the interim results of that study. And so far, we’ve seen exciting results. Patients have done well with transplant while receiving ruxolitinib.  

We’ve seen that patients that have undergone transplant and have received ruxolitinib have had very low rates of a complication of transplant called graft-versus-host disease.   

And that’s been very exciting, because we know that graft-versus-host disease is really very difficult to deal with after transplant. It can really impact quality of life. And so, that’s been exciting to see that we can help our patients to better tolerate this difficult treatment. On the complete opposite end of the spectrum, we’re treating patients that have low-risk essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera with ruxolitinib also to see if their quality of life can improve.  

We know that patients with ET and PV live with a lot of symptoms. And often times patients that are considered low-risk can still have a lot of symptoms. And therapies haven’t really specifically been studied just to improve symptoms. Really, therapies are usually used to reduce the risk of having blood clots.  

Katherine:

What about checkpoint inhibitors? You’ve done a study about that? Or it’s ongoing? 

Dr. Hobbs:

Yes. Great question. So, a few years ago we utilized a checkpoint inhibitor called Pembrolizumab for patients with advanced myeloproliferative neoplasms. And that study was open at Mass General and also at Mount Sinai. We were worried that it wouldn’t be well tolerated. But it was actually very well tolerated. But unfortunately patients didn’t have a response. And a group at MD Anderson utilized another checkpoint inhibitor, Nivolumab, for these patients. And similarly they also didn’t see a response.  

So, that was disappointing. However, I do think that there is a role for immunotherapy in patients with MPNs. I think that we probably need to think about utilizing the checkpoint inhibitors maybe earlier or maybe in combination with other agents. This has been done, for example, in solid tumors where two checkpoint inhibitors are sometimes utilized together. So, I think their area of investigation is still worth pursuing even though that was a disappointing result.  

Katherine:

Yeah. Yeah. Any other research that’s going on that you’re doing? 

Dr. Hobbs:

Yeah. We are looking forward to opening some clinical trials using different drugs in combination with ruxolitinib to offer different treatments to our patients up front. And so, instead of offering just single-agent JAK inhibitor, we can combine that with one of the new agents. And so, I’m looking forward to seeing how that’s going to work for my patients and to be able to offer them another treatment. I’m also thinking of developing a clinical trial for use in patients that have clonal hematopoiesis.  

So, patients that have this entity called CHIP where they have a JAK2 mutation but maybe don’t have overt disease. We know that they have a high rate of transformation to an actual MPN. So, we’re working to develop clinical trials for those patients with the hope of maybe preventing the MPN from ever happening. 

Katherine:

That’s great. We have some questions from the audience that were sent in prior to the program. Carl asks, “Are MPNs inherited? And why does one sibling develop an MPN and the other does not?”  

Dr. Hobbs:

Great question. So, historically, we’ve always said MPNs are very rarely inherited. Now that we’re able to test for JAK2 mutations more commonly, we have, I think over the last decades, probably found that there are more families where the MPNs kind of run in the family.  

Katherine:

Mm-hmm.  

Dr. Hobbs:

Generally speaking, it’s very rare for MPNs to run in the family. I would say less than 10 percent of the case. And this is why a sibling can have an MPN and one doesn’t, even if they’re identical twins.  

Katherine:

Is research being done to learn more about who may be at risk for developing an MPN? 

Dr. Hobbs:

So, over the list, there’s been a lot of attention placed on this entity called clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential. And through those types of investigations, we’ve learned that people can actually live with a JAK2 mutation for many years, even decades, before they develop a myeloproliferative neoplasm. And so, indirectly, I think that type of research will help us understand why some people get the JAK2 mutation to begin with and what else needs to happen in a patient’s life for that person to develop an MPN.  

Because clearly there are many more people walking around with a JAK2 mutation than there are people with an actual MPN. So, there’s something else other than that JAK2 mutation that predisposes patients to then develop an MPN.  

Katherine:

Angela has another question. “What are the long-term effects of JAK inhibitors? And what happens when JAK inhibitors are no longer effective?” 

Dr. Hobbs:

Yeah. Great question. So, so far the patients that have been on JAK inhibitors for a long time don’t seem to have the development of additional toxicities that we didn’t know about. So, I’ll just comment on some of the things that we do know about. Weight gain is a common complaint that I have from patients, especially those that have polycythemia vera, because maybe they didn’t want to gain weight when they were put on a JAK inhibitor compared to the myelofibrosis patients who maybe had lost a lot of weight before being on a JAK inhibitor.  

There are certainly higher risk probably of developing infections with some of the JAK inhibitors. And we see, for example, shingles reactivation being a common one. And there’s the concern of development of skin cancers, which has been seen with some JAK inhibitors. But generally speaking, long-term use seems to be safe. That being said, ruxolitinib, which is the oldest one to be approved, has only been around since 2011, so we don’t have decades worth of experience to know.   

When JAK inhibitors stop working – to answer the second part of your question – until fairly recently we really didn’t have a whole lot to offer because there was only one JAK inhibitor. Now we have two others. We have fedratinib and also pacritinib. And we know from the studies that have been done with both of these agents that some patients that lose response to Jakafi, meaning that their spleen starts to grow or their symptoms start to come back, can be treated with these other JAK inhibitors.   

And many patients will, again, have control of their spleen and symptoms. Now losing response to a JAK inhibitor can come in many different ways. And so, some patients may also develop signs of having leukemia or progression of their disease to leukemia. And, unfortunately, for those patients, being on another JAK inhibitor doesn’t make sense. So, those patients may need to receive other types of medications or a stem cell transplant.   

Katherine:

Mm-hmm. Gary has two questions for you. The first is, “How useful is having a genetic panel done? Should all patients get molecular or genetic testing?” 

Dr. Hobbs:

Great question. And I think that it is very important to have genetic testing.  

And genetic testing involves more than just testing the JAK2 mutation. So, we know that the JAK2 mutation is the most common mutation in patients with MPN. But that being said, there are other mutations that also occur such as the calreticulin mutation and the MPL mutation. And so, I think having genetic testing that at least tests for those three mutations is very important so that we can actually help a patient know that they have an MPN. In addition to those three main mutations, many clinicians now have access to what’s called extended next-generation sequencing, where there’s a panel that tests for many different genes at the same time and can test for a variety of other mutations.  

And this is particularly relevant for patients with myelofibrosis. As we know that having other mutations, like, for example, mutations in IDH or ASXL1 and others, can increase the risk of that disease in terms of its risk of transforming to leukemia or how long a patient may live with their myelofibrosis. 

And so, I do recommend having extended next-generation sequencing done at least at diagnosis.  

When I generally think about repeating that, if there’s something that looks like it’s changing within the patient’s disease, to be honest, also on the flipside of that argument, sometimes this next-generation sequencing will mostly contribute to adding anxiety and will not necessarily directly impact how a patient is treated. And this is particularly true in patients with PV and ET, where we’ll sometimes order these tests, and we get a bunch of mutations back, but we don’t know what to do with that information yet.   

And so, as a researcher – not a clinician – as a researcher, I think it’s very important to have that information so that we can then do studies and understand the patterns of mutations and how that affects outcome. But as a clinician, and you as a patient, you need to really be aware of how that’s going to impact the patient in front of you and how that may impact you as a patient. Do you want to know if you have these mutations if nothing can be done about it? So, I would say, take a moment to reflect upon what I said and also to ask your clinician, how is this information going to help me? Do I need to have this information?  

Maybe you want to have it done so that it’s in your record. But maybe you don’t necessarily want to know those results. And everybody’s very different. And I think it’s absolutely wonderful to talk to my patients about all the information. But there may be some patients that really are just, like, do the test but don’t tell me the results, because I know that I’m just going to be very anxious knowing that I have something that I can’t do anything about. So, just take a minute to talk about it with your doctors. I think that’s really important.  

Katherine:

Yeah. Yeah. Here’s Gary’s second question. “Is allele burden a key predictor of progression?” And before you answer that, Dr. Hobbs, what does “allele burden” mean, and how does it impact progression? 

Dr. Hobbs:

Great questions. And I hope that in the next couple years I have a much better answer for you. So, maybe I’ll come back again and maybe we can talk about this again. So, allele burden – just simply put – is basically, like, how many of the stem cells in your bone marrow have that JAK2 mutation. And that’s a concept that’s not obvious. So, not all of a patient’s blood with an MPN has that JAK2 mutation. There are some stem cells that have the JAK2 mutation and produce JAK2-mutated blood. And then there are some stem cells that are normal that just make normal blood and don’t have a JAK2 mutation.  

And so, we can measure, what is a proportion of cells in the blood that has that JAK2 mutation? Now the next question should be very obvious and straightforward. But it really is not. So, what do we do with allele burden, and how do we measure that, and what does it mean if the allele burden goes up or it goes down? At this moment, we don’t necessarily know that. There have been some studies showing that maybe higher JAK2 mutation burden is maybe associated with progression or more with PV as opposed to ET.  

And we’d all like to think that lowering that JAK2 mutation level or that JAK2 allele burden has to be good and maybe will decrease progression or improve survival. We haven’t seen that yet. And so, I think we’re all really waiting to see, what does it mean to lower that JAK2 allele burden? And then how often should we be measuring that? But right now we really don’t know.  

Katherine:

Yeah. One more question for you. This one from Joseph. “I have PV and had adverse side effects from peginterferon alfa-2a (Pegasys). Is it likely that similar side effects would be experienced with Besremi?” 

Dr. Hobbs:

Good question. It’s hard to know. And it really depends on the severity of the side effects that you had and the type of side effect that you had. In my experience, ropeginterferon or Besremii is very well-tolerated compared to the other interferons that were available. But if you really had a severe side effect it may be difficult to consider trying it. But it’s worth considering it. I’ve definitely had patients that have gone from Pegasys to ropeginterferon without any difficulty. But just because you had a bad side effect to one doesn’t mean that you’ll have a bad side effect to the other.  

Katherine:

This is from Paul who lives in the United Kingdom. “How important is it to see an MPN specialist rather than a general hematologist? Right now I’m currently seeing a general hematologist who makes a note of my side effects but offers no coping strategies or solutions.” 

Dr. Hobbs:

Yeah. That is a great question. And one with not one answer. I would say that if you’re an MPN patient and you have a clinician that treats you that feels comfortable treating you or you feel heard and you’re being offered different ways of dealing with symptoms or side effects, etc., then perhaps you don’t have to go out of your way to find an MPN clinician. And participating in webinars like this or learning online may be sufficient to know how to advocate for yourself and how to monitor your disease. That being said, I do think that it’s nice for patients to at least have a one-time opinion with a specialist.  

And I would say that with the advent of virtual care, that has become increasingly more accessible. And so, if that’s something that’s available to you, that’s something you should consider. You know. Sometimes it’s very difficult to travel a long distance to meet with a specialist. But if you can avoid the travel by having a virtual visit, that often times can be very helpful in just knowing that you’ve met with somebody once. And then you can meet with that person periodically throughout your care can be very helpful. And I’ll tell you personally I see patients in the neighboring states to where I live.  

And I like to see those patients periodically or communicate with their local providers. And so, it just helps to offer care that’s very specialized in maybe areas of the country that don’t necessarily have access to specialized care. So, I would encourage patients to seek that out if that’s something that they’re interested in because it’s really become, I think, easier to access the specialists.  

Katherine:

Thank you for your thoughtful responses. And viewers please continue to send in your questions to question@powerfulpatients.org. Before we end the program, Dr. Hobbs, I’d like to hear why you’re hopeful about the future MPN care.   

Dr. Hobbs:

Thank you so much. Those are great questions. I feel very hopeful about the future of MPN. As we mentioned at the beginning of this webinar, the scientific community and the MPN community of clinicians and investigators, it’s such a nice example of how scientists can work together to improve the care of patients. That I always feel very inspired by my colleagues. And now that ASH is around the corner, I can tell you that I feel very hopeful for the future of MPNs because I know that we’re going to learn about a variety of different clinical trials that are showing promising results that are going to ultimately impact the way that we are able to treat our patients with MPN.   

And lastly, I feel very hopeful for the future of MPN because I know that the MPN community is very active. Patients participate in webinars like this, belong to different online groups, and are excellent advocates for themselves. I’ve seen firsthand in my clinic how when a drug gets approved, patients learn about new treatments online and come and ask for them. And so, I just feel very honored to be a clinician that is able to treat a group of patients that can advocate so well for themselves. And so, I definitely see lots of changes in the next couple years.  

Katherine:

This is from Paul who lives in the United Kingdom. “How important is it to see an MPN specialist rather than a general hematologist? Right now I’m currently seeing a general hematologist who makes a note of my side effects but offers no coping strategies or solutions.” 

Dr. Hobbs:

Yeah. That is a great question. And one with not one answer. I would say that if you’re an MPN patient and you have a clinician that treats you that feels comfortable treating you or you feel heard and you’re being offered different ways of dealing with symptoms or side effects, etc., then perhaps you don’t have to go out of your way to find an MPN clinician. And participating in webinars like this or learning online may be sufficient to know how to advocate for yourself and how to monitor your disease. That being said, I do think that it’s nice for patients to at least have a one-time opinion with a specialist.  

And I would say that with the advent of virtual care, that has become increasingly more accessible. And so, if that’s something that’s available to you, that’s something you should consider. You know. Sometimes it’s very difficult to travel a long distance to meet with a specialist. But if you can avoid the travel by having a virtual visit, that often times can be very helpful in just knowing that you’ve met with somebody once. And then you can meet with that person periodically throughout your care can be very helpful. And I’ll tell you personally I see patients in the neighboring states to where I live.  

And I like to see those patients periodically or communicate with their local providers. And so, it just helps to offer care that’s very specialized in maybe areas of the country that don’t necessarily have access to specialized care. So, I would encourage patients to seek that out if that’s something that they’re interested in because it’s really become, I think, easier to access the specialists.   

Katherine:

Mm-hmm. Dr. Hobbs, thank you so much for joining us today.  

Dr. Hobbs:

Thank you so much for having me.  

Katherine:

And thank you to all of our partners. To learn more about MPNs and to access tools to help you become a proactive patient, visit powerfulpatients.org. I’m Katherine Banwell. Thanks for joining us today. 

How Can MPN Patients Become More Proactive in Their Care?

How Can MPN Patients Become More Proactive in Their Care? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

How can MPN patients become more empowered and active in their care? Dr. Claire Harrison from Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospital in London shares advice for patients to gain confidence to become a more active participant for optimal care.

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What Are the Unmet Needs in Access to MPN Care?

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Transcript:

Dr. Nicole Rochester: 

So what advice would you give for patients so that they can really take a proactive approach to their healthcare and feel more confident in talking about their concerns and communicating with their healthcare team, you’ve shared with us how important that is. Do you have maybe two or three specific tips or maybe questions that every MPN patient should ask their healthcare provider?

Dr. Claire Harrison: 

I think the first thing to say is, in my personal view is you do not have to be under an MPN expert to get the best care. I know some people differ with regard to that, but these are chronic conditions, there are national and international guidelines, clinicians are connected. We all talk about patients over time, as we like to do that, we like to get the best for our patients, so a local center with a clinician who you trust, who you get on with…where you can get there easily. You trust their team, you know their logistics work for you, maybe it’s a nurse who work who you get on with, well, who comes to the appointment with you, that is just as good as being under the best professor in the state, where you might not actually see them  when you turn up and go to the unit, so that’s really important, understanding your condition, and if you don’t understand being empowered to ask questions, and if you’re in a position where you can’t ask a question, something’s wrong. So don’t be afraid, take somebody with you, write it down. 

Sometimes it can be a mistake to do a troll on the Internet, so I wouldn’t always encourage that because what’s on the Internet is not always accurate, but go to a trusted website as the clinician…where can I go to find out more information? Some patient advocacy groups run buddy systems that can also be very helpful and it can be very empowering to meet another patient with the same or similar condition, so I think those are all helpful tips from my perspective, also don’t expect to get all the answers all the time, it can be really tricky as a clinician, maybe you get a patient who comes with a big long list of questions, and say What is your top question that you really want answers to. 

Dr. Nicole Rochester:

Those are awesome, awesome tips. I’m just going to repeat a few of them, just to highlight, you mentioned prioritizing your concerns which is incredibly important, and acknowledging that the clinician doesn’t have unlimited time, and so really focusing on the things that concern you the most, you mentioned bringing a buddy to appointments, which is something I fully endorse, so that there’s someone else that’s taking notes or…it can be your eyes and ears during that appointment, things that you may have missed either because of anxiety or stress, and you mentioned writing things down, taking notes, even as the patient asking questions, which is so incredibly important, and really the way that I feel patients demonstrate their involvement in their disease and being an active member of the team, so I really, really appreciate those tips, Dr. Harrison, I think that you have given us so information, so much information about how to empower MPN patients and their families so that they can really get the best care at the outset. 

Advice for Hesitant MPN Clinical Trial Participants

Advice for Hesitant MPN Clinical Trial Participants from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What should MPN patients know about clinical trials? Dr. Claire Harrison from Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospital in London shares information about the varying degrees of clinical trials and advice to those who are hesitant about clinical trials.

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How Can MPN Patients Become More Proactive in Their Care?


Transcript:

Dr. Nicole Rochester: 

It’s said that clinical trials are tomorrow’s medicine today, and you’ve already kind of alluded to the importance of clinical trials as it relates to MPN. What would you say to an MPN patient who is on the fence or may be concerned or afraid of participating in a clinical trial?

Dr. Claire Harrison: 

It’s right to be cautious and, you know, careful because ultimately it’s a huge privilege as a clinician that involves patients in clinical trials that my patients trust me and trust my team to look after them with something that is experimental, but remember there are varying degrees of experimental. Most clinical trials are not first in man, you’re not a complete guinea pig, it may be a drug, for example, navitoclax is in clinical trials mainly for myelofibrosis also ET and PV but that is a drug that has been used for thousands of patients, for another indication so talk to your healthcare team, if you don’t find the answer from the primary person that you’re used to dealing with, find someone else, be linked to somebody you trust and that you have a good relationship with, take someone with you to the consultation, write down the questions I’m so sure you say this all the time, don’t you Nicole to the people that you talk to, but write down your questions, don’t be afraid to ask them again, there is no stupid question in this context, you will be given a 30-plus page booklet to read, and I lost count of the number of times, my patients go, yeah, I’ve got this, or I trust you.

Actually, you know, you need to read it…we are experimenting on you, and you need to read that and understand. And you need to understand, what happens if I go on the control arm, will I be able to cross over? How many visits will I have, will I have to pay for those visits, etcetera. It’s all really important. But ultimately the relationship with your healthcare provider is important, and using an advocate is really important too.

Dr. Nicole Rochester: 

I agree 100 percent. So important, these are things that I talk about all the time, so I really appreciate that you highlighted that, and just the importance of patients taking an active role in their medical care and also the trust that is required between the patient and their treating providers. So I really appreciate that. Do you have any examples, Dr. Harrison, in your own practice of successes with MPN patients who have participated in clinical trials? 

Dr. Claire Harrison: 

Oh yes, I think I started doing clinical trials, well golly, a long time ago. I think my first clinical trial, probably the records were written parchment to be honest, but we’ve still learned a lot from that, so that was an ET study. It was from that study we understood about the JAK2 mutation, and we understood how patients behave differently. I think probably the most gratifying thing for me was being involved in the JAK inhibitor studies in myelofibrosis and being involved in delivering ruxolitinib and Jakafi to patients and seeing the benefits for those patients. 

Big things, you know, there are patients who are alive because they took part in that trial today, I think, but there are also patients for whom small things were also really important, so as a patient, that’s important to define what is the benefit you want to get. So one of my first patients, you haven’t been able to have a bath or a shower for years, because he had terrible what we call aquagenic pruritus, itching induced by contact with water, we called him two days after he started ruxolitinib (Jakafi), and he was in tears, he could take…or you can take it out.

These things are really important. Like myself, I can imagine not being able to dig it out, I would either be very tough for another patient, it was, well, I looked really skinny because I’d lost loads of weight and I put weight on, and body image was really important as well, but then the small things like being able to be…participate more in family activities is really, really important too. 

What Are the Unmet Needs in Access to MPN Care?

What Are the Unmet Needs in Access to MPN Care? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Which areas of MPN care still need improvements to access? MPN expert Dr. Claire Harrison from Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospital in London explains patients who still experience barriers to care and what can be done to reduce access issues.

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Transcript:

Dr. Nicole Rochester: 

What would you say are the unmet needs in access related to MPN and care, specifically as it relates to clinical trials, and what can we do to address those unmet needs?

Dr. Claire Harrison: 

Well, I think there is a problem with rare diseases in terms of geographical access to trials, and we often find patients have to travel a long way. I know that’s true in North America as well as in Europe. And we’re very lucky in our geographical locations, but in some parts of the world, some companies or doing not open clinical trials, so I think there’s an access issue. 

I think also there is something about patients have to meet rigid entry criteria for clinical trials, and so oftentimes in myelofibrosis, for example, commonly patients who fail ruxolitinib (Jakafi) have a lower platelet count, and that is often an exclusion criteria. Those criteria are there to try to get a uniform population of patients in a trial, but it can feel like you’re excluded as a patient, and it can feel very tough and for your health care team that we can’t include you in a clinical trial. We also have to remember that it is there for safety purposes, so if there is a lower limit for platelet count, that’s often because the drug might affect platelet count. It is really important that we have a broad spectrum of trials available and that we try to increase the availability of trials for patients. 

I also want to say a word about inequality of access and thinking about accessing some different ethnicity, so often non-white MPN patients are under-represented in clinical trials, and I know that a focus in the UK and also in North America as well. And it is really important that patients have access to a clinical trial if they need it, and also that we understand how investigational products will work in people of different backgrounds. So for example, we know that probably, Nicole, your blood count assuming it’s a healthy, normal blood count may well be different from mine for background, racial genetic differences, so drug metabolism might be different, so this is really important, and we need to work hard as a community, the clinical community and the patient community to raise awareness and improve access for patients. 

Dr. Nicole Rochester: 

Well, as someone who does a lot of work in health equity, Dr. Harrison, I really appreciate you pointing that out. It’s certainly an issue here in the United States, as you mentioned, differential access to clinical trials, and we’ve learned that not only our patients, often not aware, but often the providers, at least here in the U.S., are not offering clinical trials as an option for patients from marginalized and minoritized communities. So I really appreciate you bringing that up. 

MPN Treatment Strategies for Patients Who Have Failed Traditional Therapies

MPN Treatment Strategies for Patients Who Have Failed Traditional Therapies from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What can be done for MPN patients who have failed on traditional therapies? MPN expert Dr. Claire Harrison from Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospital in London explains some treatments under study as options for some patients.

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Transcript:

Dr. Nicole Rochester: 

What about for patients who have failed therapies, are there any treatment strategies for MPN patients who have failed traditional therapies?

Dr. Claire Harrison: 

Yes, in fact, actually, that’s where we’re evaluating new therapies across all of these entities, so if you’re a PV or an ET patient and you failed a therapy, then this is where, for example, in ET, we would be looking at bomedemstat or we’re looking at the bromodomain inhibitor pelabresib, and there’ll be other agents that we’ll be looking at, or we might be looking at vaccination. And for MF patients that while there are a bunch of different therapies for patients who you have not tolerated or progressed through standard therapy. So actually, there are a lot of options, some of them are already approved, and some of them are in clinical trials. 

How Are MPN Treatments Changing for Low-Risk vs High-Risk Patients?

How Are MPN Treatments Changing for Low-Risk vs High-Risk Patients? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

How do MPN treatments vary for low-risk and high-risk patients? MPN expert Dr. Claire Harrison from Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospital in London explains how treatment differs for these patients and changes that she would like to see for care of some patients. 

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Transcript:

Dr. Nicole Rochester: 

How are treatment strategies changing for low-risk and high-risk patients with MPN?

Dr. Claire Harrison: 

It’s complicated because we need to think across the entities, and we don’t have an answer to that for patients with MPN unclassified. And we don’t actually have a good answer to that for this entity called pre-fibrotic myelofibrosis, which does appear and is strongly recognized in the new diagnostic criteria. But for ET, for example, low-risk patients I mentioned triple-negative, calreticulin, M-positive, young patients, platelets less than 1500, not too much changing their queries about aspirin or not, and then for PV patients, we haven’t really changed all kind of high-risk criteria and for both ET and PV, the questionnaire is, should we use the treatment above aspirin or above aspirin and venesection. 

And for the most part, that would be hydroxycarbamide, hydroxyurea (Hydrea), which is the commonest treatment used worldwide or interferon, and these are the right treatment for some patients and not the right treatment for other patients, so some patients can be very fixated on interferon is the absolute best, but there is no clear evidence of that, and there are some patients who interferon is not the right treatment, but low versus high risk becomes even more important for myelofibrosis patients.

And here, we’re thinking about using a risky strategy like transplantation for those patients who have higher risk disease, and we’re using, as I mentioned to you, these molecular markers and newer prognostic tools to stratify patients. And it is important to remember as a patient if someone puts your data into a prognostic tool and that comes up with five years, but it doesn’t mean to say five years on the dot your time’s up, that’s an average. And if we put your data into a slightly different tool, we might get something else. So for the most part, we make decisions like transplants, we are learning more about transplantation and outcomes from that, and then in some countries, some treatments are used for patients who fall into intermediate or high-risk categories, and some clinical trials are based on that as well. I would want to say about myelofibrosis, and something I think I would really like to see changed, not changing yet, but changed, is that we should be able to intervene for patients with a low-risk disease. If my myelofibrosis patients have breast cancer, we would not be going there, then you’ve got low-risk disease, we’ll put you on watch and wait, watch and wait is really hard for our patients, we know that I can see you nodding.

You know that too, right? So if these were patients with breast cancer we would not say, we’ll just watch and wait. So I would really like to see in the next five to 10 years a treatment that we could use earlier in the disease course, but there is nothing at the moment, but we’re looking at that. The other thing we’re looking at, if we’ve got a minute or so is the different endpoint, so we’re trying to understand what does it mean if your allele burden, so the amount of abnormal genes you’ve got goes down, the amount of bone marrow fibrosis you’ve got goes down. And again, this is something we’ll collect in a clinical trial, but also from real-world data. 

How Can MPN Patients Stay Up to Date With New Treatments?

How Can MPN Patients Stay Up to Date With New Treatments? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What are some ways for MPN patients to stay updated on new treatments? MPN expert Dr. Claire Harrison from Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospital in London shares resources for MPN treatment news and the benefits that data sharing brings for all MPN patients.

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Transcript:

Dr. Nicole Rochester: 

Dr. Harrison, how can patients best keep up with the new treatments and communicate with their doctors in a way that makes sure that they have access to these new therapies?

Dr. Claire Harrison: 

Well, I think patient advocacy groups are really important here, and use of social media and the Internet, you’re only a few clicks away from updated data, programs like these, but you also have to trust your team and trust your doctor. We all have to keep up to date. That is a professional requirement, and we also are all networked, so I’d probably get 10 to 15 emails a day from colleague saying, “Hi Claire, can I talk to you about this?” There was an email just the other day about a patient in Washington, actually a very young child, we are all connected. 

We all want the best for our patients. But do you remember that you can contribute as a patient to advance this in your field, and I know many patients are really interested in this, if you are asked to submit in a blood sample, giving permission for us to use your data. So if we can touch maybe on the field of real-world data and real-world data collection here would be good, so what on the real world data? What does that mean? And so this is becoming a really important way that’s recognized by the FDA and other approval agencies in the world, so in Europe, we have EMEA, for example, and in the UK, we have NHRA as a way of collecting data on agents, so once they are approved, we collect data with regard to how the patients do. 

We’ve traditionally done this, but increasingly, as we use electronic data for our patients, we’re more able to collect real-world data, how does my patient who is with myelofibrosis on ruxolitinib (Jakafi) in my clinic inside East London do? So if we can pull that data, we learn a lot more about how these agents are working in patients outside of clinical trial, so you will be contributing if you allow us to collect that kind of data, we discovered JAK2 mutations, CALR mutations, etcetera from samples collected from patients and data. If you want to be part of a clinical trial, then by all means, ask your healthcare team, many MPN centers have lists of trials, and you can always look at clinicaltrials.gov, but boy you throw up a lot of different options when you search in that…on that website. 

Dr. Nicole Rochester: 

Thank you. I think it’s important to talk about real-world data because in this day and age, many of us are very protective about our personal health information and we should be, but as you stated, having access to that data is really a key way to advance the science and technology in the treatment of some of these conditions, so I really appreciate you sharing that.

Dr. Claire Harrison: 

I think just to point out, and I’m sure the audience is acutely aware of what did we learn about COVID? We learned an awful lot about COVID from real-world data from all you MPN patients who gave samples, who told us about how you did with COVID, that’s how we learned about what happened to patients during COVID with MPN, how they responded to vaccination, etcetera. It’s really powerful. And your data will be anonymized, it won’t be linked back to you, Nicole Rochester, or me, Claire Harrison it will be completely anonymous. 

What Is in the Treatment Pipeline for Patients With MPNs?

What Is in the Treatment Pipeline for Patients With MPNs? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What does the MPN treatment pipeline hold for patients? MPN expert Dr. Claire Harrison from Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospital in London shares insight about future treatments and the outlook for care.

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Transcript:

Dr. Nicole Rochester: 

Can you share a little about what’s in the robust pipeline of potential therapies for patients with MPN, what is it that you’re excited about? And is the future bright in this area?

Dr. Claire Harrison: 

I think the future is really bright from the point of view of de-escalating treatment as well as newer treatment, so I think it’s important to point that because all treatments have potential complications inside of it, so as we understand that some of these conditions may have very low risk for patients, it’s important to understand that, and de-intensify, I call that calreticulin (post ET?), I would also call out ET, essential thrombocythemia, which lacks a known driver mutation, so-called triple-negative ET, emerging data suggests that may have very low risk for patients, but what you all want to hear about, of course, is what’s new treatment-wise. 

So I think just to call out, I’m really excited that there will be a new trial this year for ET patients with Bomedemstat, which is an LSD-1 inhibitor, new target, new molecule. We’ve been testing it in myelofibrosis and we’ve tested it now in a bunch of patients with ET, and it seems to be very efficiently reducing the platelet count not affecting hemoglobin and patients appear to get a good benefit with regard to fatigue, which we know is the number one symptom for patients with MPN, so I’m excited about that because it’s been a long time since we’ve had a new treatment for patients with ET. And then for patients with PV, increasingly across the globe, the availability of this newer formulation of interferon, Besremi is becoming more available and the latest data with that agent suggests that it may be superior to standard therapy such as hydroxyurea, hydroxycarbamide in terms of clotting, et cetera, is really important.

Interestingly, and we may both have to think back to our med school days on this, we’ve been targeting the iron pathway for patients with PV. So I always tell my patients with PV, do not let anyone give you iron tablets without speaking to one of our team because that’s like putting oxygen on the fire, it’s like feeding the red cell production. So there is a new agent called Rusfertide PTG-300, which targets the iron pathway and allows iron to build up in the body, but it doesn’t allow it to get to the bone marrow and so, this is a new treatment for PV patients, which might reduce the need for iron removal by phlebotomy or venesection, and has been also shown to give symptomatic benefit, and then of course, there’s a bunch of new treatments for patients with myelofibrosis, that’s probably the busiest part of the portfolio at the moment. 

We’ve just seen positive data with me momelotinib, which is one of the fourth JAK inhibitors, very strong data from the MOMENTUM  study, good results in patients even with low platelet counts down to 25, and then I’m really excited to see strong data coming with navitoclax and pelabresib, which are other agents targeted at are the pathways in myelofibrosis. And then finally, in Denmark, they’ve been looking at vaccination strategies, and I know my patients are really interested in vaccination and gene editing. I don’t have anything new to say on gene editing), but I do have something new to say on vaccination.

So in Denmark, they’ve been looking at producing a vaccination against the calreticulin mutation, Nicole, because it’s expressed on the surface of the blood cells, so antibodies can find it. So this is ongoing, no positive result as yet, but it’s still ongoing and there are newer taking off with regards to vaccination structures, and I think that’s really exciting.  

New Developments in MPN Treatment Landscape

New Developments in MPN Treatment Landscape from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

For the MPN treatment landscape, what are the latest developments? MPN expert Dr. Claire Harrison from Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospital in London shares how the treatment landscape is changing and diagnostic criteria to be published on how each specific diagnosis should be used to optimize care.

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Transcript:

Dr. Nicole Rochester: 

Dr. Harrison, we know that the treatment landscape for MPNs is rapidly changing and keeping up with the pace of the developments can be challenging both for healthcare professionals and certainly for patients and their families, so I was wondering if you can give us a general overview of the treatment landscape and maybe highlight anything that’s new and in development that you think would be helpful for the audience.

Dr. Claire Harrison: 

Well, sure, I think this is obviously really interesting, very important. It’s a fast-moving field. And one of the first changes actually completely hot off the press is a brand new diagnostic criteria that has been produced by two separate groups that are shortly about to be published kind of just seeing pre-published and those of us that have been privileged to be involved, have seen them. So that’s going to really focus the mind of clinicians on how do we achieve the diagnosis, and that’s the first thing that’s really important, get an accurate diagnosis, don’t just accept well, you’ve got an MPN, actually, it’s really important to know what type you’ve got. Maybe as much do you tell as possible in terms of the genetic mutation or change that underlies the disease, because that is increasingly important in what we call prognostication, understanding what the risk of events happening due to the disease actually is. 

When we make a diagnosis, we sometimes can’t be accurate, and we might have to go back and revisit them, so some patients don’t get a PV, ET, or MF diagnosis, they might get an MPN unclassified. That’s okay, but it’s important to keep revisiting that. Once we’ve made a diagnosis, then it’s really important to think about what the risk is to the patient, and we’ve had some changes to our risk classifications recently, right from the ET end of the spectrum where we’re thinking more and more actually, those patients who are under the age of 60 with a lower count and the CALR mutation, do we even need to give you aspirin, because we might be increasing the risk of bleeding. 

To the other end of the spectrum for patients with myelofibrosis, a more aggressive disease, we want to know more about your mutational profile, so we’re doing more powerful genomic tests and assessing them your prognosis, and then what the features of your disease are that need treatment. And there are lots of changes, which I think we’ll get into later in our conversation here and lots of new options, which are really important,  I just also don’t to leave this segment without saying to all of you who are listening, it’s important that you understand your disease, it’s important that you understand the diagnosis, prognosis, etcetera, and you get the best care.

But that’s maybe not enough, you need to know that you’re taking good care of you, and that’s something that’s really important to all of us, so you need to know that you’re managing your vascular risk, don’t just think about your blood. Think about the fact that you know if you’re smoking, quit smoking, if you’re drinking too much, cut it down, if you’re not walking enough,  walk more, lose weight. The majority of patients with MPN actually have a problem with a blood clot, not a further complication of their disease, so maybe we’ll stop there and then we can dive in a bit more deeply.

How Can I Get the Best Myeloproliferative Neoplasm (MPN) Care?

How Can I Get the Best Myeloproliferative Neoplasm (MPN) Care? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

 There are many exciting developments in the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) research pipeline, but how can patients get the best possible MPN care? Internationally respected MPN expert Dr. Claire Harrison from Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospital in London shares information about research updates, treatment strategies, clinical trials, and how to achieve patient-centered care for you or your loved one.

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How Do I Best Communicate My Concerns Without Feeling Dismissed


Transcript:

Dr. Nicole Rochester:

Hello and welcome. My name is Dr. Nicole Rochester, I’m a pediatrician and a professional health advocate, and your host for today’s Patient Empowerment Network program. We are thrilled that you have decided to tune in. With so many exciting developments in the research pipeline from myeloproliferative neoplasms or MPNs. We’re going to answer several important questions during today’s program, how can you as a patient access the best possible MPN care? Will there be alternative treatment strategies for MPN patients who have failed previous therapies? Should you consider a clinical trial as a path to enhancing your care? Whether you’re living with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia or myelofibrosis, we have so much to unpack and we are joined by world-renowned and highly respected MPN expert, Dr. Claire Harrison. Thank you so much for joining us, Dr. Harrison, it’s an honor and a privilege to join with you.

Dr. Claire Harrison:

It’s a great pleasure and it’s a privilege to join you as well.

Dr. Nicole Rochester:

Following this program, you will receive a survey and we’d be delighted if you take some time to provide your feedback that helps inform future MPN programs that we produce. Please remember that this program is not a substitute for seeking medical care, so please be sure to connect with your healthcare team to determine what is best for you. Now, let’s dive right into this very important topic, how can you get the best myeloproliferative neoplasm care. 

Dr. Harrison, we know that the treatment landscape for MPN is rapidly changing and keeping up with the pace of the developments can be challenging both for healthcare professionals and certainly for patients and their families, so I was wondering if you can give us a general overview of the treatment landscape and maybe highlight anything that’s new and in development that you think would be helpful for the audience.

Dr. Claire Harrison:

Well, sure, I think this is obviously really interesting, very important. It’s a fast-moving field. And one of the first changes actually completely hot off the press is a brand new diagnostic criteria that has been produced by two separate groups that are shortly about to be published, kind of just seeing pre-published and those of us that have been privileged to be involved, have seen them. So that’s gonna really focus the mind of clinicians on how do we achieve the diagnosis, and that’s the first thing that’s really important, get an accurate diagnosis, don’t just accept well, you’ve got an MPN, actually, it’s really important to know what type you’ve got. 

Maybe as much do you tell as possible in terms of the genetic mutation or change that underlies the disease, because that is increasingly important in what we call prognostication, understanding what the risk of events happening due to the disease actually is. When we make a diagnosis, we sometimes can’t be accurate and we might have to go back and revisit them, so some patients don’t get a PV, ET or MF diagnosis, they might get an MPN unclassified. That’s okay, but it’s important to keep revisiting that.

Once we’ve made a diagnosis, then it’s really important to think about what the risk is to the patient, and we’ve had some changes to our risk classifications recently, right from the ET end of the spectrum where we’re thinking more and more actually, those patients who are under the age of 60 with a lower count and the CALR mutation, do we even need to give you aspirin because we might be increasing the risk of bleeding. 

To the other end of the spectrum for patients with myelofibrosis, a more aggressive disease, we want to know more about your mutational profile, so we’re doing more powerful genomic tests and assessing them, your prognosis, and then what the features of your disease are that need treatment. And there are lots of changes, which I think we’ll get into later in our conversation here and lots of new options, which are really important, I just also don’t to leave this segment without saying to all of you who are listening, it’s important that you understand your disease, it’s important that you understand the diagnosis, prognosis, etcetera, and you get the best care.

But that’s maybe not enough, you need to know that you’re taking good care of you, and that’s something that’s really important to all of us, so you need to know that you’re managing your vascular risk don’t just think about your blood. Think about the fact that you know if you’re smoking, quit smoking, if you’re drinking too much, cut it down, if you’re not walking enough,  walk more, lose weight. The majority of patients with MPN actually have a problem with a blood clot, not a further complication of their disease, so maybe we’ll stop there and then we can dive in a bit more deeply

Dr. Nicole Rochester:

Thank you, I appreciate you pointing out the changes with the diagnosis. I’m really excited to learn more about that, and also pointing out the importance of self-care and some of the other risk factors that individuals with MPN can mitigate. So I think that’s extremely important. Can you share a little about what’s in the robust pipeline of potential therapies for patients with MPN, what is it that you’re excited about? And is the future bright in this area?

Dr. Claire Harrison:

I think the future is really bright from the point of view of de-escalating treatment as well as newer treatment, so I think it’s important to point that because all treatments have potential complications inside of it, so as we understand that some of these conditions may have very low risk for patients, it’s important to understand that, and de-intensify, I call that calreticulin (post ET?), I would also call out ET, essential thrombocythemia, which lacks a known driver mutation, so-called triple-negative ET, emerging data suggests that may have very low risk for patients, but what you all want to hear about, of course, is what’s new treatment-wise. So I think just to call out, I’m really excited that there will be a new trial this year for ET patients with Bomedemstat, which is an LSD-1 inhibitor, new target, new molecule. We’ve been testing it in myelofibrosis and we’ve tested it now in a bunch of patients with ET, and it seems to be very efficiently reducing the platelet count not affecting hemoglobin and patients appear to get a good benefit with regard to fatigue, which we know is the number one symptom for patients with MPN, so I’m excited about that because it’s been a long time since we’ve had a new treatment for patients with ET. And then for patients with PV, increasingly across the globe, the availability of this newer formulation of interferon, Besremi is becoming more available and the latest data with that agent suggests that it may be superior to standard therapy such as hydroxyurea, hydroxycarbamide in terms of clotting, et cetera, is really important.

Interestingly, and we may both have to think back to our med school days on this, we’ve been targeting the iron pathway in for patients with PV. So I always tell my patients with PV, do not let anyone give you iron tablets without speaking to one of our team because that’s like putting oxygen on the fire, it’s like feeding the red cell production. So there is a new agent called Rusfertide PTG-300, which targets the iron pathway and allows iron to build up in the body, but it doesn’t allow it to get to the bone marrow and so, this is a new treatment for PV patients, which might reduce the need for iron removal by phlebotomy or venesection, and has been also shown to give symptomatic benefit, and then of course, there’s a bunch of new treatments for patients with myelofibrosis, that’s probably the busiest part of the portfolio at the moment. 

We’ve just seen positive data with me Momelotinib, which is one of the fourth JAK inhibitors, very strong data from the momentum study, good results in patients even with low platelet counts down to 25, and then I’m really excited to see strong data coming with Navitoclax and Pelabresib, which are other agents targeted at are the pathways in myelofibrosis and then finally, in Denmark, they’ve been looking at vaccination strategies, and I know my patients are really interested in vaccination and (inaudible). I don’t have anything new to say (inaudible), but I do have something new to say on vaccination.

So in Denmark, they’ve been looking at producing a vaccination against the calreticulin mutation Nicole, because it’s expressed on the surface of the blood cells, so antibodies can find it. So this is ongoing, no positive result as yet, but it’s still ongoing and there are newer taking off with regards to vaccination structures, and I think that’s really exciting.

Dr. Nicole Rochester:

Wow, there is a lot on the horizon for MPN patients. That is extremely exciting, Dr. Harrison, how can patients best keep up with the new treatments and communicate with their doctors in a way that makes sure that they have access to these new therapies?

Dr. Claire Harrison:

Well, I think patient advocacy groups are really important here, and use of social media and the internet, you’re only a few clicks away from updated data, programs like these, but you also have to trust your team and trust your doctor. We all have to keep up to date. That is a professional requirement, and we also are all networked, so I’d probably get 10-15 emails a day from colleagues saying, Hi Claire, can I talk to you about this? There was an email just the other day about a patient in Washington, actually a very young child, we are all connected. 

We all want the best for our patients. But do you remember that you can contribute as a patient to advance this in your field, and I know many patients are really interested in this, if you are asked to submitting a blood sample, giving permission for us to use your data. So if we can touch maybe on the field of real world data and real-world data collection here would be good, so what about the real world data? What does that mean? And so this is becoming a really important way that’s recognized by the FDA and other approval agencies in the world, so in Europe, we have EMEA for example, and in the UK, we have NHRA as a way of collecting data on agents, so once they are approved, we collect data with regard to how the patients do. 

We’ve traditionally done this, but increasingly, as we use electronic data for our patients, we’re more able to collect real-world data, how does my patient who is with myelofibrosis on Ruxolitinib in my clinic inside East London do. So if we can pull that data, we learn a lot more about how these agents are working in patients outside of clinical trial, so you will be contributing if you allow us to collect that kind of data, we discovered JAK2 mutations, CALR mutations, etcetera from samples collected from patients and data. If you want to be part of a clinical trial, then by all means, ask your healthcare team, many MPN centers have lists of trials, and you can always look at clinicaltrials.gov, but boy you throw up a lot of different options when you search in that… On that website.

Dr. Nicole Rochester:

Thank you. I think it’s important to talk about real-world data because in this day and age, many of us are very protective about our personal health information and we should be, but as you stated, having access to that data is really a key way to advance the science and technology in the treatment of some of these conditions, so I really appreciate you sharing that.

Dr. Claire Harrison:

I think just to point out, and I’m sure the audience is acutely aware of what we learn about COVID? We learned an awful lot about COVID from real-world data from all you MPN patients who gave samples, who told us about how you did with COVID, that’s how we learned about what happened to patients during covid with MPN, how they responded to vaccination, etcetera. It’s really powerful. And your data will be anonymized, it won’t be linked back to you, Nicole Rochester, or me, Claire Harrison it will be completely anonymous.

Dr. Nicole Rochester:

Absolutely, thanks for clarifying that. I want to go back to treatment strategies, you’ve mentioned earlier about low-risk versus high-risk patients, and that some of those criteria are changing. How are treatment strategies changing for low-risk and high-risk patients with MPN?

Dr. Claire Harrison:

It’s complicated because we need to think across the entities, and we don’t have an answer to that for patients with MPN unclassified and we don’t actually have a good answer to that for this entity called pre-fibrotic myelofibrosis which does appear and is strongly recognized in the new diagnostic criteria, but for ET, for example, low-risk patients I mentioned triple negative, calreticulin, m-positive, young patients, platelets less than 1500, not too much changing their queries about aspirin or not, and then for PV patients, we haven’t really changed all kind of high-risk criteria and for both ET and PV, the questionnaire is, should we use the treatment above aspirin or above aspirin (inaudible). And for the most part, that would be hydroxycarbamide, hydroxyurea, which is the commonest treatment used worldwide or Interferon, and these are the right treatment for some patients and not the right treatment for other patients, so some patients can be very fixated on interferon is the absolute best, but there is no clear evidence of that, and there are some patients who interferon is not the right treatment, but low versus high risk becomes even more important for myelofibrosis patients.

And here, we’re thinking about using a risky strategy like transplantation for those patients who have higher risk disease, and we’re using, as I mentioned to you, these molecular markers and newer prognostic tools to stratify patients, and it is important to remember is a patient leave if someone puts your data into a prognostic tool and that comes up with five years, but it doesn’t mean to say five years on the dot your times up, that’s an average. 

And if we put your data into a slightly different tool, we might get something else. So for the most part, we make decisions like transplants,  we are learning more about transplantation and outcomes from that, and then in some countries, some treatments are used for patients who fall into intermediate or high-risk categories, and some clinical trials are based on that as well. I would want to say about myelofibrosis, and something I think I would really like to see changed, not changing yet, but changed, is that we should be able to intervene for patients with a low-risk disease. If my myelofibrosis patients have breast cancer, we would not be going there, then you’ve got low-risk disease we’ll put you on watch and wait, watch and wait is really hard for our patients, we know that I can see you nodding.

Dr. Claire Harrison:

You know that too, right? So if these were patients with breast cancer we would not say, We’ll just watch and wait. So I would really like to see in the next five to 10 years a treatment that we could use earlier in the disease course, but there is nothing at the moment, but we’re looking at that. The other thing we’re looking at, if we’ve got a minute or so is the different endpoint, so we’re trying to understand what does it mean if you’re a (?), so the amount of abnormal genes you’ve got goes down, the amount of bone marrow fibrosis you’ve got goes down. And again, this is something we’ll collect in a clinical trial, but also from real-world data.

Dr. Nicole Rochester:

Wonderful. Wow, thank you. What about for patients who have failed therapies, are there any treatment strategies for MPN patients who have failed traditional therapies?

Dr. Claire Harrison:

Yes, in fact, actually, that’s where we’re evaluating new therapies across all of these entities, so if you’re a PV or an ET patient and you failed a therapy, then this is where, for example, in ET, we would be looking at Bomedemstat or we’re looking at the bromodomain inhibitor Pelabresib, and there’ll be other agents that we’ll be looking at, or we might be looking at vaccination. And for MF patients that while there are a bunch of different therapies for patients who you have not tolerated or progressed through standard therapy. So actually, there’s a lot of options, some of them are already approved and some of them are in clinical trials.

Dr. Nicole Rochester:

And you mentioned clinical trials, and so I think this is a perfect opportunity to transition and start to talk more about clinical trials as a treatment option for NPM patients and really focusing on treatment access, what would you say are the unmet needs in access related to MPN and care, specifically as it relates to clinical trials, and what can we do to address those unmet needs?

Dr. Claire Harrison:

Well, I think there is a problem with rare diseases in terms of geographical access to trials, and we often find patients have to travel a long way. I know that’s true in North America as well as in Europe. And we’re very lucky in our geographical locations, but in some parts of the world, some companies or doing not open clinical trials, so I think there’s an access issue. I think also there is something about patients have to meet rigid entry criteria for clinical trials, and so oftentimes in myelofibrosis, for example, commonly patients who fail (?) have a lower platelet count, and that is often an exclusion criteria. Those criteria are there to try to get a uniform population of patients in a trial, but it can feel like you’re excluded as a patient, and it can feel very tough and for your health care team that we can’t include you in a clinical trial. We also have to remember that it is there for safety purposes, so if there is a lower limit for platelet count that’s often because the drug might affect platelet count. It is really important that we have a broad spectrum of trials available and that we try to increase the availability of trials for patients. 

I also want to say a word about inequality of access and thinking about accessing some different ethnicity, so often non-white and patients are under-represented in clinical trials, and I know that a focus in the UK and also in North America as well. And it is really important that patients have access to a clinical trial if they need it, and also that we understand how investigational products will work in people of different backgrounds. So for example, we know that probably Nicole, your blood count assuming it’s a healthy, normal blood count may well be different from mine for background, racial genetic differences, so drug metabolism might be different, so this is really important and we need to work hard as a community, the clinical community and the patient community to raise awareness and improve access for patients.

Dr. Nicole Rochester:

Well, as someone who does a lot of work in health equity, Dr. Harrison, I really appreciate you pointing that out. It’s certainly an issue here in the United States, as you mentioned, differential access to clinical trials, and we’ve learned that not only our patients, often not aware, but often the providers, at least here in the US, are not offering clinical trials as an option for patients from marginalized and minoritized communities. So I really appreciate you bringing that up. It’s said that clinical trials are tomorrow’s medicine today, and you’ve already kind of alluded to the importance of clinical trials as it relates to MPN. What would you say to an MPN patient who is on the fence or may be concerned or afraid of participating in a clinical trial?

Dr. Claire Harrison:

It’s right to be cautious and you know, careful because ultimately it’s a huge privilege as a clinician that involves patients in clinical trials that my patients trust me and trust my team to look after them with something that is experimental, but remember there are varying degrees of experimental most clinical trials are not first in man, you’re not a complete gene page, it may be a drug, for example, Levetoclax (?) is in clinical trials mainly for myelofibrosis also ET and PV but that is a drug that has been used for thousands of patients, for another indication so talk to your healthcare team, if you don’t find the answer from the primary person that you’re used to dealing with, find someone else, be linked to somebody you trust and that you have a good relationship with, take someone with you to the consultation, write down the questions I’m so sure you say this all the time, don’t you Nicole to the people that you talk to, but write down your questions, don’t be afraid to ask them again, there is no stupid question in this context, you will be given a 30-plus page booklet to read, and I lost count of the number of times, my patients go, yeah, I’ve got this or I trust you.

Actually, you know, you need to read it… We are experimenting on you, and you need to read that and understand. And you need to understand, what happens if I go on the control arm, will I be able to cross over? How many visits will I have, will, I have to pay for those visits, etcetera. It’s all really important, but ultimately the relationship with your healthcare provider is important and using an advocate (inaudible) is really important.

Dr. Nicole Rochester:

I agree, 100%. So important, these are things that I talk about all the time, so I really appreciate that you highlighted that, and just the importance of patients taking an active role in their medical care and also the trust that is required between the patient and their treating providers. So I really appreciate that. Do you have any examples, Dr. Harrison in your own practice of successes with MPN patients who have participated in clinical trials? 

Dr. Claire Harrison:

Oh yes, I think I started doing clinical trials, well golly a long time ago. I think my first clinical trial, we probably the records of written parchment to be honest, but we’ve still learned a lot from that, so that was an ET study. It was from that study we understood about the JAK2 mutation on and we understood how patients behave differently. I think probably the most gratifying thing for me was being involved in the JAK inhibitor studies in myelofibrosis and being involved in delivering Ruxolitinib and Jakafi to patients and seeing the benefits for those patients. 

Big things, you know, there are patients who are alive because they took part in that trial today, I think, but there are also patients for whom small things were also really important, so as a patient, that’s important to define what is the benefit you want to get. So one of my first patients, you haven’t been able to have a bath or a shower for years, because he had terrible what we call aquagenic pruritus itching induced by contact with water, we called him two days after he started Ruxolitinib and he was in tears, he could take… Or you can take it out.

These things are really important. Like myself, I can imagine not being able to dig it out, I would either be very tough for another patient, it was, Well, I looked really skinny because I’d lost loads of weight and I put weight on, and body image was really important as well, but then the small things like being able to be… participate more in family activities is really, really important too.

Dr. Nicole Rochester:

Wonderful, so what advice would you give for patients so that they can really take a proactive approach to their healthcare and feel more confident in talking about their concerns and communicating with their healthcare team, you’ve shared with us how important that is. Do you have maybe two or three specific tips or maybe questions that every MPN patient should ask their healthcare provider?

Dr. Claire Harrison:

I think the first thing to say is, in my personal view is you do not have to be under an MPN expert to get the best care. I know some people differ with regard to that, but these are chronic conditions, there are national and international guidelines, clinicians are connected. We all talk about patients over time, as we like to do that, we like to get the best for our patients, so a local center with a clinician who you trust, who you get on with… Where you can get there easily. You trust their team, you know their logistics work for you, maybe it’s a nurse who work who you get on with, well, who comes to the appointment with you, that is just as good as being under the best professor in the state, where you might not actually see them  when you turn up and go to the unit, so that’s really important, understanding your condition, and if you don’t understand being empowered to ask questions, and if you’re in a position where you can’t ask a question, something’s wrong. So don’t be afraid, take somebody with you, write it down. Sometimes it can be a mistake to do a troll on the internet, so I wouldn’t always encourage that because what’s on the internet is not always accurate, but go to a trusted website as the clinician… Where can I go to find out more information? Some patient advocacy groups run buddy systems that can also be very helpful and it can be very empowering to meet another patient with the same or similar condition, so I think those are all helpful tips from my perspective, also don’t expect to get all the answers all the time, it can be really tricky as a clinician, maybe you get a patient who comes with a big long list of questions, and say What is your top question that you really want answers to.

Dr. Nicole Rochester:

Those are awesome, awesome tips. I’m just gonna repeat a few of them, just to highlight, you mentioned prioritizing your concerns which is incredibly important, and acknowledging that the clinician doesn’t have unlimited time, and so really focusing on the things that concern you the most, you mentioned bringing a buddy to appointments, which is something I fully endorse, so that there’s someone else that’s taking notes or… It can be your eyes and ears during that appointment, things that you may have missed either because of anxiety or stress, and you mentioned writing things down, taking notes, even as the patient asking questions, which is so incredibly important, and really the way that I feel patients demonstrate their involvement in their disease and being an active member of the team, so I really, really appreciate those tips, Dr. Harrison, I think that you have given us so information, so much information about how to empower MPN patients and their families so that they can really get the best care at the outset. So it’s time to wrap things up, Dr. Harrison, I’d love to close with any closing thoughts that you have, any takeaway messages you’ve given us so many already, but if there’s anything else that you have not had the opportunity to share with the audience, I love for you to go ahead and do that now.

Specifically anything related to how they can advocate for themselves or any other important messages that you wanna leave the audience with.

Dr. Claire Harrison:

I think I would want the listeners to feel empowered and to feel very hopeful, this is the time where there’s a great change. We’ve been through a really difficult couple of years, but actually, we group together really well as a patient in a clinical community, and we’ve learned a lot, so trust your clinical team if you don’t trust them if there’s a problem. Move on. And don’t be afraid to do that, don’t be afraid to ask for another opinion, actually, we as clinicians like somebody else to give an opinion on our patients, that’s another thing we haven’t covered, and do connect with patient advocacy and keep up-to-date. Do you ask for a copy of your letter, don’t be afraid to ask for copies of your diagnostic information, you will properly outlive the relationship with your clinician. I will probably retire before my patients move on from my practice, so keep the information and understand it as much as you can.

Dr. Nicole Rochester:

Wonderful, thank you. So Dr. Harrison and you’ve just left us with a message of hope and a message of empowerment, and I think those two things are incredibly important, so I really appreciate you taking time with us today, and thank you so much for sharing your insights and your expertise. And I wanna thank you all for tuning in to this Patient Empowerment Network program.