Tag Archive for: prostate

Key Questions for Prostate Cancer Patients to Ask Before Joining a Clinical Trial

Key Questions for Prostate Cancer Patients to Ask Before Joining a Clinical Trial from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Dr. Andrew Armstrong, director of prostate cancer research at the Duke Cancer Institute, provides expert advice on what questions prostate cancer patients should ask when considering participation in a clinical trial. 

Dr. Andrew J. Armstrong is a medical oncologist and director of clinical research at the Duke Cancer Institute’s Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers. For more information on Dr. Armstrong here.

See More From Prostate Clinical Trials 201

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Should Prostate Cancer Patients Consider a Treatment in Clinical Trials

Should Prostate Cancer Patients Consider a Treatment in Clinical Trials?

Why Should Prostate Cancer Patients Be Empowered

Why Should Prostate Cancer Patients Be Empowered?

How Can Prostate Cancer Patients Access Clinical Trials

How Can Prostate Cancer Patients Access Clinical Trials?


Transcript:

Katherine Banwell:

What are some key questions that patients should ask their healthcare team before even participating in a clinical trial?  

Dr. Armstrong:

I think number one is what are the alternatives that I would have if I did not participate in the clinical trial? What are the standard of care therapies? And prostate cancer now has a vast menu. There is two different types of chemotherapy. There are two different types of target radiotherapy, that’s Pluvicto and radium. There’s immunotherapy, with Sipuleucel-T and other immune therapies. There are multiple hormonal drugs. There are precision medicines, like I mentioned, for men with certain hereditary types of prostate cancer. So, it’s important to hear what the standard of care is, and many patients don’t necessarily even hear that. 

And then based on what patients have already seen and what’s the expectation? Risks and benefits around those. 

And then on top of that, research can complement that or either replace or come after those standard of care approaches. Certainly if a patient has exhausted the standard of care approaches, a trial can offer real benefits. 

It’s important to ask about risks. What have other patients experienced going into that study? What kind of toxicities, good or bad? What other – what’s the evidence that it has helped people before? If it’s never been studied in people, the evidence might just come from the laboratory. But hearing about why is this so promising, why have you chosen to invest so much time and energy in this trial, is a good question. 

And then if you’re hearing about a trial and you’re making a decision to travel, sometimes asking questions about whether the trial will cover your lodging or transportation, gas money, airport travel. Some trials do do that. 

You can also look on clinicaltrial.gov for sites that are near you. So, many centers open the same trial in a different state, so you can look on that website to see if there’s a trial near you for what you’re looking for.  

How Can Prostate Cancer Patients Access Clinical Trials?

How Can Prostate Cancer Patients Access Clinical Trials? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Dr. Andrew Armstrong shares trusted resources for accessing information about prostate cancer clinical trials and reviews common barriers to participation.

Dr. Andrew J. Armstrong is a medical oncologist and director of clinical research at the Duke Cancer Institute’s Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers. For more information on Dr. Armstrong here.

See More From Prostate Clinical Trials 201

Related Resources

Should Prostate Cancer Patients Consider a Treatment in Clinical Trials

Should Prostate Cancer Patients Consider a Treatment in Clinical Trials?

Why Should Prostate Cancer Patients Be Empowered

Why Should Prostate Cancer Patients Be Empowered?

Key Questions for Prostate Cancer Patients to Ask Before Joining a Clinical Trial

Key Questions for Prostate Cancer Patients to Ask Before Joining a Clinical Trial


Transcript:

Katherine Banwell:

Yes, yes. How can patients find out about a trial that might be right for them? 

Dr. Armstrong:

There’s several sources. One is through their doctor. You know, their doctor can be their navigator. They will be connected either within a cancer center or be connected to a cancer center that’s in their region. So, getting a referral to a cancer center can be that open door to hearing what trials a big cancer center might offer. 

If patients are willing to travel longer distances, there are websites like clinicaltrials.gov where patients can search and find a trial, find a coordinator, find a principal investigator or doctor, contact them, and then either drive or fly to that site to access that trial. Not every patient has that means. 

But that’s certainly a resource that many patients and their family members can use to seek out those trials. And I certainly have patients that have found me in that way. 

But it’s probably more common for patients to come to you through a referral from their doctor because many sites in the community don’t have access to those clinical trials, but they know who does.  

Katherine Banwell:

What are some common barriers to accessing clinical trials? 

Dr. Armstrong:

The most important one is probably transportation. Some trials are close by, and some trials are very far away, and resources can be a major barrier. The cost of transportation, of having to be near a trial site, can be a major barrier. We wish we had all of the trials everywhere, but that’s not possible. Some trials are available at Duke, but are not available for example in Baltimore or Boston or California, and vice versa.  

Each academic institution may have their own trials. There are going to be some big trials that are available everywhere. These are like global Phase III studies. And really just talking to the physician, maybe getting a second opinion about which trial may be right for you in a certain circumstance is really part of the shared decision-making process. 

So, travel, socioeconomic status, cost concerns, those are barriers. But most clinical trials will pay for the experimental drugs. They will not charge you more money to participate in the study. And most insurance companies will pay for your participation in that trial, so that should not be a major barrier, but transportation can be. So, sometimes patients will find trials near a loved one or a family member so they can stay with them during the trial participation. 

Should Prostate Cancer Patients Consider a Treatment in Clinical Trials?

Should Prostate Cancer Patients Consider a Treatment in Clinical Trials? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Prostate cancer expert Dr. Andrew Armstrong explains how prostate cancer clinical trials work and discusses why patients should feel confident exploring this option at any stage of their cancer journey.

Dr. Andrew J. Armstrong is a medical oncologist and director of clinical research at the Duke Cancer Institute’s Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers. For more information on Dr. Armstrong here.

See More From Prostate Clinical Trials 201

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Key Questions for Prostate Cancer Patients to Ask Before Joining a Clinical Trial

Key Questions for Prostate Cancer Patients to Ask Before Joining a Clinical Trial


Transcript:

Katherine Banwell:

At what point should a prostate cancer patient consider participating in a clinical trial? 

Dr. Armstrong:

Sure. If you look at the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, NCCN guidelines, you’ll see that clinical trials should be discussed along all parts of the journey. 

And that’s because clinical trials often can change how we think about cancer, how we treat cancer, can improve cure rates, can improve survival. Most of our drugs and treatments that have been successful in all cancer have been the result of clinical trials. 

And it’s not always appropriate, though. We have very many treatments that can cure patients, and we don’t want to interfere with that, but sometimes a clinical trial can layer on top of that cure rate. 

But many patients, their cancer becomes resistant to proven therapies. That’s certainly an area where clinical trials can make a big difference, either to put off chemotherapy or more toxic therapies, or in patients who have exhausted proven therapies. That’s certainly appropriate. 

But sometimes clinical trials do not involve placebos. They involve combination therapies, they involve layering on top several approaches to try to improve the survival on top of standard of care.  

And so as a director of a research program, we have all sorts of trials. They come in Phase I, Phase II, Phase III. Really only the Phase IIIs involve placebo controlled or controlled trials. Phase II tend to be early studies, where everybody gets a therapy and it’s preliminary to determine efficacy. Phase I is really trying to determine the safety and dosing of an experimental drug. But patients can benefit across the spectrum. 

So, it’s important, particularly if you have advanced disease, to go to a site, like a comprehensive cancer center, for a second opinion to see if there is alternatives to what you might get in the community.  

Katherine Banwell:

Yes. What would you say to someone who might be hesitant to participate in a trial? 

Dr. Armstrong:

Participation in a trial involves shared decision-making, just like being diagnosed, embarking on initial treatment, even embarking on standard of care treatment. Everything is shared decision-making in terms of risks and benefits.  

Sometimes a trial is not in a patient’s best interest, and it’s important for a physician to be upright about that and up front about the risks of a trial. 

I think when patients have exhausted proven therapies, it’s quite appropriate to talk about therapies that might be in the research pipeline that are showing some promise, that have demonstrated at least success in the laboratory or in small numbers of patients coming before.  

For example, in 2022, a brand-new drug just got approved called Pluvicto, or PSMA lutetium. This is a new smart bomb for prostate cancer. Just last year it was a research drug, but this year it’s successful and being used in the clinic. All those hormone drugs I mentioned earlier, those were research drugs five years ago. So, we don’t make advanced, we don’t extend lives without participating in research. We’re not happy with the way things are, we want them to be better. 

And the only way to make them better is by studying them. And not all of these trials are successful, unfortunately, but many are, and that’s why we are seeing men live longer and have better survivorship nowadays. 

Why Should Prostate Cancer Patients Be Empowered?

Why Should Prostate Cancer Patients Be Empowered? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Prostate cancer researcher Dr. Andrew Armstrong explains how he empowers his patients and describes the positive benefits of speaking up in your own care.

Dr. Andrew J. Armstrong is a medical oncologist and director of clinical research at the Duke Cancer Institute’s Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers. For more information on Dr. Armstrong here.

See More from Engage Prostate Cancer

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Prostate Cancer Shared Decision-Making_ How Does It Work

Prostate Cancer Shared Decision-Making: How Does It Work?

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Key Questions for Prostate Cancer Patients to Ask Before Joining a Clinical Trial

Key Questions for Prostate Cancer Patients to Ask Before Joining a Clinical Trial


Transcript:

Katherine Banwell:

How do you empower patients? 

Dr. Armstrong:

Well, I empower patients by talking and listening. So, listening probably the most important part. Just getting to know somebody and their family is empowering them. You’re understanding their values, their preferences, understanding what side effects they’ve experienced in the past, what comorbidities or health conditions they’re facing, what their fears are. You know, what spiritual values they might bring, what support systems they might bring.  

Every patient is different, and part of a consultation is getting to know the person in front of you, and that empowers them to be honest. Empowers you to be transparent and get to know them so that you can help them sift through a complex decision. 

Giving information is really important, so I do a lot of talking as well as listening. 

But giving information back to the patient about risks and benefits of treatment A, B, or C or no treatment is critical. And then there is a lot of then listening to that shared decision about what might be right for that patient and navigating it. 

Katherine Banwell:

Why is it important for patients to be empowered? 

Dr. Armstrong:

It’s important for patients to be empowered, because this can often be a life-threatening decision. It’s important because this is ultimately their decision for their body, and making this decision can have major consequences that patients have to live with. Doctors empower patients to make the right decisions so they’re comfortable and don’t have regrets looking back on life and these important decisions. Whether this is picking surgery or radiation, or picking initial surveillance, or enrolling on a trial, or starting hormonal therapy. 

I think each decision sometimes is reversible, but sometimes is a big decision that can’t be taken back, and making sure that that patient feels empowered, that they don’t have regrets later, that they’ve gotten all the information to make an informed decision is really critical. 

An Expert’s Perspective on Emerging Prostate Cancer Research

An Expert’s Perspective on Emerging Prostate Cancer Research from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What do prostate cancer patients need to know about emerging research? Dr. Andrew Armstrong discusses developing treatments and their potential impact on prostate cancer care.

Dr. Andrew J. Armstrong is a medical oncologist and director of clinical research at the Duke Cancer Institute’s Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers. For more information on Dr. Armstrong here.

See More from Engage Prostate Cancer

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How Can Prostate Cancer Patients Access Clinical Trials?


Transcript:

Katherine:

Are there any recent developments in treatment and research that patients should know about? 

Dr. Armstrong:

Absolutely. I would say the number one research advance has been the use of these really strong hormonal therapies in earlier and earlier disease setting. So, you may have heard of drugs like Zytiga or abiraterone, or Xtandi or enzalutamide, apalutamide or Errleada, or derolutamide or Nubeqa. Those are mouthfuls. Those are very potent hormonal pills that when used in men with advanced disease improves survival. 

And the data has supported the fact that the early use of those agents extends life even more than waiting until hormone resistance develops.  

So, if you are unlucky enough to have metastatic disease and you’re in need of hormonal therapy, giving injections that lower testosterone, which is the fuel for most prostate cancers, and then blocking testosterone with some of these newer pills extends life by years, not months. And it does so with pretty good quality of life over time.  

Of course, there are negative consequences of having no testosterone, and it’s important as part of shared decision-making to review those side effects and how that can impact quality of life negatively while extending survival.  

So, that’s a major advance. Another major advance is genetic testing and personalized medicine. In men with advanced prostate cancer, it’s now uniformly recommended that all men get hereditary testing to figure out if they inherited prostate cancer risk genes.  

These are genes such as the BRCA I and II genes, BRCA II being the most common. And these are not just breast or ovarian cancer genes. It’s important for men to realize that you can inherit these from a mother or a father, that they can create risks for multiple cancers, not just female cancers, but prostate cancer in particular. 

And now we have guided therapies, targeted therapies that can improve survival in men with these certain mutations, and if you are found to have those mutations, your family members could be tested so that they could be screened, and cancer can be picked up earlier, and perhaps they could be cured rather than suffering the fate of a more advanced diagnosis. So, really important both for yourself and for family members. 

So, those are two major advances. A third one is imaging.  

Imaging keeps getting better and better. We used to just do CAT scans, bone scans, very insensitive tests that in men with advanced disease have a hard time seeing prostate cancer, even when it’s spread. But with the advent of new technologies, like PSMA PET scan, that got approved last year. So, very new technologies. That’s transforming the way we visualize where cancer may be hiding, and for men particularly that have high-risk disease or recurrent disease or even resistant disease, we’re using those scans to guide therapy. 

An Overview of Prostate Cancer Treatment Approaches

An Overview of Prostate Cancer Treatment Approaches from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

How is prostate cancer currently treated? Dr. Andrew Armstrong provides an overview of treatment options for prostate cancer patients across various stages of the disease.

Dr. Andrew J. Armstrong is a medical oncologist and director of clinical research at the Duke Cancer Institute’s Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers. For more information on Dr. Armstrong here.

See More from Engage Prostate Cancer

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Should Prostate Cancer Patients Consider a Treatment in Clinical Trials?

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An Expert’s Perspective on Emerging Prostate Cancer Research


Transcript:

Katherine:

What are the treatment options that are currently available for prostate cancer patients? 

Dr. Armstrong:

It’s a really important question, and I would say it depends. In early disease, when cancer is picked up early, many patients are cured. Prostate cancer is the number one survived cancer in the United States. It’s important to realize that and kind of take a deep breath and realize that most patients beat prostate cancer. Only about one out of six men will suffer a relapse or develop metastatic disease or Stage IV disease that requires more of a lifelong journey of therapy. 

So, most men come into this because they’ve been screened by their primary care doctor. They had a high PSA, they underwent a biopsy, they were found to have cancer.  

And the first decision, particularly for example at our Duke multidisciplinary clinic, the first decision that we always share with the patient, and as part of shared decision-making, is we give information about prognosis and risk using the PSA level, the biopsy information, staging information if imaging is done.  

And then giving a category or a risk group to that patient can help them decide what are the options that are nationally recommended, internationally recommended by evidence-based guidelines. The most important decision is whether that prostate cancer needs treatment right now at all, and the initial observation or active surveillance is a very valuable “first do no harm” approach for men with very low risk or low risk types of prostate cancer. With a low-grade cancer, low PSA, low stage, and that’s about a third of all patients.  

That’s a huge number of men are told they have cancer, but they actually don’t need initial treatment. 

And they need to be explained to, why we’re not going to treat that cancer, why it’s so safe, and why mortality is not high in that patient population when we don’t treat it, and how we do active surveillance. For example, imaging with MRI, repeat biopsies. And a lot of patients do appreciate that because they’re not undergoing surgery or radiation and they’re not being harmed by those treatments. That would be called overtreatment. That’s not for everybody, though. 

So, just like prostate cancer comes in different flavors, treatments come in different flavors. So, there’s things where the Gleason score is higher, the stage may be higher, the PSA is higher, and the risk to the patient is higher. And when we get into that more intermediate- and high-risk situation, treatment is going to be necessary. But then we’ll have a menu of treatment options that is important to talk through. Typically surgery, radiation, sometimes alternatives to that. 

Sometimes combinations with hormonal therapy, which we call systemic therapy. The drugs that work throughout the body. 

Katherine Banwell:

What about for patients who have advanced disease? 

Dr. Armstrong:

The word “advanced” can mean different things to different people. Advanced can mean metastatic disease. It can mean disease that’s not curable. But advanced can also mean that it’s high risk. That the disease is still confined to the prostate, but it’s aggressive, and that if it’s not handled quickly with a multidisciplinary approach, for example, it has a high risk of occurrence.  

So, advanced disease can mean aggressive, in need of treatment. Sometimes it can be cured if it’s confined to the prostate. Sometimes it requires more than just one treatment modality, such as surgery followed by radiation, or radiation plus some of the newer hormonal therapies.  

For men with stage IV disease, that means disease that has left the prostate and gone to distant sites, we have very effective therapies that can still control this type of advanced disease for many, many years, so it is important to realize how far we’ve come with all of our therapies and to reassure the patient and their family about the good prognosis, even in the worst-case scenario, for many patients. 

Prostate Cancer Shared Decision-Making: How Does It Work?

Prostate Cancer Shared Decision-Making: How Does It Work? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Prostate cancer researcher Dr. Andrew Armstrong describes the benefits of the shared decision-making process and encourages patients to take an active role in their care.

Dr. Andrew J. Armstrong is a medical oncologist and director of clinical research at the Duke Cancer Institute’s Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers. For more information on Dr. Armstrong here.

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An Expert’s Perspective on Emerging Prostate Cancer Research


Transcript:

Katherine:

Patients may have heard the term “shared decision-making” Let’s go into – let’s define it, though. What is it, and how does it work? 

Dr. Armstrong:

Sure. So, if you imagine you’re a patient faced with the daunting task of a new cancer diagnosis and trying to navigate decision-making around treatment, or whether you need a certain test, and those tests or treatments have harms and they have benefits, shared decision-making is really the process of communication. You know, open, transparent communication between the doctor or provider and that patient and their family and supportive spouse and others, significant others, so that everybody has complete information around the risks and benefits of a certain treatment course or management course.  

In prostate cancer, this would mean for a newly diagnosed patient, commonly first giving information about what the risks of their cancer might be, but then what the risks and benefits of various treatment algorithms might be, and explaining in ways that a patient can understand those different journeys.  

Dr. Armstrong:

And ultimately the patient makes a shared decision-making with the doctor that’s in their best interest. 

Katherine Banwell:

In your view, what role do patients have in care decisions and why should they feel empowered to speak up and be a partner in their care? 

Dr. Armstrong:

Sure. Just like there’s many different types of doctors, there’s many different types of patients, and you have some patients that have PhDs, you have some patients that are not even sure what cancer is, and it’s really important to empower every patient to understand at a level that will help them make a decision. And some patients wish to have those decisions made for them. I hear that a lot. Some patients really just want to ingest the information, not make a rash decision 

Maybe get three or four second opinions, travel around to really get the right decision. And sometimes it can take a very long time. But every patient has a different journey, and it’s important for the provider, the doctor or the nurse practitioner or the surgeon, to really understand that patient and their values to help them arrive at the decision for themselves. Because sometimes treatment decisions may have equal efficacy but different side effects.  

For example, in prostate cancer, the most common decision is between active surveillance or a radical prostatectomy or radiation of different forms, or the robot versus the open procedure, or intensity modulated radiation or brachytherapy. And these are complex decisions, and I’ve had patients go for months without making decisions. And the shared decision-making approach really can help patients make a decision as quickly as possible. 

So that they can move on and either be cured from their cancer or make the best treatment decision. 

Katherine Banwell:

Dr. Armstrong, why is it so important that patients tell their doctor about any symptoms they’re experiencing? 

Dr. Armstrong:

Certainly symptoms may or may not be related to the prostate cancer, and doctors are well-trained to sift through all of that. You know, back pain could be from a herniated disc or arthritis, but it could be a sign of metastatic disease. Weight loss could be a sign of other metabolic problems, but it can also be a sign of really advanced prostate cancer. Urinary symptoms could just be a sign of a big prostate, may have nothing to do with the cancer, or it could be a big tumor that’s blocking off your bladder.  

So, being transparent and open and just describing what symptoms and letting that physician sort through that with you to help understand what symptoms may or may not be related to the cancer, that’s really important.  

Prostate Cancer Research Highlights From ASCO 2022

Prostate Cancer Research Highlights From ASCO 2022 from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What should prostate cancer patients know about developing research? Dr. Rana McKay reviews news from the 2022 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meeting.

Dr. Rana McKay is a medical oncologist at UC San Diego Health and an associate professor in the Department of Medicine at the UC San Diego School of Medicine. Learn more about Dr. McKay, here.
 
 

Katherine Banwell:

ASCO was held in June. Is there news from the conference that patients should know about?  

Dr. Rana McKay:

Yeah. So, I think some of the biggest therapies in prostate cancer that was one of the newest therapies that was just FDA-approved is Lutetium PSMA. It’s a radioligand therapy that targets specifically PSMA-expressing cells. It delivers a little bit of beta radiation to those cells. That therapy was approved this past spring, and there highlights at ASCO about the utility of this therapy. And again, there’s a series of novel compounds that are being tested in prostate cancer not yet ready for prime time but a lot of exciting work that’s being done to try to get new drugs that work better for our patients.  

Katherine Banwell:

Mm-hmm. Going back to ASCO and new developments, how can patients stay informed about research developments like – like these that happen at ASCO. 

Dr. Rana McKay:

So, very – very good. I think there’s a lot of networks for people with prostate cancer. I think one like I mentioned, the prostate cancer foundation it’s a wonderful community. That really focuses on making sure that up to date, you know, evidence-based data is distributed to patients in a manner that is – that makes sense. That’s there’s not a lot of medical jargon and so I think that the PCF is really a wonderful resource. ASCO itself also has, you know, patient interfacing, you know, materials through their website.  

American Cancer Society does as well. The American Cancer Society can also be a wonderful resource for patients that are newly diagnosed or going through treatment.  

Katherine Banwell:

It seems like there’s a lot of progress and hope in the field which is good. Dr. McKay, thank you so much for taking the time to join us today.  

Dr. Rana McKay:

Of course. My pleasure.  

Tools for Partnering in Your Prostate Cancer Care

Tools for Partnering in Your Prostate Cancer Care from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Why is it important to partner with your doctor in your prostate cancer care? Dr. Rana McKay shares advice to help patients speak up and play an active role in their care plan.

Dr. Rana McKay is a medical oncologist at UC San Diego Health and an associate professor in the Department of Medicine at the UC San Diego School of Medicine. Learn more about Dr. McKay, here.
 
 

Related Resources:

What Is Personalized Prostate Cancer Medicine?

Tools for Choosing the Right Prostate Cancer Treatment Approach


Transcript:

Katherine Banwell:

Why should patients feel confident using their voice in partnering in their care? Do you have any advice? 

Dr. Rana McKay:

It’s absolutely important for patients to share their perspective and for there to be shared decision-making at every single juncture along the way. Even around decisions to not treat. So, you know, I think it’s a lot of – there’s a lot of grays in prostate cancer and a lot of art in deciding what treatment to do and at what specific time and for any given patient given the values that that patient brings to the table, they may come back with a different decision compared to another patient. So, without the patient you know, voicing what their values are it’s impossible to make a treatment decision. 

So, it is so critically important to have that open communication with your clinician. 

Katherine Banwell:

So, in addition to that – in conjunction with that, should men diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer consider a second opinion or consulting with a specialist? 

Dr. Rana McKay:

I think it’s always a great idea to get a second opinion. You know, I think that, you know, it will only empower individuals when they seek sort of a second opinion to either confirm what their physician has already told them. And then they have reassurance that they’re on the right path or maybe provide some new novel insights that they can take into consideration and just think about how that could be applied to them. So, you know, I think that a second opinion is always really valuable.   

I will balance that by saying sometimes it can be detrimental if there’s lots of opinions, because I will say that coming to a consensus when there’s lots of different specialists that are involved, and everybody makes the soup a little bit differently – 

Katherine Banwell:

Yeah. 

Dr. Rana McKay:

Sometimes that I think that can actually hurt patients in being able to actually come to a decision because then they’re like, “I don’t know what decision to make. This person said do this. This person said do that. This person said do that.” And so that can sometimes be detrimental. But a second opinion, I do always encourage it. I do always value it. But I always want the patient to bring it back to me so I can share with them and discuss, “Okay. I understand. This is why x said X-Y-Z. This still aligns. This still doesn’t.” They need a quarterback like you know, it’s one thing to sort of get second opinions. But I think every man with prostate cancer should have a quarterback that’s driving their care and advocating for them.  

Katherine Banwell:

Yeah. How can patients find specialists near them? 

Dr. Rana McKay:

So, I will say that they are national comprehensive cancer institutes. They’re all across the country in rural areas and not. I think, you know, finding the closest NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center close to you is probably a good place to start and identifying who is seeing patients with genetic urinary malignancies or prostate cancer at that facility is a good place. I think the Prostate Cancer Foundation is an excellent advocacy group for patients with prostate cancer. They have a tremendous amount of resources to help connect patients with clinicians, and other resources in their journey with cancer.   

PSA vs Gleason Score | What’s the Difference?

PSA vs Gleason Score | What’s the Difference? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Prostate cancer expert, Dr. Rana McKay, explains the difference between PSA blood levels and a Gleason score and discusses how these measurements impact prostate cancer care.

Dr. Rana McKay is a medical oncologist at UC San Diego Health and an associate professor in the Department of Medicine at the UC San Diego School of Medicine. Learn more about Dr. McKay, here.
 
 

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Managing the Side Effects of Advanced Prostate Cancer Treatment

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Transcript:

Katherine Banwell:

We received a patient question prior to the program. What is the difference between my PSA level and Gleason score?  

Dr. Rana McKay:

Yeah. So, very good question. So, Gleason score is something that is determined based off a pathologic assessment. So, it’s basically, you know, a biopsy is done from the prostate or the – the surgical specimen from the removal of the prostate is looked at under the microscope and a Gleason score is based off what something looks like underneath a microscope and ideally, a Gleason score is given really only for the prostate – for tissue derived from the prostate.  

So, if somebody has a bone biopsy for example or a lymph node biopsy, they’re not going to necessarily get a glycine score per se. It’s been – been validated from the prostate itself and ideally, also, an untreated prostate. So, if somebody has you know had radiation therapy and then has a biopsy, the Gleason score there is – there should not necessarily be a notation of what a Gleason score is. It’s really an untreated prostate. Now PSA is prostate-specific antigen, and it’s a protein that’s made from the prostate gland, and it’s found in circulation. PSA doesn’t hurt any – the actual, you know, molecule itself is – is innocuous. It doesn’t hurt anything. It’s just a marker of, sometimes can be a marker of burden of disease in prostate cancer, and I think sometimes we as clinicians do, you know, you know a disservice to some patients because I think we fixate – we can fixate a lot on PSA. 

But PSA is not the whole story, and it’s one factor of several factors that we take into account in determining whether someone needs treatment or whether a treatment is working or not working. 

What Is Personalized Prostate Cancer Medicine?

What Is Personalized Prostate Cancer Medicine? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What do patients need to know about personalized medicine? Dr. Rana McKay defines personalized treatment and discusses options available for advanced prostate cancer patients.

Dr. Rana McKay is a medical oncologist at UC San Diego Health and an associate professor in the Department of Medicine at the UC San Diego School of Medicine. Learn more about Dr. McKay, here.
 
 

Katherine Banwell:

Dr. McKay, how would you define precision or personalized medicine, and how close are we getting to personalized medicine for advanced prostate cancer? 

Dr. Rana McKay:

Yeah. So, what I – how I define it is the right treatment for the right patient at the right time. It’s basically, you know, based off of somebody’s genomic profile of their tumor and ideally that genomic profiling is done close to the time that that treatment is being initiated.  

So, within six months or 12 months of somebody starting a given therapy, we understand the genetic make-up of the tumor. The tumor has, you know, for example, a BRCA1 alteration, and we know that olaparib is a drug that can be utilized and has demonstrated efficacy for people that have that mutation and then we would use that agent. So, it’s basically trying to personalize therapy based on the genomic information of that tumor.  

And, I think we are getting there. There are actually trials now that are being launched that are biomarker driven trials with bio-marker selected therapies for patients based on – off of not just DNA but also RNA to help with allocating a given therapy. 

Tools for Choosing the Right Prostate Cancer Treatment Approach

Tools for Choosing the Right Prostate Cancer Treatment Approach from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Dr. Rana McKay discusses the factors that impact advanced prostate cancer treatment decisions. Dr. McKay reviews potential treatment side effects and explains how patients in treatment are monitored.

Dr. Rana McKay is a medical oncologist at UC San Diego Health and an associate professor in the Department of Medicine at the UC San Diego School of Medicine. Learn more about Dr. McKay, here.
 
 

Related Resources:

What Is Personalized Prostate Cancer Medicine?

Tools for Partnering in Your Prostate Cancer Care


Transcript:

Katherine Banwell:

Since prostate cancer affects men differently, let’s review what factors could impact which treatment is right for their individual disease. How about we start with symptoms? 

Dr. Rana McKay:

So, yeah. I mean absolutely. I think symptoms are definitely something that plays into effect. Sometimes when patients are first diagnosed, they may not have symptoms. But, you know, boney pain, symptoms of urinary obstruction. You know, there’s specific treatments and strategies that we can deploy to help with those kinds of things. You know other factors that I think I – we take into account when we’re making decisions about which agent should any one patient receive is where are their sites of metastases? Is there disease just in the bones and lymph nodes or are there other organs involved? What’s the genomic make-up of the tumor? There are certain treatments that we would utilize if someone had a certain specific you know, genetic make-up for their tumor. You know, other things that are really important are what kind of drugs has the patient seen before or has that tumor been exposed to? Because that also helps us strategize for what to give them in the future.  

Katherine Banwell:

Do you take into consideration the patient’s comorbidities and their age and overall health? Things like that?  

Dr. Rana McKay:

Absolutely. Yeah. I think we need to absolute take that in account. I think – I think age is one thing. But I think functional status is just as – as important as the actual number itself because people are very different regarding the things that they can do at various age limits and so, that absolutely takes into account weighing the side effects of any given therapy and how that may interact with someone’s existing comorbidities and it may be something that we have to work with a team of other doctors to basically make sure that there is comprehensive, well-rounded care for any one patient.   

For example, some therapies may increase the risk of hyper-tension or increase the risk of volume overload. And so, if somebody has issues with that already we may have them see a cardiologist so we can make sure that, you know, we’re kind of addressing the totality of the patient experience. 

Katherine Banwell:

What do you mean by volume overload? 

Dr. Rana McKay:

Volume overload, I mean if they’ve got too much fluid on board. So, maybe if they have heart failure or something like that, and we have a therapy that’s going to cause them to retain fluid. And so then, we would have to work with a cardiologist to make sure that they don’t run into issues 

Katherine Banwell:

Mm-hmm. Once a man is undergoing treatment for advanced prostate cancer, how are they monitored to see if it’s actually working? 

Dr. Rana McKay:

So, a lot of ways. So, one is by just, you know, visiting with the patient. Making sure that their symptoms are in check. Making sure that they’re not developing new aches or pains that are worrisome. It’s by checking their labs in addition to their organ and bone marrow function. We would check their PSA. And PSA isn’t the whole story. But it is one factor that contributes to us determining whether treatment may or may not be working. It’s also doing intermittent scannings. So, you know, CT scans of the organs, of the lymph nodes. Bone scan and now we actually have PSMA based imaging, which can be integrated to help assess where the disease is and not yet being utilized to assess whether something is working, because we haven’t really defined the criteria there. But, it can be utilized as well.  

When Should Advanced Prostate Cancer Patients Consider a Clinical Trial?

When Should Advanced Prostate Cancer Patients Consider a Clinical Trial? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Where do clinical trials fit into a prostate cancer treatment plan? Dr. Rana McKay shares her perspective on when patients should consider trial participation, as well as the benefits of joining a trial.

Dr. Rana McKay is a medical oncologist at UC San Diego Health and an associate professor in the Department of Medicine at the UC San Diego School of Medicine. Learn more about Dr. McKay, here.
 
 

Katherine Banwell:

When should a patient consider a clinical trial as a treatment option? 

Dr. Rana McKay:

So, I generally think that a patient should consider a clinical trial at almost every juncture that a – a clinical decision is being made. I think sometimes there’s this misperception that, “Oh. Clinical trials should only be utilized when I don’t have any other options.” Where, in fact, I would say clinical trials should be an option to discuss every single time a treatment is being changed. Because you know the ultimately the goal is to make sure patients are as I said, living longer and living better and, you know, making sure that clinical trials are an option on the table at every juncture is really a key step in that process. 

Katherine Banwell:

What are the benefits of being part of a clinical trial? 

Dr. Rana McKay:

So, I think there’s a lot of benefits. I think, you know, for patients with advanced disease it may provide access to drugs that they otherwise not necessarily have access to. So the standard of care therapies you know, we can prescribe those at any juncture. They’re standard of care. But clinical trials really offer an opportunity to experiment with another agent and doesn’t necessarily take away from the standard of care options.  

I think the other thing is you know, I think a lot of patients with advanced prostate cancer, they – want to give back to the community. They want to leave a legacy. They want to contribute to the science. They want to be a part of that mission to make tomorrow better than today for men with prostate cancer, and I think participating in clinical trials can really help achieve that goal and also benefit the individual as well. 

Katherine Banwell:

What about emerging treatments? Are there any that patients should know about?  

Dr. Rana McKay:

Absolutely. So, there’s a lot of treatments that I think are currently undergoing extensive testing. There’s additional targeted therapies, for example, CDK46 inhibitors that are being tested broadly in the hormone-resistant space and the newly diagnosed setting. There’s also AKT inhibitors. There are other targeted therapies that are being tested. There’s novel hormonal treatments that target resistant pathways like the antigen receptor degraders. There’s a slew of immunotherapy options cell therapy, bi-specific antibodies that are also being tested. So, there’s a lot of really exciting and novel treatments that are looking at overcoming resistance for people with advanced disease.  

Managing the Side Effects of Advanced Prostate Cancer Treatment

Managing the Side Effects of Advanced Prostate Cancer Treatment from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Prostate cancer expert Dr. Rana McKay reviews potential prostate cancer treatment side effects and discusses strategies for managing these issues.

Dr. Rana McKay is a medical oncologist at UC San Diego Health and an associate professor in the Department of Medicine at the UC San Diego School of Medicine. Learn more about Dr. McKay, here.
 
 

Related Resources:

What Is Personalized Prostate Cancer Medicine?

When Should Advanced Prostate Cancer Patients Consider a Clinical Trial?

Tools for Choosing the Right Prostate Cancer Treatment Approach


Transcript:

Katherine Banwell:

Dr. McKay, for these treatment classes, what can patients expect as far as side effects? 

Dr. Rana McKay:

Absolutely. So, I think side effects – discussing side effects is a really important part of the discussion for selecting any one given therapy and in general, I think when we talk about the hormonal therapies one of the side effects that people can get is largely fatigue.  

But a lot of the symptoms are related to low testosterone. And so, that may mean muscle loss, bone loss, you know, hot flashes, fatigue, decrease libido. So, you those are things to consider with hormonal therapies. With the chemotherapies, I think the big ones we worry about are fatigue, risk of infection, blood counts dropping a little bit, people getting tired, numbness and tingling in the hands and feet can occur, some swelling in the legs are common side effects for chemotherapy agents. With regards to the immunotherapy with the vaccine therapy, it actually tends to be a fairly well tolerated treatment. Maybe some fatigue, rarely some dizziness or some lip – lip sensitivity, numbness with the – the process of kind of collecting the cells. But it actually tends to be fairly well tolerated.  

The targeted therapies can cause fatigue. They can cause the blood counts to drop and can impact bone marrow function. There can be sometimes GI side effects. Nausea, rash, and then the immune therapy, the pembrolizumab (Keytruda), that is FDA-approved sometimes that can cause immune-related adverse events which is kind of over activation of the immune system developing, you know, what I’d call it as the itises. Colitis or pneumonitis, which is inflammation of various organs and symptoms related to wherever that may be.  

Understanding Advanced Prostate Cancer Treatment Approaches

Understanding Advanced Prostate Cancer Treatment Approaches from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What approaches are available to treat advanced prostate cancer? Dr. Rana McKay discusses advanced prostate cancer treatment goals and reviews current options for patients.

Dr. Rana McKay is a medical oncologist at UC San Diego Health and an associate professor in the Department of Medicine at the UC San Diego School of Medicine. Learn more about Dr. McKay, here.
 
 

Katherine Banwell:

We’re going to talk about treatment approaches. But first, how would you define treatment goals? 

Dr. Rana McKay:

So, you know when I look at defining treatment goals it’s focusing on what do we want to achieve from the standpoint of the cancer? Meaning, you know, what are objectives that are associated with patients living longer?  

And then what are objectives and strategies that we can set-up to make sure that patients are living better? So, I think the treatments are basically set up to basically help you achieve those two goals. What can we do to help you live longer and feel better? 

Katherine Banwell:

Yeah. Well, let’s walk through the types of treatments that are used today to treat advanced prostate cancer. What are the treatment causes and who are they appropriate for? Let’s start with surgery, for instance. 

Dr. Rana McKay:

So, surgery is something that’s utilized early on when people are diagnosed with cancer. It tends to be utilized when the cancer has not necessarily spread to other parts of the body but is still localized within the prostate itself, or maybe there’s just some little bit of breakthrough in the capsule. Sometimes it can be used in people who have involvement of the prostate cancer in the lymph nodes. But it’s generally not utilized in people who have cancer that’s spread to other parts of the body. 

Katherine Banwell:

Mm-hmm. What about other treatment classes? What are they? 

 Dr. Rana McKay:

So, radiation can also be utilized. Radiation is a treatment modality that can be used for people with localized disease, and also it can be utilized for people with advanced disease to treat the primary tumor. 

Additionally radiation therapy can be used to help treat symptoms if there’s a bone lesion causing pain or other areas that are causing discomfort. Sometimes radiation to those areas can mitigate pain. When I think about the treatment classes for prostate cancer, they generally break down into several categories. The first, most predominant category is the hormonal therapy category. Hormonal therapies are really the backbone of treatment for men with prostate cancer, and they include the more traditional hormonal therapies that really work to just drop testosterone. So, just LRH – L – LRHA agonists and antagonists and also, they include newer hormonal therapies in the form of pills that really target strategies at also affecting testosterone function and testosterone production. Another class is also the chemotherapy agents. There are two FDA-approved chemotherapies for prostate cancer that are life-prolonging, and there’s a certain role for chemotherapy for people with advanced disease. 

There’s also immunotherapy that can be utilized. There’s a vaccine therapy that’s actually one of the first FDA vaccines for any solid tumor that’s proving in prostate cancer that can be utilized. There’s also radio pharmaceuticals.  

So, these are specific agents that deliver bits of radiation to specific areas. Whether it be radium 223, which targets the bone or the newest radio pharmaceutical, which was approved called Lutetium PSMA that basically delivers beta-radiation to little – sites of PSMA expressing cancer cells and the last category that I would highlight is the category of targeted therapy. There are two targeted therapies for prostate cancer for patients who have like genomic alterations. Those include the drugs olaparib and rucaparib. So, as you can see there’s a wide spectrum of drugs that can be utilized to really keep this disease at bay.