Tag Archive for: recurrence

What Are Advanced Prostate Cancer Treatment Options?

What Are Advanced Prostate Cancer Treatment Options? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What is advanced prostate cancer and how is it treated? Expert Dr. Tanya Dorff explains advanced prostate cancer and discusses available treatment approaches, including clinical trial considerations.

Dr. Tanya Dorff is Associate Professor in the Department of Medical Oncology & Therapeutics Research at City of Hope. Learn more about Dr. Dorff.


Related Resources:

What Is Advanced Prostate Cancer?

What Questions Should Prostate Cancer Patients Ask About Clinical Trials



First, what does it mean to have advanced disease? 

Dr. Dorff:

Advanced prostate cancer signals cancer that’s come back after curative intention or has presented de novo in a way that means we don’t currently have a tool to cure it. That’s at least how I view advanced prostate cancer. You could take a broader definition and consider some high-risk localized patients who need multimodal therapy, but to me, it’s really signaling a shift from something we’re aiming to cure versus something we’re aiming to manage, so that can manifest just as a PSA that’s rising, what we call biochemical recurrence, or it can manifest as visible metastatic disease. 


What does “locally advanced mean? 

Dr. Dorff:

So, “locally advanced” means that it hasn’t metastasized, but it might be involving the local structures, like the seminal vesicles or the bladder or some of the regional lymph nodes, the pelvic lymph nodes. 


How is advanced prostate cancer treated? 

Dr. Dorff:

The cornerstone of treatment for advanced prostate cancer has really been hormone therapy. I think there’s a lot of negative stuff out there on the internet about hormone therapy that I think does a disservice to patients because hormone therapy is truly very, very effective and, for many men, can be quite livable. 

I have patients who live more than a decade on hormone therapy, and they’re running their businesses and they’re raising their grandkids, they’re traveling, they’re running 10Ks, they’re doing all the things that they might want to be doing. That’s not to say there aren’t side effects, but hormone therapy is an effective cornerstone, and I really hope people won’t dismiss it offhand because of the negative things they’ve heard or read about it. 


What about other treatment classes?  

Dr. Dorff:

Most of our other treatments are really layered on top of hormone therapy. We may get to a point – 10 years from now, I don’t know, sometime in the future – when we don’t start with the hormone therapy, so a lot of patients come in asking about the new radiopharmaceutical, the Lutetium-177-PSMA that got approved last year, or about whether chemotherapy can be used. They can be, but they’re really layered on top of hormone therapy, so the hormone therapy is the first treatment, it’s the most effective right now, and then it’s continued as we swap out – we add a novel hormonal agent like abiraterone (Zytiga), or enzalutamide (Xtandi), or one of the others. 

When that is no longer effective, we swap that out, we might use chemotherapy or the radiopharmaceutical. There’s also an immunotherapy that’s been around for more than a decade called sipuleucel-T, and now there’s the targeted therapies – the PARP inhibitors – as well for select patients. 


Where do clinical trials fit into treatment?  

Dr. Dorff:

That’s a great question. I’m so glad you asked. Clinical trials some people mistakenly believe are your last choice, like you’ve gone through every single treatment we have, and then you go to a clinical trial. That’s not the case. Some of the biggest advances in prostate cancer have been when we’ve taken drugs that work in a more advanced resistance setting, like a second- or third-line, and when we move them right up front, first-line, we dramatically amplify their benefit. We dramatically improve survival. 

So, if we don’t think about a clinical trial in the first line, we’re going to miss the opportunity to not only develop those new treatment paradigms, but actually participate in them ahead of when they become the new standard of care down the road. 

Another misconception that people have often about clinical trials is that they are always randomized, there’s always a flipping of the coin in assignment of different treatments, and that they may include a placebo. So, most of our clinical trials at this point do not include placebo. Because we have so many effective treatment options, we’re more and more frequently comparing either two drugs against one, so everyone’s getting at least one effective drug, or we’re not comparing at all, but everyone’s getting some new treatment or some combination of treatments when we’re working out dosing in that scenario, like a Phase II. 

So, clinical trials are really an option at any stage of prostate cancer, even at diagnosis for localized disease all the way through, and truly, I hope people would consider looking at those as options because that’s where some of the most innovative treatment options are going to become available to them. 

Fear of Recurrence

This video was originally published on YouTube by The American Cancer Society on November 5, 2018 here.

Did you know that in addition to patients, caregivers may also be concerned about the cancer returning? This is called fear of recurrence. When your loved one finishes treatment and is no longer followed closely by the cancer care team on a regular basis, you may feel anxious. You’ll learn about how to manage those fears through tips on how to better cope with those feelings.

Learn more at: www.cancer.org/caregivers

Patient Profiles: Breast Cancer Part III

This is the last installment in our three-part series profiling breast cancer survivors. In Part II, the women gave insight into the importance of their mental health and their own attitude as critical components of care. They also shared some of the ways in which they coped with cancer. Today, the women talk about the possibility of recurrence. So, we pick up with the final stage of Shannon’s preventive measures. Based on her history, she knows her cancer can come back, but she wanted to do everything she could to prevent it.

Shannon’s treatment didn’t stop at reconstruction. She opted to have an oophorectomy, which meant she had her ovaries and fallopian tubes removed. Remember, her moms’s cancer had returned and been terminal, so Shannon wanted to take every preventive measure she could. “My fear and my worry is that hers came back 16 years later and she died at 65. If the same thing happened to me, I would die before I’m 60,” says Shannon. Her breast cancer diagnosis meant she was at higher risk for female cancers and she wanted to do whatever she could to have as much time as she could. “I’m relatively young,” she says. “I wanted to give myself as long as I could.” In order to have the procedure, Shannon had to take medication that would put her into menopause and the side effects that came with menopause affect her quality of life, so she says she goes back and forth on whether or not she would do the oophorectomy, if she had it to do all over again.

Although she did have melanoma a couple of years ago, Tina has been 27 years without recurrence of breast cancer. “I didn’t really feel safe until five years out,” she says, but adds that you never really know if it’s coming back, and that you should always be vigilant about checking for lumps. There is a risk of late recurrence, i.e. breast cancer that comes back more than five years after diagnosis and treatment, and it is more likely if it was later stage when first diagnosed, and if the cancer was HR positive.

Like Tina, Betty also had a second cancer. Her colon cancer was discovered in 2009 and her doctor estimated that it had been growing for ten years, but because of where it was growing in relation to the colon wall, the tumor was able to be cleanly removed and no treatment was required. Because her breast cancer was ductal and not in the tissue, and her doctor was able to get very clean margins, Betty says she doesn’t worry about it returning. “I’m more afraid of the colon cancer returning,” she says.

Diana has been nine years without recurrence, but she says, “My guard is always up.” Maybe it’s because her mother and grandmother both had breast cancer, and, despite being BRCA negative, she believes her cancer is hereditary. Shannon feels the same way and says she believes 100 percent that her cancer is genetic. The genetic testing available is limited compared to the number of genes in the human body so, Shannon says, “There’s a long way to go.” And, while it’s early for Shannon to think about recurrence, she can’t help but consider it. “I don’t want to spend every day thinking about cancer. I don’t want that to be my life,” she says, “but it is in the back of my head.” Not knowing how the cancer might come back makes Shannon especially uneasy because she doesn’t have a plan for it.

When Meredith finished treatment, her doctor said he didn’t expect to see her back for recurrence. The odds were in her favor that she would remain cancer free. Meredith, like Betty, says she got the best cancer to get if you’re going to get cancer, but unlike the other ladies, Meredith was not expecting to get cancer. She didn’t have the same family history. Her only red flag was that she had an aunt that had ovarian cancer and she thought maybe her grandmother had breast cancer when she was 90. Meredith was young, she had three small children, and breast cancer was not on her mind. In fact, she was so sure she didn’t have it, that she took her 18-month-old daughter with her when she got the results from her lumpectomy. But, Meredith, who is also BRCA negative, did have cancer, and while her cancer was ductal, it was bigger than it should have been, and there was also a spot on her other breast that needed to be watched. Wanting to be proactive Meredith opted for a double mastectomy with reconstruction. She also had chemotherapy, because the cancer was found in a lymph node, and she lost all her hair. While she possibly could have gone without radiation, she opted for it. Again, she wanted to be aggressive and as proactive in her treatment as possible. She wanted to make sure her cancer was gone.

About a month ago, Meredith found another lump under her arm. She had a scan that was all clear except for the spot where the lump is located. She and her doctors are hoping it is just scar tissue, but she’ll have a lumpectomy this week and then she’ll wait for the biopsy results, which she is guessing will take several days. “The waiting is the worst,” she says. Liz, as a caregiver, felt the same way about waiting, “The worst part of all of it was waiting for the results.”

Tina, who also had young children at diagnosis, recalls that she just wanted to live long enough to raise her children. She says she found it difficult to accept the idea that she might die before her kids were grown. That thought is clearly on Meredith’s mind as well. “I remember saying, ‘Just give me five more years,’ and now it’s been seven years, and I’m saying, ‘Just give me seven more years,’ but no amount of time is enough,” she says. You can hear in her voice that she’s trying to be brave, and she says, “Hopefully, it will all be fine,” but it’s scary because, even though Meredith got the best cancer you can get if you’re going to get cancer, it is still cancer.

Anxious to hear Meredith’s results? We are, too, and as soon as she gets her results, she’s promised to follow up with us. We’re hoping for good news, and we will let you know as soon as we can.