Tag Archive for: thrombocytopenia

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Defined: What Are ET, PV, and MF?

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Defined: What Are ET, PV, and MF? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What are essential thrombocythemia (ET) , polycythemia vera (PV), and myelofibrosis (MF) exactly? Dr. Naveen Pemmaraju explains how each of these blood disorders manifests along with the symptoms observed in these MPN patients.

Dr. Naveen Pemmaraju is Director of the Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm (BPDCN) Program in the Department of Leukemia at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Learn more about Dr. Pemmaraju, here.

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Transcript:

Katherine Banwell:    

Can you help us understand the differences between ET, PV, and MF?

Dr. Pemmaraju:         

Yeah, this is very important because we toss these words around as if there’s some big definition that was given, and oftentimes, that never happens. So, let’s pause to do that. So, this goes back to the 1950s when William Damashek, who really postulated the modern MPDs at that time as they were known – myeloproliferative disorders – really thought that there were four diseases that were similar at some level and then presented differently. So, that’s polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytosis, myelofibrosis, and CML, chronic myeloid leukemia.

Then, as the modern era comes in, CML is divided off because of the Philadelphia chromosome, BCR-ABL, which is present in 100 percent of those patients.

So, now we know CML is its own thing. And now we have the big three, sort of non-Philadelphia chromosome MPNs, as they’re now known, because neoplasm – cancer – instead of disorder. Within the subtype, and this is important, the subtypes that you mentioned are the most common.

So, polycythemia vera – poly meaning many, cythemia, cells, vera is Latin for true.

This is the designation for the patient who has a higher than expected blood red cell mass or hematocrit. And it actually, interestingly, Katherine, most patients with P vera have an increase in all three of their blood lines, so the red cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, and white count. Those patients with PV are especially at risk for both bleeding and clotting, transformation to myelofibrosis, and even transformation to acute leukemia in maybe 5 to 7 percent of patients.

So, the usual treatment there, Katherine, is to bring off the blood mass. That’s the phlebotomy.

And then in the patient who is above the age of 60 or has a prior blood clot, to give some form of chemotherapy, hydroxyurea (Hydrea), or interferon, for example.

Now, the second grouping is ET, essential thrombocytosis. Again, this word vera or essential, meaning not reactive, not benign, not from a regular cause like a surgery or a trauma or an inflammation. So, it means a cancerous cause, an autonomous cause, something that’s coming on its own.

Thrombocythemia or thrombocytosis, meaning too many platelets. So, usually, patients with ET have too many platelets as their predominant manifestation. But again, as with P vera, patients can get into problems with that. Very, very high platelets, usually a million-and-a-half or higher, can actually lead to bleeding. Not necessarily clotting, but extra bleeding. And then patients with any platelet levels, because the platelet level doesn’t exactly correlate, can have either bleeding or clotting. So, that’s usually the predominant factor. And again, the underlying problem with these MPNs is that they can transform to the other ones – PV, MF, even acute leukemia.

And then, finally, myelofibrosis, which we could spend the whole hour on just by itself, is the more advanced state out of these.

So, it can either arise out of the PV or ET or stand alone. And really here, this is an advanced bone marrow failure state with bone marrow scarring or fibrosis. And now, usually, most patients, their blood counts, rather than high are now low because the bone marrow is unable to produce enough cells. And then, therefore, the sequela of the disease – anemia, thrombocytopenia. So, low blood, low platelets.

Then you need transfusions. The liver and the spleen get larger because they remember how to make blood cells. People can have a wasting away appearance. And then here, more than the PV or ET, this is more of an acute disease for many where if you have intermediate to high stage, these patients can transform more readily to leukemia and have a decreased overall survival.

How to Make an Informed MPN Treatment Decision

How to Make an Informed MPN Treatment Decision from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

When faced with several options, how can you decide on the best therapy for your essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), or myelofibrosis (MF)? In this explainer video, Katrina and her doctor walk through important considerations when choosing treatment and provide advice for partnering with your healthcare team.

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Transcript:

Katrina:

Hi, I’m Katrina. Nice to meet you!

Several years ago, I started having headaches and felt very tired. After a trip to the doctor and undergoing bloodwork, I was diagnosed with polycythemia vera, or PV, which is a rare blood cancer that causes my body to produce too many blood cells. It was overwhelming at the time to learn that I had a blood cancer, but my hematologist, Dr. Liu, told me more about the condition and how it’s managed.

Here’s Dr. Liu–she can explain it further.

Dr. Liu:

Hi! I’m Dr. Liu, and I’m a hematologist specializing in the care and treatment of people with myeloproliferative neoplasms or MPNs. MPNs are a group of blood cancers that are characterized by the bone marrow overproducing a certain type of cell. Katrina was diagnosed with PV, which is one of the three MPNs. The three types of MPNs are:

Essential thrombocythemia, or ET, which means that the body is producing too many platelets. The second is polycythemia vera or PV. PV is characterized by the overproduction of red blood cells, and, in some cases, elevated white blood cells and platelets. And the third is myelofibrosis or MF, which causes scarring in the bone marrow that disrupts the normal production of blood cells.

When a patient is diagnosed with any of these conditions, there is a chance they could progress from one condition to the next.

Those that have been diagnosed with ET, PV or MF, should have regular visits with their hematologist to monitor their condition and find the most appropriate treatment to manage their MPN.

Katrina:

After I was diagnosed, I met with Dr. Liu and she walked me through the goals of treatment for PV.

Dr. Liu:

Right! First, we talked about the clinical goals of treatment for PV, which are to reduce the risk of a blood clot and ease or eliminate any symptoms.

And, it’s important to note that because each of the MPNs is different, they are treated differently – be sure to discuss the specific goals of YOUR MPN with your doctor.

Katrina and I reviewed the effectiveness of each treatment option, including how treatment would be administered, and took all of her test results into consideration to make sure we found the best, most personalized treatment option for her PV. Then, we went over what our next steps would be if the treatment plan needed to be adjusted.

Katrina:

Next, we talked about another key treatment goal: symptom management. Dr. Liu let me know that I should make her aware of any symptoms that I may be having, even if I don’t think it’s related to my PV.

Dr. Liu:

Exactly, Katrina. A significant change in symptoms can indicate that it may be time to switch treatments or that the disease might be changing. Those symptoms may include enlarged spleen, fever, itching, fatigue and anemia, among others. This is why it’s always important to not only have blood counts checked regularly, but it’s essential to tell your doctor or nurse about any symptoms you may be having, even if you don’t think it’s related to your MPN.

And, last but not least, we discussed the most important treatment goal: Katrina’s goals. Katrina let me know that she’s very social and enjoys playing golf and tennis with her friends – we wanted to make sure she could continue doing the activities she loves.

Katrina:

Dr. Liu reviewed each of the treatment approaches with me, including potential side effects for every therapy and how it could impact my lifestyle. We discussed the pros and cons of each option, together.

Dr. Liu:

Exactly! When deciding on therapy, you and your doctor may also consider:

Your age and overall health, any presence or history of other medical problems, and the financial impact of a treatment plan.

Katrina:

In addition to asking questions, my daughter, Sarah, took notes during our appointments, since it was often hard for me to absorb everything at once.

We also made sure to talk about the appointment on our way home, while the information was fresh on our minds. And we did our part by researching PV and bringing a list of questions to each appointment.

Sarah found an office visit planner on the Patient Empowerment Network website that helped me organize my health info and questions.

Dr. Liu:

As you can see, Katrina and her daughter were actively engaged in each care decision. It’s vital that patients feel empowered to speak up. If you can, bring a friend or loved one along to your appointment.

And, if you are able, it’s a good idea to seek a second opinion or a consultation with an MPN specialist to help you feel confident in your care decisions.

Katrina:

Dr. Liu let me know that she would monitor my condition through regular physical exams, blood work and frequent communication. She made Sarah and I feel included in the decision-making process, as if it were a collaboration.

Dr. Liu:

That’s right. This is a partnership. So, what steps can you take to be more engaged in your MPN care?

  • Bring a friend or loved one to your appointments.
  • Understand and articulate the goals of your treatment plan.
  • Learn about your options and weigh the pros and cons of each approach.
  • Consider a second opinion or a consult with a specialist.

Katrina:

That’s great advice, Dr. Liu. To learn more, visit powerfulpatients.org/MPN to access a library of tools.

Thanks for joining us!

What Is CLL and How Is It Diagnosed?

What Is CLL and How Is It Diagnosed? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What exactly is chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and what factors help determine a diagnosis? Dr. Jennifer Woyach explains how CLL originates and transforms, the tests involved in diagnosis, and shares a common misconception about CLL.

Dr. Jennifer Woyach is a hematologist-oncologist specializing in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) at Ohio State’s Comprehensive Cancer Center – James Cancer Hospital & Solove Research Institute. Find out more about this expert here. 

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Transcript:

Katherine:                  

Well, Dr. Woyach, let’s start by understanding CLL. Would you briefly walk us through what CLL actually is?

Dr. Woyach:               

Sure. CLL is a cancer of the blood, the lymph nodes, and the bone marrow.

And it happens when a particular type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte acquires genetic mutations and transforms into a cancer cell. And then, over time, those cancer cells continue to grow and divide. And they can cause symptoms such as enlarged lymph nodes if the cells get stuck in the lymph nodes and continue to grow there. It can cause a high white blood cell count, which usually doesn’t cause any symptoms but is one of the things that we see often in CLL. And then, it can also cause the bone marrow to not be able to produce normal cells because it can get so infiltrated or so full of CLL cells.

And this can cause things like anemia, which is lowering of the red blood cell count and thrombocytopenia, which is lowering of your platelet count.

Katherine:                  

What are the steps involved in reaching a diagnosis?

Dr. Woyach:               

CLL is an interesting disease because it’s one of the only cancers that does not require a biopsy of something for a diagnosis.

So, we can, actually, make the diagnosis of CLL based on the peripheral blood. So, just a blood draw in somebody’s doctor’s office. Usually, CLL is diagnosed in the asymptomatic stage. So, somebody goes to their primary care doctor, has blood drawn usually for another reason, and is found to have a high white blood cell count or sometimes even a fairly normal white blood cell count but a high percentage of lymphocytes. That certain type of cancerous white blood cell. So, the next step in the diagnosis then is something called peripheral blood flow cytometry, which is a specialized test where we look at the markers or antigens on the surface of white blood cells.

So, there is kind of a code of these markers on the surface of all of your blood cells that can tell what type of cells they are. So, for CLL in particular, we’ll see that the cells express some of the normal markers we would see on a normal B lymphocyte.

Things like CD19, CD20, CD23. But they also express a marker called CD5, which is found on normal T lymphocytes but shouldn’t be found on B lymphocytes.

And so, this collection of surface markers can make the diagnosis of CLL. Sometimes, we do need to do extra studies like a bone marrow biopsy or a lymph node biopsy. But often times, those are not necessary at the time of diagnosis.

Katherine:                  

When you meet with patients, Dr. Woyach, what are some common misconceptions that you hear about?

Dr. Woyach:               

I think the biggest thing that I hear, and granted I see a lot of patients after they’ve been diagnosed by someone, gone to see an oncologist and then, come to me after, but one of the common things that I hear is that somebody has told them along the way that they have the good type of cancer, which I think is not a very helpful thing to hear as a patient because, of course, no cancer is a good type of cancer.

I think it’s important to note that CLL is one that has a lot of treatment options and usually extended survival. But I think that’s one of the most common misconceptions that I hear.