MPN Research and Optimism About Curative Therapies

MPN Research and Optimism About Curative Therapies from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) researcher Dr. John Mascarenhas discusses why he’s excited about the future of care for patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and myelofibrosis (MF).

Dr. John Mascarenhas is Associate Professor of Medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS) and the Director of the Adult Leukemia Program and Leader of Clinical Investigation within the Myeloproliferative Disorders Program at Mount Sinai. Learn more about Dr. Mascarenhas, here.

See More from INSIST! MPNs

Download Guide

Related Programs

How to Make an Informed MPN Treatment Decision

How to Make an Informed MPN Treatment Decision

How Does Inhibitor Therapy Work to Treat Myelofibrosis

How Does Inhibitor Therapy Work to Treat Myelofibrosis?

An Overview of ET, PV and MF Treatment Options

An Overview of ET, PV and MF Treatment Options


Transcript

Katherine Banwell:

Before we close, Dr. Mascarenhas, let’s talk about research. Are there new developments that you’re excited about?

Dr. Mascarenhas:       

Absolutely. So, what I’m heavily interested in and involved in is clinical investigation and moving the field forward, and there are many people out there that are similarly involved and they’re doing really excellent work. So, I am super jazzed and enthusiastic and optimistic, and it’s what gets me work every day and inspires me is all of the effort that is happening. And, it’s a continuum. So, it’s not just one person trying to try a different drug here and there. It’s really a bringing together of many different people because these are rare diseases.

Many different people from many different institutions that have different areas of expertise, but have a common goal of translating from laboratory informed data, so, not just taking a dart and throwing it at the dartboard and hoping it sticks. But actually taking data that we learned from the lab and leveraging that information to develop therapies that are informed, that are targeted, that are personalized and going through a process of evaluating them to get them into the clinic, with the goal of, and I would say ambitiously, our goal these days is moving beyond trying to make patients feel better, which is an important goal, but it’s really can we really target the disease in a more effective way to induce remissions, to, dare I say, cure patients. So, I think the ambitious goal of the clinical investigators and laboratory investigators that are active in MPN research today is really one looking for an understanding at the basis of the biology of the  disease to develop curative therapies. And, I am optimistic that that will happen.

And, I don’t mean happen in a hundred years from now. I mean happen in our lifetime. So, that’s where we’re going. There’s a lot of very exciting drugs, oral and intravenous drugs and they target very different types of aspects of the disease, and I think patients and physicians will see that maybe those drugs are used best in combination. So, the idea of using one drug, waiting for it to fail and using another drug is really old news, and much of oncology is combination therapy. So, taking drugs that have different targets or mechanisms of action and non-overlapping toxicity to try to better target and delete what’s called the myelofibrosis stem cell that’s the basic issue here, which we don’t effectively delete other than transplant. So, our goal would be to put bone marrow transplanters out of business.

 

What To Expect When Starting MPN Inhibitor Therapy

What To Expect When Starting MPN Inhibitor Therapy from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Changing a treatment approach for your essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), or myelofibrosis (MF) can be intimidating. Dr. John Mascarenhas, a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) specialist, shares tips and advice for beginning a new therapy.

Dr. John Mascarenhas is Associate Professor of Medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS) and the Director of the Adult Leukemia Program and Leader of Clinical Investigation within the Myeloproliferative Disorders Program at Mount Sinai. Learn more about Dr. Mascarenhas, here.

See More from INSIST! MPNs

Download Guide

Related Programs

How Is MPN Treatment Effectiveness Monitored?

How is MPN Treatment Effectiveness Monitored?

Why You Should Speak Up About MPN Symptoms and Treatment Side Effects

Why You Should Speak Up About MPN Symptoms and Treatment Side Effects

What Are the Benefits of MPN Inhibitor Treatment

What Are the Benefits of MPN Inhibitor Treatment?


Transcript

Katherine Banwell:

And we have another question from Craig that we received earlier. “I’m currently receiving regular phlebotomies for PV, but my doctor is considering switching me to inhibitor therapy. What can I expect, and are there side effects that I should be concerned about?”

Dr. Mascarenhas:       

So, for some patients, therapeutic phlebotomy is all that they need, and they do very well with it, and they don’t need to take a therapeutic like a JAK inhibitor or hydroxyurea, which is a non-specific treatment.

But some patients do. So, some patients where if their risk score is higher and their risk for thrombosis, that may be an appropriate indication. And some patients have a lot of symptoms with their PV. So, not all PV patients present and behave the same way. Some patients have a very low symptom burden. Some patients have a very significant symptom burden. Itching, for example can be a very annoying and very troublesome symptom for patients with PV.

And, if you don’t have PV or you don’t know someone with PV, you may not understand or realize the negative impact of having intractable itching, often associated with taking a shower or warm water.

And, that can really detract from quality-of-life and cause a lot of anxiety. So, that’s an example of where sometimes a JAK inhibitor like ruxolitinib can be really lifesaving in terms of restoring quality-of-life and functionality to a patient.

Usually, drugs like ruxolitinib are very well-tolerated too, which we’re fortunate about. There’s not a lot of toxicity associated with them. So, for example, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair falling out with chemotherapeutics, you really don’t see with ruxolitinib or Jakafi. Easy bruising, headaches and some dizziness up front sometimes may be seen. They’re usually low-grade and they’re usually fleeting. And usually, the benefit, the feel-good aspect of it outweighs toxicity that can be seen with the drugs. They are immunomodulatory drugs. So, ruxolitinib or Jakafi may increase, to some small extent, but likely, real extent, infectious complications like shingles, urinary tract infections, upper respiratory infections. So, sometimes there is this increased risk. It’s often outweighed by the benefit of the drug.

But there are risks that are associated, and of course the results are not guaranteed. So, I always warn patients, be careful when you look at the package inserts or talk to the physicians. Risks are risks. They’re not guaranteed. So, most patients don’t have these toxicities, but one is at risk for toxicity whenever they take any medication.

An Overview of ET, PV and MF Treatment Options

An Overview of ET, PV and MF Treatment Options from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Treatment for essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and myelofibrosis (MF) can vary greatly. Dr. John Mascarenhas breaks down the treatment types and the goals of treatment for each type of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN).

Dr. John Mascarenhas is Associate Professor of Medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS) and the Director of the Adult Leukemia Program and Leader of Clinical Investigation within the Myeloproliferative Disorders Program at Mount Sinai. Learn more about Dr. Mascarenhas, here.

See More from INSIST! MPNs

Download Guide

Related Programs

What Questions Should Patients Ask About MPN Test Results

What Questions Should Patients Ask About MPN Test Results?

Patient Considerations That Impact MPN Treatment Decisions

Patient Considerations That Impact MPN Treatment Decisions

What Are the Benefits of MPN Inhibitor Treatment

What Are the Benefits of MPN Inhibitor Treatment?


Transcript

Katherine Banwell:

Depending on the patient, it seems like ET or PV may be easily managed. So, how are they treated? Let’s start with essential thrombocythemia or ET.

Dr. Mascarenhas:       

So, ET is a disease in which first and foremost, we’re trying to reduce the risk of thrombosis, clotting, and/or hemorrhage bleeding. So, typically, ET patients are risk stratified by low risk or high risk.

It’s almost simply based on their age, whether they’ve had a clot in the past, and some systems now even incorporate other factors like mutation status. And, you tailor the treatment based on their risk score. So, low risk ET patients don’t necessarily need to be treated. They can be followed expectantly and watched. The height of the platelet count does not predict thrombotic risk. So, we don’t treat the platelet count per se. A high-risk patient is at high risk for clotting. So, these patients almost invariably are getting aspirin at a baseline, and they are often on cytoreductive therapy. And sometimes, that is chemotherapy like hydroxyurea. Sometimes it’s a non-chemotherapeutic option and like anagrelide, and sometimes it’s a biologic therapy like interferon alfa either 2a, Pegasys, or 2b ropeginterferon. And, these are therapies that have rationale, that have clinical data, that have demonstrated reduction in risk of clotting, which again is the reason why we treat high-risk ET patients.

Katherine Banwell:                  

And, what about PV, polycythemia vera?

Dr. Mascarenhas:     

So, in polycythemia vera, it’s similar to ET. We risk stratify patients low and high risk based on age and clotting histories. And whether you’re low or high risk, we give PV patients aspirin or at least once daily, and we look to keep their hematocrit below a threshold of 45 percent. And sometimes in women, we even go lower, to 42  percent. But the idea is that controlling the hematocrit, which is one of the red blood cells indices, you reduce the risk of having clots, and that’s been shown actually many years ago and reinforced in a very well-known study called the CYTO-PV study in Italy documented that if you keep the hematocrit less than 45 percent, so, stringent control versus allowing for less stringent control between 45 to 50, that you reduce by fourfold the number of cardiovascular events that can occur.

So, we know that controlling the hematocrit is important, and that can be done, again, with hydroxyurea, interferon, and ruxolitinib.

The JAK2 inhibitor has also proved specifically for patients who had an intolerance or refractory hydroxyurea, but also importantly as a drug that can address, probably better than most drugs in this field, the symptom burden that could be problematic for some of those patients. But, it’s really about controlling the hematocrit.

Katherine Banwell:                  

Yeah. Since myelofibrosis is a progressive condition, I imagine that makes it more difficult to manage. So, what else is available for patients with myelofibrosis?

Dr. Mascarenhas:       

The first line of treatment is typically a JAK inhibitor, although I would say that there are a subset of patients – well, there are patients we sometimes meet that have very low risk disease. They don’t have those clinical variables we discussed before that could uptick their risk score, and some of those patients can be watched.

And interestingly, there are a subset of patients that can have an indolent or slow form of the disease where they don’t have aggressive changes in their disease, their blood counts, their symptoms, their spleen, and don’t need immediate treatment. Most patients would benefit from a JAK inhibitor, although there are a subset of patients where their issue is less simple in spleen burden and it’s more anemia.

So, we take those patients where anemia’s the focus, we look at their erythropoietin level, which is their endogenous hormone level that regulates red blood cell production. If it’s low, we give them a lab-based form of erythropoietin, something called Procrit or Aranesp. If it’s high, we will move on. We can use a drug called danazol, which is a synthetic male androgen which can improve hemoglobin levels in 20 to 40 percent of patients. Or, we can use a drug called lenalidomide, which is an immunomodulatory drug. And, more recently, there’s a drug in testing called to luspatercept, which is an active activin receptor ligand trap. So, there is a growing armamentarium of drugs that can be used to try to alleviate the anemia which is present and can be a significant issue in about a quarter of patients with myelofibrosis upfront at time of diagnosis or about 75  percent through the course of their disease. So, that’s an unmet need that still requires attention and may alter the treatment plan for a given patient.

Katherine Banwell:                  

What about stem cell transplants?

Dr. Mascarenhas:       

So, we relegate stem cell plant transplants for those patients as mentioned before that are higher risk because we think that the potential benefit-to-risk ratio is in favor of transplant.

Transplant is really a modality that is the only modality that offers the potential for cure, but it’s also a modality that poses a significant risk of morbidity and mortality associated with it. So, it has to really be taken very seriously. It can’t be the kind of treatment you would think of as a last resort at the last minute. Once you see a transplanter, if they’re interested in that therapy and see it early on in the disease course, in my opinion, to start that dialog and then figure out when is the optimal time to employ a bone marrow transplant, which is not a surgical procedure. It’s often thought to be surgical. It’s not a transplant of an organ. It’s a transplant of hematopoietic cells. So, it’s really an infusion of stem cells that then end up in the person’s bone marrow, and they create a whole new hematopoietic system and immune system. And with that, you can have an immune system that then goes after the myelofibrosis stem cells.

That’s called graft-versus-leukemia effect. But with that included graft-versus-host disease, which is when the new graft, the new immune system doesn’t always recognize well the person’s own tissues, whether it’s the liver, or the lung, or the skin, and you can have immunologic reactions to that.

So, that’s a complex discussion. But, transplant, typically for patients less than 70 years of age who have high-risk myelofibrosis or even up to 75 if they have a good performance status and as we said don’t have a lot of comorbid issues with a goal of cure. So, if you have someone where their goal is to try to maximize their time out of the hospital and they’re not focused on longevity, their focused on quality of life, that may not be an appropriate patient for transplantation.

So, I think a very upfront, honest and a transparent discussion with the patient about what to expect with transplant, what are the pros and cons, what are the risks involved, and importantly does it match up with their expectations or their desires.

What Are the Benefits of MPN Inhibitor Treatment?

What Are the Benefits of MPN Inhibitor Treatment? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

MPN expert Dr. John Mascarenhas shares an overview of how inhibitor therapy works to treat myelofibrosis (MF) and the benefits of this type of treatment.

Dr. John Mascarenhas is Associate Professor of Medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS) and the Director of the Adult Leukemia Program and Leader of Clinical Investigation within the Myeloproliferative Disorders Program at Mount Sinai. Learn more about Dr. Mascarenhas, here.

See More from INSIST! MPNs

Download Guide

Related Programs

An Overview of ET, PV and MF Treatment Options

An Overview of ET, PV and MF Treatment Options

Which Gene Mutations Impact Myelofibrosis Treatment Options?

Which Gene Mutations Impact Myelofibrosis Treatment Options?

What Are the Considerations When Choosing Myelofibrosis Therapy?

What Are the Considerations When Choosing Myelofibrosis Therapy?


Transcript

Katherine Banwell:

Dr. Mascarenhas, what is inhibitor therapy and how does that work?

Dr. Mascarenhas:       

So, inhibitor therapy in general are usually oral drugs for the most part, small molecule inhibitors that are geared and usually specific but not totally specific because then they can have off-target effects, but geared to inhibiting usually an enzyme that is overactive or is contributing to the pathophysiology of the disease.

I think in MF, probably one of the best examples is a JAK2 inhibitor. So, there are a number of JAK2 inhibitors that have been in clinical testing. There are two that are approved, ruxolitinib and fedratinib which are excellent drugs in inhibiting JAK2 protein itself in the cells that could be either upregulated or hyperactive in the signaling pathway, and it quiets down a signaling pathway in the hematopoietic cells that leads to a lot of the manifestations of the disease, namely symptoms and spleen.

So, one of the clear benefits of JAK inhibitors that was established many years ago and reinforced by multiple drugs that are either approved or in late-stage testing is these drugs are excellent in improving the symptom burden in the patients and reducing their spleen. Unfortunately, as a class, we’ve not seen these drugs induce remissions or cure patients. So, there’s still interest in developing, obviously, non-JAK inhibitor therapies. But inhibitors in general are inhibiting proteins that are either inappropriately activated or part of a cascade of signaling molecules that are contributing to the disease.

And they are not chemotherapeutic, which might be an important point to make. In past days, we’ve relied heavily in hematologic malignancies in using chemotherapies which are nonspecific and just kill dividing cells whereas inhibitors typically are targeted, and in some sense, it’s personalized to the disease with toxicity profiles that are usually quite distinct from the traditional chemotherapies that we use.  

 

How Do MPNs Progress From One Disease to the Next?

How Do MPNs Progress From One Disease to the Next? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Understanding how essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), or myelofibrosis (MF) are connected may be confusing to patients. Dr. John Mascarenhas, an expert in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), provides an overview of how the conditions are defined and how they may progress from one condition to the next.

Dr. John Mascarenhas is Associate Professor of Medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS) and the Director of the Adult Leukemia Program and Leader of Clinical Investigation within the Myeloproliferative Disorders Program at Mount Sinai. Learn more about Dr. Mascarenhas, here.

See More from INSIST! MPNs

Related Programs

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Defined: What Are ET, PV, and MF?

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Defined: What Are ET, PV, and MF?

Which Gene Mutations Impact Myelofibrosis Treatment Options?

Which Gene Mutations Impact Myelofibrosis Treatment Options?

Which Tests Do You Need Following an MPN Diagnosis

Which Tests Do You Need Following an MPN Diagnosis?


Transcript

Katherine Banwell: 

As we move through today’s program, which is going to cover the three classic MPNs, polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and myelofibrosis. So, for someone who has one of these conditions, can you help us understand how one may progress to the next?

Dr. Mascarenhas:

So, these are a very heterogeneous or variable group of diseases that are under an umbrella called the myeloproliferative neoplasm. So, MPNs can really present and behave and have very different clinical courses. So, I think it’s very important for patients to realize that these are rare diseases, that that has a complexity to it because they don’t always have the ability or the privilege to know other patients or people in their lives that may have these diseases. So, it could be very frightening from a level of feeling isolated or alone with a diagnosis like this and not having familiarity, but also, that these are vague diagnoses in the sense that when you have breast cancer, one can kind of conceptualize that there is a mass in the breast, for example, and that that can be staged. It can go to the lymph nodes in the armpit, it could spread below. And people can kind of understand that concept. I think it’s a little bit more challenging when you talk about MPNs because it’s a little bit more abstract.

These diseases are within the bone marrows at diagnosis. So, they’re not staged in a physical way, and they are complex because they can lead to high blood counts, low blood counts, different types of symptoms, and the approaches really have to be personalized. They are all three interrelated because there are commonalities. So, there are certain clinical commonalities and also biologic commonalities. So, for example, the JAK2 mutation, the JAK2V617F mutation is seen in all three diseases. So, it’s not specific to one or the other.

It’s more common in polycythemia vera, but in about 50 percent of patients with ET, and 50 percent of patients with MF, you can see this mutation. So, the mutation alone doesn’t really tell us what the disease is. It just tells us you have one of these diseases. And, there are other mutations. So, a bone marrow biopsy then becomes integral in helping subtype the patient and then create that treatment plan and that outlook that’s specific for that disease.

And as you mentioned, to make it even more complicated, these diseases can overlap not just biologically, but in a continuum. So, patients with ET or polycythemia vera can progress in some cases to myelofibrosis. And, all three diseases in a minority of patients can progress or evolve into acute myeloid leukemia, which is a more aggressive form of bone marrow cancer.

Patient Considerations That Impact MPN Treatment Decisions

Patient Considerations That Impact MPN Treatment Decisions from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

How can personal choices play a role in your MPN care? Dr. John Mascarenhas reviews factors that should be considered, including lifestyle and overall health, when choosing therapy for essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), or myelofibrosis (MF).

Dr. John Mascarenhas is Associate Professor of Medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS) and the Director of the Adult Leukemia Program and Leader of Clinical Investigation within the Myeloproliferative Disorders Program at Mount Sinai. Learn more about Dr. Mascarenhas, here.

See More from INSIST! MPNs

Related Programs

An Overview of ET, PV and MF Treatment Options

An Overview of ET, PV and MF Treatment Options

Why You Should Speak Up About MPN Symptoms and Treatment Side Effects

Why You Should Speak Up About MPN Symptoms and Treatment Side Effects

What Are the Goals of ET, PV, and MF Treatment?

What Are the Goals of ET, PV, and MF Treatment?


Transcript

Katherine Banwell:

Outside of testing, what other factors should be considered when choosing treatment?

Dr. Mascarenhas:       

I think patient expectation. So, sometimes physicians and family will impose what they want for a patient, and that may not be what the patient really wants. So, I have learned over the years that it’s crucial to make sure that you understand the patient and what the patient’s expectations, desires, and that’s influenced by the life they’ve lead or the remaining life that they want to live and their own personal religious and spiritual beliefs.

So, I think knowing your patient and understanding what their expectations are, it’s fundamental, and sometimes, it’s overlooked. So, understanding that, I think, is very crucial. And then, dividing what are the objectives of the treatment in a given patient? Is it really to improve anemia in some patient versus perhaps a different patient, it may be to improve their quality of life and reduce their symptom burden. And then in other patients, it may be purely trying to cure the disease with therapies that may be aggressive, which may not be appropriate for an older patient where toxicity could outweigh any potential benefit of survival or longevity. So, you really have to have a discussion with the patient or caregivers, and then define what are the goals in that individual to personalize that approach for that patient.

Katherine Banwell:                  

Right. Right. And, there’s the patient’s overall health, comorbidities, other things like that?

Dr. Mascarenhas:       

Yeah, because we are not treating a disease in isolation usually. So, patients come with baggage posed of past diseases, current diseases.

And sometimes patients are not “fit” for certain types of therapies because they may be sick or they may have organ dysfunction that would make certain types of treatment approaches ill-advised because the toxicity could be higher. So, absolutely, you need to know their comorbid index, how much comorbidities they have and also their performance status, how active and how well they are in general.

Katherine Banwell:                  

Are there specific biomarkers that may affect prognosis or treatment?

Dr. Mascarenhas:       

So, yes and no. I mean, I think that’s an area of intense interest and research. So, we have identified certain biomarkers that have, as I mentioned, prognostic significance, and that may influence treatment decisions. So, patients who have, for example, as we discussed next-generation sequencing and we see their mutations that are present, if they have an accumulation of high molecular risk mutations, that may give us a sense that perhaps that patient may not enjoy the full benefit and duration of benefit of, for example, a JAK inhibitor as another patient that has a less complex disease.

And, that doesn’t necessarily mean that the therapy is not appropriate for the patient. But it may help us plan and be prepared to move on to the next therapy sooner or to be more vigilant for changes that would tell us it’s time to move on. So, I think they help us maybe get a general sense of things and put things into perspective. They don’t always necessarily inform us on a change in therapy immediately or the next or the most immediate therapy. But I do think that that will change because I would predict in the next five to 10 years, I think that the number of available drugs for myelofibrosis, for example, will likely double from what it is now. I think we will have an armamentarium to choose from, and what we will learn from trials that are ongoing is there may be certain profiles, mutations, chromosomal profiles, other clinical variable profiles that we will learn from these trials that will help us to find upfront, “Well, this profile really should go with his medication. That profile should go with that medication.”

An early of example that would be we’re learning that not all patients with the JAK2 mutation are created equal, that you can have different burdens of JAK2 mutation.

And, patients with low burden JAK2 mutation, for example, may fare better with up a specific JAK to inhibitor like pacritinib than patients who get treated with other JAK inhibitors like ruxolitinib.

So, there are differences even within patient defined by mutation that may help us predict which of the JAK inhibitors, as an example, may be more appropriate as a first-line therapy. So, I think that will evolve more so over the next five to 10 years.

What Questions Should Patients Ask About MPN Test Results?

What Questions Should Patients Ask About MPN Test Results? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What should you know about your MPN test results? Dr. Mascarenhas discusses how test results are used, including the importance of genetic mutations and risk stratification when analyzing results.

Dr. John Mascarenhas is Associate Professor of Medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS) and the Director of the Adult Leukemia Program and Leader of Clinical Investigation within the Myeloproliferative Disorders Program at Mount Sinai. Learn more about Dr. Mascarenhas, here.

See More from INSIST! MPNs

Related Programs

Which Tests Do You Need Following an MPN Diagnosis

Which Tests Do You Need Following an MPN Diagnosis?

What Are the Goals of ET, PV, and MF Treatment?

What Are the Goals of ET, PV, and MF Treatment?

An Overview of ET, PV and MF Treatment Options

An Overview of ET, PV and MF Treatment Options


Transcript

Katherine Banwell: 

Some patients may not know if they’ve received these important tests. So, what key questions should they ask their physician about testing?

Dr. Mascarenhas:       

Well, I think it’s important that the patients feel empowered to understand sort of where the field is and what key questions you would ask a physician, hematologist who’s taking care of you. So, I think all patients should be aware of their diagnosis, the name of the diagnosis, the subtype, but also do they have any of the key driving mutations, the JAK2 mutation, the calreticulin mutation, the MPL mutation, and that’s usually done off of a bone marrow biopsy sample, but it can be done off peripheral blood. And, they may not always know that it’s done. So, I think having a discussion with the position to understand there are criteria that exist called the World Health Organization criteria that are updated frequently and should set a standard throughout the world of how you diagnose and establish these diagnoses.

So, I think it’s important for physicians to be able to convey to the patients with confidence, “We follow these criteria and you have these criteria and we’ve done this testing that shows that you have these mutations.” And not just regurgitate what they found, but help them understand and navigate with that means, which again, I will point out that sometimes we don’t know. But, I think it’s important for physicians to convey sometimes that some of the findings that they may see, for example, patients look on portals these days and they can look at their labs and stuff like that. And, we don’t always have a terrific answer or an informed answer for everything that we get back. And, we will potentially in 10 years from now, but sometimes at the moment, we don’t. But, I think a discussion about the meaning of the labs that are obtained is probably good for the patient to understand what’s being done.

Katherine Ba:nwell:

Absolutely. It sounds like each person’s situation is unique and should be considered before making any treatment choices. Can you talk about how the results of these tests may affect prognosis and treatment?

Dr. Mascarenhas:     

So, we do have risk stratification systems that we use for essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera, and myelofibrosis. I’ll talk about myelofibrosis because that’s probably a little bit more of a complex and sophisticated model. It’s also changing, and we update it frequently. And, these models are imperfect, so I always warn patients to not put all of their money in one basket when we talk about risk stratification. They broadly help us understand where a patient is in their disease course. So, for example, in myelofibrosis, historically, the DIPSS, the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System is used, which considered five clinical variables that have been shown to be independently prognostic. So, at age over 65, the presence of blasts or circulating immature cells in the peripheral blood, anemia, hemoglobin less than 10, symptoms, fevers, night sweats, weight loss or a high white count over 25,000, you those points up.

And patients can do this online. There are calculators that you can calculate your DIPSS score. And, you’ll see that there are four different risk groups that range from low risk to high risk, and they are associated with median survivals. We now know that mutations influence those, have influence on prognosis. So, there are a group of high molecular risk mutations like ASXL1, SRSF2, IDH1/2. So, there are mutations that also have prognostic significance, and we incorporate them into the decision-making.

And, essentially, and this is where I think patients have to be very careful, physicians have to be very careful with conveying this. With these risk models whether they are clinical variable risk models or these integrated molecular risk models, each category is associated with a median survival, that’s based on retrospective studies. But that doesn’t tell the patient specifically what they should expect in terms of survival. And, I always fear that patients, when they look at these things, or even physicians when they convey them that they may inadvertently misrepresent or convey what those really mean.

And, I think the purpose of those risk stratifications is really to help guide a risk adapted treatment approach that’s reasonable and is weighted for benefit to risk of the disease. So, for example, if you have advanced disease with a high-risk score of intermediate to or higher, bone marrow transplant in certain patients may be a warranted therapy to consider. So, they really help inform treatment.

 

Which Tests Do You Need Following an MPN Diagnosis?

Which Tests Do You Need Following an MPN Diagnosis? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

After a diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), or myelofibrosis (MF), what testing should take place? Dr. John Mascarenhas shares an overview of essential and in-depth testing for patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs).

Dr. John Mascarenhas is Associate Professor of Medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS) and the Director of the Adult Leukemia Program and Leader of Clinical Investigation within the Myeloproliferative Disorders Program at Mount Sinai. Learn more about Dr. Mascarenhas, here.

See More from INSIST! MPNs

Related Programs

Have You Had These Essential Myelofibrosis Tests?

What Are the Goals of ET, PV, and MF Treatment?

What Are the Goals of ET, PV, and MF Treatment?

MPN Treatment: What Is the Role of Biomarkers?

MPN Treatment: What Is the Role of Biomarkers?


Transcript

Katherine Banwell: 

What tests are necessary to help understand a patient’s specific disease at diagnosis?

Dr. Mascarenhas:

Usually, the blood counts are the first opening door test that allows some understanding of, again, either an abnormal production of red blood cells, platelets or under production of these cells. And, that’s really where often the evaluation begins. And then, there are further blood tests that often are done.

And I would say almost indefinitely or almost definitely one should have a bone marrow biopsy that helps categorize the type of myeloproliferative neoplasm because there can be overlap in how the blood counts can look from one disease to the next and overlap in the mutations like the JAK2 mutation. So, sometimes, the blood counts and the molecular testing are not enough, and a bone marrow biopsy looking under the microscope at the different types of cells, the proportion of cells, whether there’s fibrosis where there’s others other types of cells that shouldn’t be there and they’re looking at the chromosomes and the flow cytometry, these are associated tests. As well as almost probably anywhere anyone goes at this point, they’re going to get next-generation sequencing, which is looking at multiple genes and mutations, and that gives a more broader, deeper sense of the disease.

So, those really become the integral parts. In some cases, patients will end up getting imaging of their abdomen to see if they have an enlarged spleen or enlarged liver.

Although that’s not always necessary, that is often part of the workup. So, it’s bloodwork, it’s bone marrow biopsy, sometimes imaging is usually the cornerstone.

Katherine Banwell: 

And, what is molecular or biomarker testing?

Dr. Mascarenhas:    

So, molecular testing today really means – at one point, it really meant looking at PCR for specific gene mutations.

So, for example, we would look at the JAK2 and we would say, “In a given person, is this gene mutated?” We all have JAK2 gene, but in patients with these diseases, they’re more commonly mutated which means altered in the blood cells. And, it’s very important for a patient to understand not in every cell in their bodies, but in their blood cell compartment. And, that helps us understand and start characterizing their disease, and sometimes that mutation can be measured. It can be at a low level. It could be a high level. And, that’s all put together in trying to understand the molecular basis of these diseases.

Today, next-generation sequencing has really taken over and that’s looking at more than just one gene.

Its sequencing could be 40 genes, it could be 200 genes, to get a sense of the complexity of the disease and looking for certain mutations which are considered biomarkers that can portend prognosis or I think increasingly, we’ll see may inform treatment decisions and may even be targets themselves of therapies.

Katherine Banwell:              

Right. Should all patients diagnosed with ET, PV, or MF undergo biomarker testing? Is that necessary?

Dr. Mascarenhas:       

I would say it’s part of the modern evaluation and management of patients today. I don’t think that that was true 10 years ago. But, I think the field has matured. I will say I’m the first person to acknowledge to patients that we get a lot of information back, and the truth is we don’t often know what to do with all of that information. So, sometimes we get information back that can cause anxiety because you can see mutations in genes. But they don’t always inform us on how to educate the patient about their disease or tell us what to do with the treatment.

So, there is still a lag as there normally would be between the testing of the results that we get, and then the actual knowledge of what to do with that. And, that’s still a process that’s in evolution.

What Is Personalized Medicine for ET, PV & MF?

What Is Personalized Medicine for ET, PV & MF? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

MPN expert Dr. John Mascarenhas defines personalized medicine and how the approach is used in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera, (PV) and myelofibrosis (MF).

Dr. John Mascarenhas is Associate Professor of Medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS) and the Director of the Adult Leukemia Program and Leader of Clinical Investigation within the Myeloproliferative Disorders Program at Mount Sinai. Learn more about Dr. Mascarenhas, here.

See More from INSIST! MPNs

Related Programs

What Are the Considerations When Choosing Myelofibrosis Therapy?

What Are the Considerations When Choosing Myelofibrosis Therapy?

Which Gene Mutations Impact Myelofibrosis Treatment Options?

Which Gene Mutations Impact Myelofibrosis Treatment Options?

How Does Inhibitor Therapy Work to Treat Myelofibrosis?


Transcript

Katherine Banwell: 

Before we delve into our discussion, let’s start with a term we’ve been hearing a lot about recently. How would you define “personalized medicine?”

Dr. Mascarenhas:    

So, it’s a good question because I think it’s poorly defined in many ways because it can mean different things I think to different people. And, it’s a definition that’s in evolution. So, I think at its core, personalized medicine tries to embody the concept of creating an evaluation and management plan that is specific of tailored to that patient on multiple levels.

On a personal level, on an objective level of what the patient’s objectives are with their therapy or their disease, and then on a biologic level in terms of the type of disease, and now increasingly, on a molecular level. So, in some cases, it may be personalized therapeutics that are specific or targeted to certain mutations that the patient may have. And, that’s kind of where things are evolving from a treatment perspective. And to me, personalized medicine should be the goal of any interaction with a patient that you have to personalize the approach. Because, every patient that we meet is quite different and distinct from the next patient, and their own sensitivities, understandings and desires can be quite different. So, you want to personalize that approach to that patient at the most basic level.

Health Educator Turned MPN Patient Speaks to Importance of Specialized Care

Health Educator Turned MPN Patient Speaks to Importance of Specialized Care from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) patient and health educator Julia Olff helped others navigate the healthcare system before her diagnosis with myelofibrosis and later with ET. Watch as she shares her unique experience and how finding MPN specialists can help patients in receiving optimal care.  

See More From the MPN TelemEDucation Resource Center

Related Resource:


Transcript:

Julia Olff:

Well, as a health educator and as a former hospital administrator when I was diagnosed with myelofibrosis, I feel like I had a particular reaction to the diagnosis that might be different from others who didn’t work in healthcare. I was both fascinated, which may sound really bizarre, that I was being diagnosed with an illness that I did not feel. Also, an illness I had not heard of, although I knew about some of the treatments that might be proposed because of my work as a health educator. So, I feel like I kind of went into health educator mode and health navigator mode, and that gave me a leg up in terms of knowing very early on, that once my ET transformed to myelofibrosis, I knew that I needed to see an MPN expert. And because I worked on health education because I worked in hospitals, I understood that I want, I needed to see a physician who had a depth of expertise, who had a volume of patients, who had a lot of experience with the drugs that existed. Although, in 2008, there was no approved, drug for myelofibrosis, but I knew I needed to go to the place where there was…

Where I had a better chance of getting the latest treatment, and I was diagnosed by a community oncologist who was lovely and one of the nicest people, and one of the nicest physicians I’ve seen, but it was clear he was not steeped in MPNs, because he treated patients across a spectrum of cancers. So, in that way, I think I started out in a different place, I also know that hospitals and healthcare can be very overwhelming, and I had a bit of the language and the world and some of the sort of…I understood a little bit more, I think about what my physicians might have been sharing with me, and if I didn’t, I felt empowered and not that this is easy by any stretch and it continues to be a challenge, but I knew that I needed to ask questions. I knew that I needed to read more about my illness, I knew I needed to vet my doctor as well, and I also figured out over time that as I was going to have this illness, hopefully in the sense that I hope I continue to live well with myelofibrosis and stay alive, that I was going to be seeing an MPN expert for a long time.

So, I think that influenced my point of view, I kind of take it as a job, so as to my personality, so I have a health notebook, I need to have one from the very beginning, I knew I couldn’t remember everything, I had to write it down. I knew I had to track what I was feeling so I could share it with my doctor, and I knew that from being a health educator, I think no one told me to do those things, and certainly, physicians don’t really know to tell you that, so I think in a lot of ways, I was approaching my illness in a very serious manner because I had experience in healthcare, and the last comment I’ll make is, I think from navigating the system, navigating health insurance, I knew a little bit from my experience as a caregiver already, and also from a health educator, I understood this is another area where I needed to empower myself or ask questions, or not take some of the information that may have been shared with me initially as on face value, that it was okay to ask more. As I said, I’ve had this illness for 13 years, I’ve also been caregiving for an adult child with illness, and every time I call the insurance company to ask a question about an explanation of benefits or why something isn’t covered, and learn a tiny bit more, and I add that to sort of my toolkit. 

Making Lifestyle Changes When Living With an MPN

Making Lifestyle Changes When Living With an MPN from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

 As a myelofibrosis (MF) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) patient, Julia Olff has experienced lifestyle changes in her MPN journey. Watch as she shares changes she made with her work life and eating habits and the impact on her well-being as an MPN patient.

See More From the MPN TelemEDucation Resource Center

Related Resource:


Transcript:

Julia Olff:

I’ve definitely made many lifestyle changes since I’ve been diagnosed with ET and then myelofibrosis. The biggest change came when I needed to give up full-time work and began to work on a very part-time basis, so that’s been the most monumental change, and it really came about because of how unwell I was feeling, how much pain I was going through at the time, I also had a mini-stroke and became more involved in is hospitalized that I needed more treatment than I was seeing more…more specialists for a short period of time, and my husband and I recognized that to maintain my well-being, I needed to step off of the 50-hour week plus travel job that I was doing, so that was a really big change and that continues to influence my life, however, I’ve found a lot of positives in that I’m fortunate that I’ve been able to financially sustain my life while working part-time and find other aspects of my life that are fulfilling. For example, I volunteer a lot more. I’ve made changes in the way that I eat and the way that I sleep, so myelofibrosis has certainly caused a lot more fatigue over the years. And while when I was working full-time, I don’t think I was getting the amount of sleep that I really needed, and fatigue started to really weigh on me, and I remember driving and just feeling like, “Oh my God, I can’t do this,” so I make sure that I go to bed much earlier than I used to and try to wake up about the same time every day, and it’s also helped with some of the insomnia that I know people with myelofibrosis on the flip side, have with the fatigue. I’ve been hospitalized a few times for colitis, and there are all sorts of potential for bleeding with myelofibrosis, and we’re not sure that that was related, but I learned that I needed to change the way I was eating, and I can’t say that I did it immediately.

It took seeing a gastroenterologist, who evaluated all of my records and several more colonoscopies to get and the terrible, terrible pain of colitis to realize I needed to change the way I was eating, and I also had some weight gain with one of the medications that I was on…and so I enrolled in Weight Watchers, which I found to be incredibly helpful to help me lose some weight and did help me pump up the fruits and vegetables in my diet, especially when I learned you can eat lots of those…but less of other things. So those are some of the changes. And the last one I say is really learning to pace myself and to not overdo it, and that’s a longer learning process, I think, and figuring out that you don’t have the same kind of energy that you had pre-illness, where you can kind of push your day…you can do one more thing, one to one more place, add one more task to do is when you’re out, I’m much more of a planner, and I allow myself much more time to get things done, and I spread them out over several days, what I might have done in one day in the past.  

MPN Patient Shares Survivorship Tips, Recognizing Social Media Toxicity

MPN Patient Shares Survivorship Tips, Recognizing Social Media Toxicity from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

 Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) patient Julia Olff has experienced the positive and negative aspects of online information and social media in her search for support. Watch as she shares her support journey with what she found helpful and what became toxic in her efforts to gain MPN information and emotional support.

See More From the MPN TelemEDucation Resource Center

Related Resource:


Transcript:

Julia Olff:

So, I think social media has many advantages, especially when you have a rarer illness like myelofibrosis. I was diagnosed with myelofibrosis in 2008, and there really was not a lot of good information yet about the illness online, and I had not met anyone who had my myelofibrosis, so I really appreciated being able to go to places like Facebook in their earlier days, with my illness, to find organizations to find other people with the illness, I think learning from other people in terms of their strategies for coping with her illness, tips for dealing with side effects, and other people can answer questions about the physicians and nurses just can’t because they don’t experience it directly, how something feels sort of setting your expectations for a treatment can be really helpful, and I think that’s where social media really shines, is creating community and connecting it to others and learning from peers. The downsides though, I think, are the amount of opinion, unfounded opinion, not sourced opinion that exists that I saw on social media, and then the angry vitriol or kind of disagreement that I found really harmful to my mental health.

I’m always trying to balance how I feel with my mindset, and there are times that that’s easier to do, and times that that’s harder to do, so when I’ve been particularly unwell or just had a hospitalization, I feel like I have…I’m more vulnerable, I have less of a threshold for negativity and angry commentary, and that you can find that on social media, unfortunately, and then, of course, there’s… what I find troubling or not helpful are the opinions of other people who relay people who don’t necessarily have the depth of credible information about a treatment study, what’s right or wrong as it relates to the latest in myelofibrosis treatment, and treatment advances. So it’s helpful to hear about what it was like to have a stem cell transplant from someone with myelofibrosis, but yet I can’t rely on an individual for credible scientific medically sound information. So I think for me, I actually deleted my Facebook account in 2020, but I did keep my Twitter account because there I follow physicians’ epidemiologists, and of course, MPN organizations so that I can know about upcoming webinars or patient events, or new treatments. So that’s been really helpful.  

Balancing MPN Treatment Adherence and Mental Health

Balancing MPN Treatment Adherence and Mental Health from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Balancing myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) treatment adherence along with symptoms can sometimes be a challenge. Watch was myelofibrosis patient Julia Olff explains how symptoms and executive functioning can impact continuation of MPN treatment routines.

See More From the MPN TelemEDucation Resource Center

Related Resource:


Transcript:

Julia Olff:

I think doctors and nurses underestimate how well patients can adhere to treatment and how that relates to one’s mental health. There are times where I have not felt as well and had a kind of foggy brain and had episodes of forgetting to take my twice-a-day treatment, so that’s sort of one type of treatment adherence that I think is just affected by your overall mental well-being, and then there’s the bigger part of it that is about seeing the full picture and all of the things that you have to do to continue with treatment so if it’s pills, for example, here, there’s a lot that one needs to do that I think we take for granted or assume everyone can do that, from remembering to refill your medications to going to actually physically go get them if you have to do that. Some are mail order, in the case of myelofibrosis. Knowing when to take them, figuring out when it may be better based on when they’re prescribed to take…when it may be better for you like with food. I know when I was taking ruxolitinib (Jakafi) that I would take it just as I was going to bed, but I would feel unwell for a while I was laying in bed, and I think it relates to your mental well-being because, over time, treatment also can affect…

Treatment has side…can have side effects, and those side effects can also influence how you’re feeling emotionally, how good you’re feeling as a person, they can affect your energy levels, so the illness can affect…fatigue is one of the number one when problems that people with myelofibrosis face, and then you add treatment to it, and there’s an impact on how well you feel overall, so I think treatment adherence is very much tied to your mental well-being, your outlook, and your ability also to…it’s called executive functioning, how well you can kind of organize your day and your life and they’re all intertwined, I believe.  

MPN Patient Shares Importance of Understanding Benefits of Professional Therapy

MPN Patient Shares Importance of Understanding Benefits of Professional Therapy from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Myelofibrosis patient Julia Olff shares her experience with seeing a professional therapist via telemedicine as part of her MPN care.

See More From the MPN TelemEDucation Resource Center

Related Resource:


Transcript:

Julia Olff:

When I was diagnosed with myelofibrosis, I learned how important it was to continue therapy, so I had already started to see a therapist several years before that for a set of long-term issues in my life. But what I found over time, and I continue to find is the therapy has really helped me cope with not just some of the parts of my personal life that I’m still working through, but really helps me having a chronic illness, and I know from attending patient conferences, reading about myelofibrosis that there is…for one, a significant population of folks who suffer from anxiety with myelofibrosis. And that’s true for other blood cancers and chronic cancers, where there’s this, that there are ups and downs where you’re going through a period of stressful treatments, possibly followed by periods of monitoring or less treatment, and there’s always that fear of or worry about what may happen next, when might I develop a more serious mutation that will affect my prognosis, could I progress any time? Or there’s a smaller percentage of folks with myelofibrosis who can develop acute myelogenous leukemia, that’s always there. And I think therapy really helps for those sorts of outlook, long-term mindfulness, living in the present and gaining perspective about some of those fears. And I think the other part of therapy that’s so beneficial as it relates to having myelofibrosis is kind of learning to cope on a day-to-day basis, learning to think about yourself and your self-esteem that can get lost when you are feeling unwell for long periods of time. I’ve had months where I was deeply fatigued in terrible pain and doing a lot less and having to say no to my kids, I can’t do that, I can’t go here.

I remember going to back-to-school nights for my kids when they’re in high school, and I’m moving so slowly that I’m getting a teacher asking me, “Are you okay, do you need help?” And that can affect your sense of self, especially as you give up activities or work. I’ve reduced my workload significantly, and all to say is there is this dynamic of who you are as a person, that therapy I’ve found can help me get through so that I don’t lose who I am that helps really sustain my mental outlook.

Which MPN Treatment Is Right for You? What You Need to Know Resource Guide

Download Guide

PEN-136_0921_ResourceGuide_F

Download Guide