An Expert’s Review of Advanced Prostate Cancer Treatment and Research

An Expert’s Review of Advanced Prostate Cancer Treatment and Research from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What’s the latest in advanced prostate cancer treatment and research? Expert Dr. Tomasz Beer shares recent updates, and discusses how developing therapies could impact the future of prostate cancer care.

Dr. Tomasz Beer is Deputy Director at OHSU Knight Cancer Institute. Learn more here: https://www.ohsu.edu/people/tomasz-m-beer-md-facp.

See More From Engage Prostate Cancer

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Transcript:

Katherine:

When it comes to prostate cancer research and emerging treatment options, what are you excited about specifically?

Dr. Beer:                     

Well, there is so much to talk about there. And I do want to say that the things that we’re excited about and that are promising, we want to present them in the proper light, meaning that they’re significant potential advances, but they’re not necessarily cures next year.

You know, we want to raise hopes and excitement at a proper level. So, I think right now, what we’re seeing is progress that is likely to yield drugs that will extend survival, will help us control the disease in a meaningful way. We’re not yet at a point where we can, for advanced prostate cancer, have a reasonable hope of cure in the near term. That doesn’t mean we’re not trying. We’re aiming high, absolutely.

But at the moment, the most exciting thing right in front of us, in my view, is lutetium 177-PSMA 617. That is a radioactive molecule attached to a binder that is specific to prostate-specific membrane antigen, PSMA, and essentially delivers this radioactive drug directly to prostate cancer cells by attaching to that target, the PSMA.

We recently completed and reported at ASCO and published in the New England Journal of Medicine the results of a Phase III trial, where we were able to show extension of life, extension of control of cancer, in a meaningful way, with this drug, and we’re eager to see the FDA’s review, and I think generally hopeful that the FDA will allow this drug on the market hopefully in the coming months. So, that’s a real tangible thing that is not just pie in the sky years away. I think it’s likely to be available sometime in less than a year, hopefully much less than a year. Speculating on those things is always a little risky, but –

Katherine:                  

Of course.

Dr. Beer:                     

– we all think that’s coming.

I think there are several other targeted drugs that may expand the portfolio of things that we can do in response to a mutational analysis. So, I mentioned microsatellite instability and DNA repair defects. There might be treatments for mutations in a pathway called AKT and others. And so, I think we’re going to see more very specific drugs that address segments of prostate cancer. And then a big area of activity that I’m very excited about is immunotherapy. And immunotherapy has been difficult in prostate cancer.

It has made more headway in melanoma and kidney cancer, and a number of other solid tumors, frankly, and we’re a little bit behind, and I think in part because natural prostate cancer doesn’t elicit quite as much of an immune response as some of the other tumor types; so, it’s not so easy.

But some of the newest technologies for synthetic antibodies are being designed that link the T cells from the immune system directly to prostate cancer cells and activate them, I think hold a lot of promise.

And ultimately, when it comes to cure, the immune system right now looks like the most promising strategy for actually eradicating cancer because once you activate the immune system, it can really do quite a job on cancer. Right now, for prostate cancer, that is still almost entirely in clinical trials and still for a minority of patients. So, this is not an answer for everybody, but once we get a hold of something that’s promising, I think the field’s going to work very hard to expand its utility and make it a reality for more and more patients.

 

Key Considerations When Making Prostate Cancer Treatment Decisions

Key Considerations When Making Prostate Cancer Treatment Decisions from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What considerations are vital when making prostate cancer treatment decisions? Expert Dr. Tomasz Beer shares important factors that impact advanced prostate cancer care.

Dr. Tomasz Beer is Deputy Director at OHSU Knight Cancer Institute. Learn more here: https://www.ohsu.edu/people/tomasz-m-beer-md-facp.

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Transcript:

Katherine:          

What are the considerations when choosing treatment for advanced prostate cancer?

Dr. Beer:                     

Well, here, the considerations in advanced prostate cancer are first and foremost, what is the best treatment for this particular individual, right?

That’s what we want to do, and by the best treatment, I mean most effective with the fewest side effects, protecting their quality of life. But that’s an oversimplification. In reality, to arrive at what the best treatment is, we need to really understand quite a bit about the patient’s cancer. Sometimes it’s mutational status, as we discussed earlier, but also, the way it’s presenting, how aggressively it’s growing, is it involving the liver or lungs, or is it only in the bones, is it fast, is it slow.

And then the other thing that is extremely important is the patient’s health, other medical conditions. Some treatments are really more difficult to give when somebody has cardiovascular disease, or diabetes, or nerve damage, or other causes preexisting to the cancer treatment.

So, those kinds of things which we call comorbidities in the medical arena are really important in refining the risk-benefit ratio for each treatment. And finally, and critically, what prior treatments patients have received, that’s a major consideration. We obviously wouldn’t be using the same treatments again in many patients. There are exceptions to that, but for the most part, if a treatment’s failed once, it’s not likely to be of great benefit.

So, we integrate the cancer presentation, perhaps genomics in some situations, patient-specific health conditions, patient’s prior treatments, and then of course, patient’s values and personal priorities and what’s most important to them. And from all of that information, we take a look at the available portfolio and suggest one or two options, which we as physicians, based on our experience, expertise, and the knowledge of the literature, believe that fit most closely and are most likely to be successful.

Using Your Voice to Partner in Your Prostate Cancer Treatment Decisions

Using Your Voice to Partner in Your Prostate Cancer Treatment Decisions from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

How can prostate cancer patients work to become partners in their care? Expert Dr. Tomasz Beer discusses “shared decision-making” in prostate cancer care and offers his perspective about the patient role in treatment decisions.

Dr. Tomasz Beer is Deputy Director at OHSU Knight Cancer Institute. Learn more here: https://www.ohsu.edu/people/tomasz-m-beer-md-facp.

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Transcript:

Katherine:

The term “shared decision” is being used lately when talking about patient care. What does this term mean for you?

Dr. Beer:                     

Well, you know, at some level in my view, at least in the United States, virtually all medical decisions are shared decisions. We have a culture of advising our patients about their options, perhaps recommending a course of action, if it’s clearly preferable in our judgment to other options, but really involving patients in those decisions and taking serious consideration of the patient’s personal preferences and values.

And oftentimes in cancer care, especially when we’re dealing with noncurative treatments, treatments that are designed to keep the cancer at bay, perhaps shrink it, prevent or reduce cancer-related symptoms, protect quality of life, we really need to understand each individual patient’s willingness to undergo treatments, take on treatment-related risks, and their personal priorities. Is it their goal to live as long as possible and accept more risks? Is it their goal to focus on the quality of life today and avoid risks to the extent possible and only take them on when they’re absolutely necessary?

These are the kinds of discussions that we have with patients every time we consider a treatment change. So, to me, shared decision-making is really what we do with every patient and almost every visit. In some cases, it’s particularly important because there are areas in medicine where there’s really equipoise, and we don’t have a very clear recommendation one way or another.

Prostate cancer screening is an example for that. We all would dearly love to believe that early detection of prostate cancer is helpful, but early detection of prostate cancer comes with its own harms, the risk of overdetection, overdiagnosis, overtreatment, all because we pick up not just the aggressive cancers but also very slow-moving cancers that are not life-threatening. And so, folks undergoing cancer screening really need to know upfront what they’re getting into and make a decision about their view of the balance between the risks and the benefits. That’s a classic example of shared decision-making.

Katherine:                  

What is the role of the patient in making treatment decisions?

Dr. Beer:                     

Well, I think that the role of the patient is absolutely critical. I mean, they’re the ones receiving the therapy, and there are many things that we look for from our patients. To me, the most important is a clear understanding of their options and the reality within which we operate, having a set of hopes that are forward-looking, hopeful, and optimistic but also grounded in reality, so that good decisions can be made based on reasonable expectations. No. 2, a clear and honest articulation of the priorities, and that can be difficult.

You know, sometimes it’s hard to balance priorities. We obviously want to live as long as possible with a good quality of life. But what if the choice is better quality of life with a shorter lifespan or a longer lifespan but more side effects? And that’s really hard to sort out for some folks. And in my experience as a physician in the trenches, I can also tell you that sometimes the goals of the patients and the goals of their loving spouses and families are a little different.

And trying to help us – as physicians, our primary responsibility is to address the patient’s goals, but we all know that what we really want for our patients is a consensus of all the people they love that are important to them so that everyone can be supportive and on the same team. Those differences can be really stressful.

So, another thing that I look for in my patients and try to help with is building a family and friend support network that’s aligned, that’s on the same team, really. And then really strong communication with the physician or the provider about how things are going, letting us know about side effects honestly, and many people do that, but some people are afraid to share side effects for fear that their treatment might be taken away. And that honest, straightforward communication is really important for the best decision-making. And then, you know, of course, knowledge about the treatments and understanding of what we’re talking about is helpful, but actually, to me, it’s not the most important thing.

Having read the detailed papers on docetaxel chemotherapy while helpful, is not as important as having a really clear understanding of one’s values and priorities and a candid assessment of one’s quality of life and the ability to share that with a physician. I can cover the technical medical stuff, but what I can’t do is guess what’s important to my patients.  

 

Could Genetic Mutations Impact Your Prostate Cancer Treatment Options?

Could Genetic Mutations Impact Your Prostate Cancer Treatment Options? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Can prostate cancer treatment options be impacted by a patient’s genetic mutations? Expert Dr. Tomasz Beer defines precision oncology and explains how DNA repair and mutations can affect treatment options.

Dr. Tomasz Beer is Deputy Director at OHSU Knight Cancer Institute. Learn more here: https://www.ohsu.edu/people/tomasz-m-beer-md-facp.

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Transcript:

Katherine:

Are there genetic mutations that affect the choices for prostate cancer treatment?

Dr. Beer:                     

Increasingly so. So, this is an exciting era in terms of those kinds of approaches. You may have heard the term “precision oncology” or “personalized oncology.” The ideas behind precision oncology is that each individual patient’s tumor is analyzed in detail for their biologic differences, and for the most part, those are mutations; although, it can be other. And that treatments may be available that work particularly well for patients whose cancers have a particular mutation. And so, today, there are a couple of categories of treatments that are FDA-approved and that can be used in prostate cancer treatment if the right mutations are present.

And one of those is a class of drugs called PARP inhibitors and those are indicated in patients with advanced prostate cancer who received some of our most commonly used routine treatments and who harbor mutations in a series of genes that are responsible for DNA repair. BRCA-2 or BRCA-2 is the most common of those, and that may be a gene that is familiar to people because it’s also a significant gene in terms of conferring risk of breast and ovarian cancer.

So, that’s the same gene we’ve been thinking about for breast cancer is also important in prostate cancer. There are other DNA repair genes as well that may sensitize a cancer to PARP inhibitors. Another area is something called microsatellite instability, which is a measure of how mutation prone a cancer is.

And cancers that acquire a large number of mutations are more likely to respond to immune therapies. And one might ask why that is, and it’s an interesting question. We believe it’s because, as a large number of mutations accumulate, we see more and more abnormal proteins that are made from those mutated genes, and those abnormal proteins, some of them are different enough from our native proteins, to cause the immune system to recognize them. And when we have an immune system that actually recognizes our cancer as foreign, we’re often able to amplify that immune signal and turn it into a potent anticancer weapon.

So, those are the two categories of mutations that we use in the clinic today, DNA repair and this microsatellite instability, but others are coming as we develop more targeted, specific agents designed for people with specific cancers who have specific mutations.

Katherine:                  

Dr. Beer, why should prostate cancer patients ask their doctor about genetic testing?

Dr. Beer:                     

Well, there are a couple main reasons for that. One is, of course, to examine their cancer and determine if they’re eligible for one of these targeted therapies. If we find those mutations, those patients have an extra treatment available to them. They can still be treated with all the hormonal therapies, chemotherapy, radiation-based treatments, but in addition to those, they have an additional targeted option. And so, that’s a real advantage for those patients who harbor those mutations. So, that’s really reason number one reason, number two is to potentially protect their families.

So, if a germline mutation is identified, that mutation can be passed on to kids. It may also be in other family members, brothers and sisters, and potentially be passed onto their kids. Important to understand that these mutations, as I alluded to earlier, are not just prostate cancer mutations. They can be passed through the mother. They can predispose folks to bre  ast cancer. So, a germline mutation may be something the family would benefit from knowing about. It’s a complicated area, learning about inherited cancer mutation in the family, could be very stressful and frightening.

So, I wouldn’t say this lightly. I think it needs to be done within the context of genetic counseling and good advice about how to communicate things like that and what to do with them. We want to be able to help people reduce their risk of cancer without taking an emotional toll on multiple members of the family.

So, it’s important, and it’s also important to do it thoughtfully and carefully.  

 

                  

 

What Do Prostate Cancer Patients Need to Know About Genetic Testing?

What Do Prostate Cancer Patients Need to Know About Genetic Testing? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What should men with prostate cancer know about genetic testing? Expert Dr. Tomasz Beer explains inherited mutations versus cancer-specific mutations and discusses the roles they can play in the development of prostate cancer.

Dr. Tomasz Beer is Deputy Director at OHSU Knight Cancer Institute. Learn more here: https://www.ohsu.edu/people/tomasz-m-beer-md-facp.

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Prostate Cancer Treatment Decisions: How Do Genetic Test Results Impact Your Options?


Transcript:

Katherine:

Excellent. Let’s talk a bit about genetic testing and the role it plays in prostate cancer. I’d like to start by defining a few terms that are often confusing for patients. First of all, what is a somatic mutation?

Dr. Beer:                     

Well, so let’s first start with what is a mutation. So, we all have DNA that is the code of life in every cell in our body in the nucleus of the cell, and that is where all of the encoding for all the genes that then identify the proteins that make up our cells in our body exist. A mutation is a change in the sequence of that gene of that DNA, a missing letter, or a letter that’s been replaced by another letter, that can lead to a faulty protein being made. Sometimes, a mutation can cause a protein to be activated inappropriately.

Otherwise, we can see situations where the protein is silenced and inactive when it’s needed. So, those are mutations. Now, somatic mutations occur in a cancer. The person does not carry those mutations in their genome. They’re not passed along to their children or inherited from their parents. They happen in the cancer itself, and that’s the nature of cancer. Many cancers have a propensity to accumulate mutations, and so, a somatic mutation represents a cancer-specific mutation.

Katherine:                  

What then is the difference between somatic and a germline mutation?

Dr. Beer:                     

Yeah. So, germline is an inherited mutation. That is a mutation that is in the genetic code that that individual is born with, almost always inherited from their parents.

And I say almost always because in rare circumstances, a new mutation emerges in the fetus and becomes a germline mutation, but almost always this is a mutation that’s inherited.

And an important thing to understand about those is that because it’s in the germline, in the parent DNA, that mutation is present in every cell in the body of that human being, including the eggs and sperm, and that’s how it’s then transmitted to the next generation. Those germline mutations, they predispose people to cancer, can turn out to be deleterious and can lead to the development of cancer, typically when an additional mutation develops, and the two together team up to begin the process of cancer development.

Why Should You Ask Your Doctor About Prostate Cancer Genetic Testing?

Why Should You Ask Your Doctor About Prostate Cancer Genetic Testing? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Why is it genetic testing important when it comes to prostate cancer care? Learn how test results could reveal more about YOUR prostate cancer and may indicate that one treatment may be more effective than another.

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Transcript:

Why should you ask your doctor about genetic testing?

The test results may predict how your prostate cancer will behave and could indicate that one type of treatment may be more effective than another type.

Genetic testing identifies specific gene mutations, proteins, chromosomal abnormalities, and/or other molecular changes that are unique to YOU and YOUR prostate cancer.

There are two main types of genetic tests used in prostate cancer:

  • Germline or hereditary genetic testing, which is conducted via blood or saliva and identifies inherited gene mutations in the body. Germline mutations are present from birth and can be shared among family members and passed on to subsequent generations. Results can identify whether you could be at risk for another type of cancer or if your family members may need genetic counseling and testing to guide their own cancer risk.
  • The second is somatic or tumor genetic testing, which is performed through testing tumor tissue or by testing cancer cells/DNA extracted from blood to identify gene mutations that are unique to the cancer itself. It is also commonly referred to as genomic testing, biomarker testing, or molecular profiling. Somatic mutations are NOT inherited and are NOT passed on to subsequent generations or shared among family members.
  • Depending on your history, your doctor may order one–or both–of these types of tests.

So why do the test results matter?

Both germline and somatic mutation testing can identify the presence of certain genetic mutations that may help to guide your treatment plan, and germline testing specifically can inform cancer risk for you and, potentially, family members.

  • In some cases, mutations can indicate that a newer approach, such as targeted therapy or immunotherapy, may work better for you.
  • Results of these tests may also help you to find a clinical trial that may be appropriate for your particular cancer.
  • And, genetic testing results could also show that your cancer has a mutation or marker that may prevent a certain therapy from being effective, sparing you from getting a treatment that won’t work well for you.

How can make sure you have had essential biomarker testing?

  • First, always speak up and ask questions. Remember, you have a voice in YOUR prostate cancer care.
  • Ask your doctor if you have had or will receive genetic testing, including germline and somatic testing, and how the results may impact your care and treatment plan.
  • Ask whether your family members should meet with a genetic counselor or undergo testing to help gauge their risk of developing prostate cancer.
  • And, finally, bring a friend or a loved one to your appointments to help you process and recall information.

To learn more about your prostate cancer and to access tools for self-advocacy, visit powerfulpatients.org/prostatecancer

Advanced Prostate Cancer: David’s Clinical Trial Profile

Advanced Prostate Cancer: David’s Clinical Trial Profile from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Prostate cancer patient David received a diagnosis at stage IV during a routine PSA check. Watch as he shares his prostate cancer journey, his experience with clinical trials and treatments, and his advice to other patients about lessons learned about prostate cancer side effects and the impacts of clinical trials.

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Transcript:

David: 

Hello, my name’s David. I am 58 years-old.I was diagnosed in 2016 with prostate cancer, I had no actual signs or symptoms of prostate cancer, it was only found due to Army doctors, I had something wrong with me, which had nothing to do with the cancer. They did a PSA check, and my PSA came back at 1050, where it should be around 0. From that I then got sent to a local hospital where I had tests, I had biopsies to open my prostate, which found out I had stage IV prostate cancer. 

From there I got asked would I like to go to the Christie County Hospital in Manchester, UK. From there, they offered me the trial called the STAMPEDE trial. This trial was used in different procedures, which is already around, we use them together to try and extend people with prostate’s life. I got to turn the arm where it was also attached with chemotherapy, followed by 20 sessions of radiotherapy. This happened over three, four months, which after that brought my PSA down, but only to round 20 odd. From this after a couple of months, my PSA started to rise fairly quickly. I then got put onto the drug called bicalutamide (Casodex). This lasted a couple of months, because my cancer is so aggressive, it started to grow. I then got put onto another chemotherapy, cabazitaxel (Jevtana). After my first session of the cabazitaxel, I then got a CT scan and from this we found out the growths were still growing. 

So after this, I then got put on a drug called abiraterone with [inaudible] which is a stand-only. I was on this for 22 months, which was very good, it brought my PSA down to eight, which is as low as it’s ever been. Like I say, it lasted 22 months, but then the cancer started to come back quite a bit, so my oncologist actually said there’s no actual normal treatment left for me, and asked would I like to go on to trials, clinical, a first stage clinical trial, right away I said yes. My first clinical trial was a Carrick called Carrick, this lasted six months, but again, the cancer started to grow again, so I came off of this. I then have four weeks, no trials at all. It’s what called a clean-out where you can’t have any drugs at all in between trials. I then went on to what was called task 368-1, this lasted longer which lasted seven months. That again, the cancer starts to grow again. So, then I got on this one called CellCentric For the the CellCentric trail, they put you back on to abiraterone, which normally you don’t, wouldn’t take past one to two months… for me, it’s carried on working again. It’s now on seven months of working until it stops working, I can’t go on the new drug called CellCentric. 

For me, this is cool because it’s still working, the old drug, and it’s a very…let’s say there’s not a lot of side effects except for what steroids [inaudible]. So at the moment, we’re just seeing how it goes. I have scans every eight weeks, a CT scan and a full body scan from each time they come back, they then decide what’s happening next…and that is my journey up to now, which is five-and-a-half years later. 

With the clinical trials, I feel really good at the moment, because as I said, the trial [inaudible] and abiraterone (Zytiga) is not a drug that causes a lot of side effects. Through other trials have been, they are very intense, and that’s what they always warn people, which are overnight stays when you first take the drugs, so they are very tiring, you have to have blood done overnight all the way through the night, you get BCGs to make sure your body is not reacting to the drugs, and then the side effects of the drugs after.  So, they are very intense, but also, I am still here, I did not expect to be here. October, this year October I got told I would not be here three years ago, so it shows what clinical trials can actually do for you.  I’m still here, I still live a very good life. We go walking, the wife and I quite often, and we did three, four-mile last night, and we just enjoy our lives. 

People don’t realize…a lot of men don’t talk about it the physical side and the sexual side of prostate cancer, the treatment, because your libido to go, and it just causes a [inaudible] of your testosterone. You don’t feel like…and it’s a closeness that you lose… Amanda’s been unbelievable, she’s been there for me all the way through. She’s my rock, she’s the one went down down, she pushes me, but then she has days where she’s down. And this is where people need to realize the partners will improve the encounters much as the patient. And this is some of them we talked about…we’re very open about people where we talk about it. We have our days, the last couple of days I’ve been down. But she’s there to try and help me get back, and I try and do it for her when she is…and the family is the same, having the family support, when I’ve been to appointments, I get phone calls, quite a few, I get messages how are things going. And it’s just nice knowing that people do care, we have friends who keep in touch all the time, make sure everything’s okay, and you need that support of your family and friends. 

It’s very important for them to be there with you. 

The clinical trial to me is drugs that normally are not being used on humans before. They’ve only been tested in the laboratories. So, the first stage is a dosage stage where they check in and see what a person can actually take…so different people have different amounts of the dose.  And then from there they go to the expansion stage, and that is when they bring more people, and they know what dose to give people. Well, it’s to find new drugs, which can help other people in the future, as well as myself…I always say to myself, “This could help someone in the future, live for longer, stay longer with their family, be there longer.” It’s helping me other months, as I say, but it’s also to help other people in the future, something that’s not been used with people before.  

What I would say to other people who are thinking of going on clinical trials and the families is go for it. They are done so carefully, you’re checked all the time, your bloods are checked, your health is checked, your [inaudible]. It’s something that you can stay longer with your family. There could be cures in the future with this as well, no one actually knows, and it’s something people should not be scared of doing. Like I said, I’m on my third trial, and I will keep on going, I know there are more trials for me after this. And I will keep on going. 

Advanced Prostate Cancer: Gary’s Clinical Trial Profile

Advanced Prostate Cancer: Gary’s Clinical Trial Profile from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Advanced prostate cancer patient Gary was an athlete in the first Oncology Olympic Games in Rome. Watch as Gary shares his prostate cancer journey, benefits and knowledge he’s gained from clinical trials, and his advice to others considering participating in a clinical trial. 

See More From Patient-to-Patient Diverse Prostate Cancer Clinical Trial Profiles

Transcript:

Gary: 

My name is Gary, I’m 66 years old and in January 2011, I was diagnosed with stage IV metastatic prostate cancer. 

I started my journey after the diagnosis, It was quite hard to take because I didn’t have symptoms, and it was a complete shock, and I found out by accident by being in hospital with pneumonia. When I found out, the team came around to talk to me, and they said there are lots of things open to me, like new medications, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and clinical trials. So it started off very positive, and that made me feel positive about it as well. I started off on hormone treatment and my PSA over a few months went down from 255 down to 12. In October of that year, I started on an infusion every four weeks to strengthen the bones and stop osteoporosis. So that was an important move. Then my PSA started rising again, it crept up to 83. So I was only on hormone treatment, and that was when they offered me the PREVAIL trial. I looked up on the Internet about the trial when it was a trial that was known as MD-310 at the first stage of firm tests in America, and then they were rolling out the stage two tests, so I discussed it with my family. 

And we decided it would be a good move. And so I signed up for the clinical trial, and I started the trial on the 23rd of December. Being a 50/50 placebo versus drug, I didn’t know whether I was going to be on the drug or not. Come the new year after of couple of months, I started feeling better and my PSA started going down again. I felt more energetic and my consultant agreed with me when I said I thought I was probably on the drug because there’s a difference. It actually was the one thing that I’ve done that changed my life because I had a future, I felt better which I was a bit worried about doing because of the prognosis when they said it was up to two years depending on if I go to a good treatment. And the longer I was on the drug, the better I felt. I had side effects. I was clinically castrated by the drug, because it cuts off all the testosterone apart from that. 

I had a very, very good life. My wife and I’ve been married since we’ve been 19. We got married in 1974, and we’re solid as a rock. She is my rock all the way through this. Sometimes it’s harder for her, I think, than for me, because she’s watching what I’m going through. But after I’ve been on it for so long, we got really confident, and life was completely normal. And then came my first grandchild in 2014, and closely followed by the second one, two years later, and then the third one last year in lockdown, and they have made it such of my life such a joy. So I’m so thankful for deciding to go on a clinical trial. I would recommend clinical trials because you’ve got the basic treatments, but clinical trials can make a big difference, because although they are not tested drugs they’re probably the drugs of the future. 

And you can get on the ladder early and be on these drugs, and instead of giving it…giving me about three years, it worked for nine years. So it gave me nine years of worry-free life. I’ve had my ups and downs, I had some phases of [inaudible] radiotherapy here and there, but it was…it really did make a massive difference to my life. And I don’t think if I hadn’t gone on that clinical trial, I don’t think I would have been here now.  I relish every single minute I’m here and if another clinical trial, that would suit me came up tomorrow, I would definitely think about going on that one as well.  

Advanced Prostate Cancer: Willie’s Clinical Trial Profile

Advanced Prostate Cancer: Willie’s Clinical Trial Profile from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Prostate cancer patient Willie was diagnosed in 2021 at the age of 65. Watch as he shares his prostate cancer story from diagnosis to how he’s doing today, his experience with a patient navigator and a clinical trial, and his advice to both Black men and to all others with prostate cancer.

See More From Patient-to-Patient Diverse Prostate Cancer Clinical Trial Profiles

Transcript:

Willie: 

My name is Willie. I’m 65 years old. In 2021, I found out that I had prostate cancer. 

 I would like to explain about the experiment that I went through in prostate cancer. Some that was, I was afraid of because that word cancer and that word to me, out of all my life, I done heard that, all I thought about was death. It kills you. You’re not going to live. And I was trying to find out where and how I got cancer, and I didn’t get no idea until I was able to sit down, talk with my navigator and what procedure I would have to go do in order to help me with my cancer. So they gave me some choices. One I didn’t like because I had to be hung upside down for four hours, and I didn’t think I can do anything like that at my age. And next, they told me cancer, radiation, and I was scared of that because it was like burning fire. And I had seen other people how it done them and their skin, and it put fear in me. So, I decided to go and talk to my doctor. 

I want to be healthy. And when I started my cancer treatment, it was the scariest move. When they put a gown on me and laid me on that bed, they put these machines on me, and I had to lay there, and they mark me where they want to set it up, or where the cancer was at, they’re going to do the radiation. I didn’t understand it. I really needed help in my house, I was so sick, I own a bed, it’s a pull-out bed out of my couch. So I went to a bag, a bean bag to be able to lay on each and every day I was just under that much pain, and it was miserable to me, and I kept on working on it. I didn’t want my hair to be falling out. I didn’t want my body to be deformed all that was on my mind, and I decided to go and do this radiation. And now I can tell anybody I know it’s scary, I have experienced it, but it’s really after you get done with it, you’ll be so happy that it makes you feel like you were one time before, you’re back to your normal, you’re you. 

My reason to take the clinical trial, because I had fear in me about prostate cancer, and I did not know where and what it would be like of carrying this. So I had in my mind that I wasn’t going to do it. I couldn’t sleep at night. You know one…and how is it going to, how is this cancer going to hit me? I’m laying in the bed, “What’s it going to do? What should I do? How should I sleep to keep from worrying about me and this cancer?” I’m running back and forth to the bathroom, couldn’t eat and appetite gone and I got to the point, I’m going and take this test. So I called the navigator and he and I discussed this, and he convinced me.  

A clinical trial to me is the work of getting you with your prostate taken care of. I experienced a lot of goodness after I realized what this was really about.  The clinical trial, it really made me happy to be a part of it because I just didn’t believe that after learning about that word cancer, I’d feel good. I’d feel like I ain’t got the cancer, and that’s what that clinical experience showed me, and made me feel like. So, I’m happy with it. 

My advice to men, especially Black men, I advise them to check themself, your whole body, you need your health taken care of, if you want to be able to be out here and live with this prostate cancer. One thing I do know about Black men, they are afraid when it comes to taking care of themself as though they can look in the mirror and see all about themself and tell you whether there’s something wrong or not, but you can’t do that. I advise all men, not just only Black to take time out, talk to your provider. A lot of us got it, and we don’t even know we are carrying this around with us, but you like to go out and have fun, smoke your cigarettes, drink and do all your partying, but you’re still carrying that death weight on you. We don’t need that cancer, prostate. And I would advise all men, take time out and check yourself out, because it’s a good thing in life to do as being…want to be here on earth amongst other good men. And I would like to say, please do this, I’m a living witness. 

Look at me. I feel just the way I look and I’m serious to tell you to take that time out for yourself. 

Expert Perspective on the Future of Prostate Cancer Treatment and Research

Expert Perspective on the Future of Prostate Cancer Treatment and Research from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

How has prostate cancer treatment and research changed over time? Expert Dr. Maha Hussain shares her perspective about treatment and research progress, the role of the patient, and how to advocate for more research progress in the future.

Dr. Maha Hussain is the Deputy Director of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University. Learn more about this expert here.

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An Update on Prostate Cancer Treatment and Research


Transcript:

Katherine:

Dr. Hussain, how do you feel about the future or prostate cancer research, and what would you like patients to know?

Dr. Hussain:

First, let me say that I would love for the patients to know that they are a partner, a most critical partner in the process.

That we need to continue the research and investment in research. It is research that will end up curing cancer. Wishful thinking will not do it. And patient volunteering, which I think is remarkable across all cancers. The business I’m in, the way that drug discovery and evolution often happen because patients volunteered. And without testing these new treatments and combinations, we will not be able to get better results.

And I will tell you that, when I started my training, the median survival for patients with resistant prostate cancer was on the magnitude of about nine months. Now it is three years-plus. Now, you could argue, well, that’s not huge. But that is a huge change because, again, we’re picking up the cancers much earlier. And the patients who had, as I mentioned, metastatic disease, again, the longevity then at the time I was in training, but even afterwards, was give and take in the three years. And now we’re talking six-plus years.

And so, there’s been tremendous progress. And really partnership with the patients and their families and supportive others is very critical, and investment in research. So, yes, advocate constantly for more investment in research.

How Does Genetic Testing Impact Prostate Cancer Care?

How Does Genetic Testing Impact Prostate Cancer Care? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Genetic testing has taken on a vital role in prostate cancer care. Expert Dr. Maha Hussain provides insight about genetics and biomarker testing, how results are used in determining treatment options, and key questions to ask to ensure the best care.

Dr. Maha Hussain is the Deputy Director of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University. Learn more about this expert here.

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Transcript:

Katherine:

Many patients are confused about the role of genetics and biomarker testing in prostate cancer care.

For people who haven’t heard of some of these terms before, let’s go into the definitions. So, what is genomic or biomarker testing, first of all?

Dr. Hussain:

So, I think there’s one thing. Maybe I can explain because the wording can be confusing. So, there is the genetics, and there is the genomics. The genetics would be what we inherit from our families. So, this would be present in our body. The genomics testing would be to look for what the structure of the genes of the cancer itself, cancer cells itself. Now, that doesn’t mean that this was inherited. It’s just that this is a renegade, and it evolved. And that is what is going to show up.

The reason these two are important, both of them have implications potentially for treatment or perhaps clinical trials. And again, with the PARP inhibitors, the BRCA-like genes will have implications for treatment sort of for resistance cancers.

With regard to the genetics, the implications are for, again, inheritance of family and potential risk for blood relatives. Now, there are panels that are FDA-approved for the purpose of genetic testing. And the requirement or the indications right now, anybody who presents with metastatic disease or an aggressive disease and diagnosis, the recommendation is to proceed with the genetic testing, certainly counseling and testing, because there are some people who prefer not to be tested. And that’s something else.

What I tell my patients is this, even if the testing is done and it was negative for inherited genes that might put the patient family at potential higher risk, the fact that a person has prostate cancer by default puts potential, adds risks to family, to blood relatives.

And the risks aren’t just for the males with regard to prostate cancer, but certainly breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer potentially, and things of that sort. So, this is where I think a patient needs to be discussing with their doctors. And certainly, there are many centers that have genetics counselor, and so that’s where I generally refer my patients to. I counsel them myself, and then refer them also for more discussions with genetics counselor.

Katherine:

What exactly are genetic mutations? And how do they impact a treatment path?

Dr. Hussain:

Well, I think, again, it’s the changes that happens in specific genes that may promote the aggressiveness of a cancer. And so, the BRCA gene is one of the oldest genes that have been identified in breast cancer. And essentially, the body regulates itself.

And when cancer cells come up and they sort of – the body no longer sustains that regulation, the genetic regulation in those cancer cells. Those cancer cells will behave the way they want to. That means that they’re going to grow faster. That means they could be resistant to treatment and things like that. And so, that’s what we check for, these alterations. And there are certain medications that would allow – and again, in prostate cancer, it’s not a lot. It’s just, as I said, right now the only things that are proven is the PARP inhibitors. This is essentially to kind of gang over the cancer cell, preventing from allowing it to repair itself so it can continue to grow.

Katherine:

Some patients may not know if they’ve received these important tests. So, for patients that aren’t all that sure, what key questions should they be asking their physician or their specialist?

Dr. Hussain:

So, I would say when it comes to the genetics testing, I believe a patient has to consent.

Because again, we live in the U.S., and this is a private matter for the patient. So, this generally has to be the case. Otherwise, depending on the institution, sometimes some tests will require for the overall testing for looking for any genetic alterations, general tumor alternation. Different centers have different things. But the patient should ask and say to their doctor, “Have my cancer genes been tested? Have my genes been tested? And if they have, what are the results?” Because we generally share with the patients once it’s been done.

The other things I should point out, some of the good things that have happened recently. Up until recently, when it comes to the tumor genomic testing, tissue was required. Nowadays, the FDA has approved blood tests that several companies now run that can actually collect blood sample and basically test it for circulating tumor cell genes there.

Now, no testing is 100 percent perfect. But in situations like patients with prostate cancer who may not have recent tissue or adequate tissue for testing, certainly doing the blood test to verify if there is anything reflective of the genes of the cancer, and that may allow for potential actionable-type treatments. Again, up until now, this is more going to apply for potential clinical trials or resistant metastatic disease.

Treatment Options for Advanced Prostate Cancer

Treatment Options for Advanced Prostate Cancer from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What are treatment options for advanced prostate cancer? Expert Dr. Maha Hussain provides a breakdown of hormone therapy and explains how targeted therapy is used in prostate cancer care.

Dr. Maha Hussain is the Deputy Director of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University. Learn more about this expert here.

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Transcript:

Katherine:

Now that we understand how test results can help inform a patient’s cancer and how it may behave. Let’s discuss how they can affect treatment options for men with advanced disease. First, let’s do a brief review of the treatment types currently available. There’s hormone therapy, right. What else?

Dr. Hussain:

Perhaps, it’s simpler if we focus on advanced disease, specifically metastatic disease.

So, if that’s the deal, then the backbone of treatment is hormone treatment. And it really is. We call it hormone, but technically it’s an anti-hormone. What we’re trying to do is shut down the hormonal pathway that stimulate the testes, which is the factory that makes testosterone. So, we are looking at shutting down testosterone production from the testes in order to starve the cancer.

Now, the male hormone is produced predominantly – somewhere about 95 percent of it is made by the testes, and then there are about 5 percent-ish that comes from other sources. These are, again, male hormones like the adrenal gland and so on. And there was a while ago some research – I want to say from the MD Anderson crowd, but this is two years ago – that suggested also that the tumor may start to make sort of in-house production of male hormone to support itself.

Now, having said that, again, testes continue to be the source of the majority of the male hormone. And so, historically, the first data that showed benefit was actually by surgically removing the testes, which is what we call orchiectomy or bilateral orchiectomy. And then medications began hitting the market and were evaluated in the late ’80s and then 1990s, beginning with Lupron – which by the way, in the ’80s, it was an injection that the patient had to give themselves every day, which is remarkable.

But even then, there is a personal preference by patients to go and take injections as opposed to go through surgery with orchiectomy. But still, I would say for some patients it may be an option until it ought to be discussed as an option. Then what we know is this, is because of the

potential other sources for the male hormone, the concept of what we call combined androgen depravation was being evaluated.

And again, this goes back to the ’80s when the first drug was flutamide and then bicalutamide, and there are other drugs that became. And they kind of added a sprinkle, I call it, to survival. But it wasn’t dramatic, huge differences in survival. And so, generally, while we used it, everybody believed in using it. Moving forward, the drugs like abiraterone, enzalutamide, apalutamide are the three hormonal drugs that have demonstrated conclusively really an advantage in terms of prolonging life when added to the Lupron.

So, what I tell my patients is that, when it comes to hormone treatment there is really no way around it. You can delay it. Some people are exploring for some patients who don’t have a lot of cancer, maybe a couple of areas, maybe just do targeted radiation and then leave the person alone to buy them some treatment-free time.

And, to me, this is where the discussion that has to happen with the patient. What is the objective? Is the objective to kind of be ahead of the game and maximally treat the cancer with the hope of prolonging life? Or is the objective to delay treatment? And I would tell you that, with these types of conversation, nine out of 10 or 9.5 out of 10 men opt for moving aggressively up front with management. So, that’s that.

Now, the one thing I should point out, one of the trials that also was a landmark trial in this disease was the study CHAARTED, which was an intergroup clinical trial at the time it was designed, led by ECOG, and the PI was Dr. Chris Sweeney. I was part of the team that worked on the design also of the study.

And that was a trial that looked at adding docetaxel to hormone therapy, versus hormone therapy alone, to try to see if it adds something. Historically, all the chemotherapies prior to that that were added to hormone treatment for patients with newly diagnosed metastatic disease had not delivered. And docetaxel did.

However, one thing I should point out, based on that trial – and I don’t want to go into too much details for the sake of time – the patients that seemed to be benefiting were the patients that had more aggressive, more disease in their system. And so, liver metastases, lung metastases spread in the bone at different areas, not like few isolated areas in the spine or the pelvis, but much more than that.

And so, for the patients who have what we call high-volume prostate cancer based on scans – and I’m happy to explain what that means if it’s needed – these are the patients that I would offer either the docetaxel plus hormone treatment, which is the injection, or the injection plus the hormonal pills that I mentioned earlier.

Katherine:

What about targeted therapy? How is that used?

Dr. Hussain:

Okay. So, let’s begin with the molecularly targeted therapy. So, as we speak right now, for patients who have newly diagnosed metastatic disease that we call hormone-sensitive, molecularly targeted therapy is not standard of care. So, I would encourage patients who may qualify for clinical trial to be involved in those. The flipside is – we can talk about it – is that molecularly targeted therapies, specifically with PARP inhibitors have pretty much entered in the space of prostate cancer with a couple of drugs that were FDA-approved.

The other way of targeted treatment, which would be what we refer to targeted radiation, this would be a different story. This is not systemic treatment. This is a local treatment. And what is done is basically if patients do not have a lot of cancer in their body based on scans, and only certain areas, and they are starting systemic therapy, they can certainly consult with a radiation oncologist to target radiation to areas that are visible on scan. So, if somebody has a couple of, let’s say, pelvic bone lesions, maybe a lymph node, and they are already starting systemic therapy, they can consult with a radiation oncologist focal radiation. And so, that would be the general scheme.

Understanding Prostate Cancer Staging and Progression

Understanding Prostate Cancer Staging and Progression from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What are the stages of prostate cancer? Expert Dr. Maha Hussain provides an overview of prostate cancer stages and progression – and explains scans that detect disease to aid in optimal care.

Dr. Maha Hussain is the Deputy Director of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University. Learn more about this expert here.

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Transcript:

Katherine:

Dr. Hussain, we’re going to spend most of this conversation talking about advanced prostate cancer. But before we move on, would you give us a brief overview of the stages of prostate cancer?

Dr. Hussain:

Absolutely. So, with any cancer, we count sort of like four stages. But I would say in prostate cancer the biggest thing is when the cancer is newly diagnosed, which could be confined to the prostate or locally advanced, meaning the cancer has gotten outside the capsule of the prostate but still within that pelvic region.

There is the group of patients who have pelvic lymph nodes at time of diagnosis. And of course, that is the patients who have systemic disease, which would be technically stage four. Now, the systemic disease implies any abnormality that is found on scans that is beyond the public region. So, that could be lymph nodes in the back of the belly. That could be thoracic lymph nodes. That could be neck nodes. That could be lung lesions, of course, or bone, or liver.

Now, the most common area where the cancer goes to is really – when we talk about metastatic disease – is the bone. And then lymph is another area where the cancer goes to. Prostate cancer that is confined to the prostate is curable in the vast majority of patients. There is a category of men who undergo surgery or radiation, and then their PSA begins to go up afterwards.

And this is what we call biochemical relapse. And this is a situation where we know that, in all likelihood obviously, especially of the patients who have had their prostate out, that the cancer has spread. With the current imagine, a good chunk of times, we do not find anything because we’re able to pick up PSA that goes from undetectable to 0.2 to 0.3, but there’s not enough cancer to show up on the scans. We’re hoping, obviously, the better scans, the PET Axumin scan, the PSMA scans are going to help us to identify sites of metastases.

But this is a group of men where if there is no cancer visible and the only thing we’re dealing with is PSA that’s going up, if they’ve had surgery, then

there’s room for what we call salvage therapy with radiation and hormonal treatment. The case is a bit different if there’s only just the prostate – if radiation was given previously. And of course, we talked about metastatic disease.

Katherine:

Once someone has been diagnosed, what tests are used to help understand the aggressiveness of their disease and their overall prognosis?

Dr. Hussain:

Well, I think there is different basic things, as in, what was the extent of the cancer? How did it look under the microscope? And what is the PSA levels? So, these are the general things. There are different sort of genomic panels that the urologist will use to kind of decipher and other things to kind of help with figuring out aggressiveness and things like that. What I would say is this, is a patient who is diagnosed and has a cancer, and at a minimum has what we consider a Gleason 7 prostate cancer – so, that’s the scoring system that is done with the original Gleason score, or the new patterns where it’s talking about intermediate risk to high risk – to me, this is a cancer that needs to be treated.

And again, that’s all to do with if a person has other comorbidities, they have some other terminal condition that’s a separate story. But talking generically, that would be when we would recommend. And these are the patients that are generally not seen by the medical oncologist. They’re seen by the urologist, and then they can refer them to radiation oncology also for consultation.

Is the COVID Vaccine Safe and Effective for Prostate Cancer Patients?

Is the COVID Vaccine Safe and Effective for Prostate Cancer Patients? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

 What do prostate cancer patients need to know about COVID-19 vaccines? Expert Dr. Maha Hussain discusses COVID-19 vaccine safety and effectiveness — and what she’s seen with COVID-19 vaccination with her patients.

Dr. Maha Hussain is the Deputy Director of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University. Learn more about this expert here.

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Transcript:

Katherine:

Is the COVID vaccination safe and effective for prostate cancer patients?

Dr. Hussain:

The answer is yes and yes. So, I have to say, by default, I deal mostly with older men. Age brings in other comorbidities. And certainly, while I see all kinds of shades of gray in terms of the disease extent, going all the way from newly diagnosed all the way to end-stage disease, the bulk of the patients I end up seeing tend to have more systemic disease and have other issues going on. And I have to say, surprisingly, less than a handful of my patients had the infection.

Only one required hospitalization with supportive measure, but not even needed incubation; however, he needed a lot of CPAP and other respiratory support. I’m not aware of any of my patients or my colleague’s patients who deal with prostate cancer that have died from COVID. So, I would say that’s the good news and that we have not seen a big hit in the population that I deal with.

I also know that I would say 99.9 percent of my patients have opted to be vaccinated, and they have tolerated the vaccine just fine. There’s only one case, which I actually even saw just this week, who had been vaccinated but have a very, very severe end-stage disease with significantly compromised bone morrow, who got infected but hospitalized for a few days and is recovering.

And so, I would say just by the pool of patients I see, my answers are yes and yes.

Katherine:

Very good. Thank you.

Dr. Hussain:

And I would encourage all the audience to go get vaccinated. I myself am vaccinated. And I’ve advised all my family members to be vaccinated, just to clarify that too.

Prostate Cancer Treatment and Research News

Prostate Cancer Treatment and Research News from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Prostate cancer experts recently gathered at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting to share research updates. Expert Dr. Maha Hussain reviews clinical trial findings presented at the meeting, potential treatments for FDA approval, and credible sources for prostate cancer research information.

Dr. Maha Hussain is the Deputy Director of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University. Learn more about this expert here.

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Transcript:

Katherine:

I’d like to start by asking about developments in prostate cancer research and treatment. Experts recently gathered at the annual American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting, also known as ASCO, to share their research.

So, what were the highlights from that meeting that you feel patients should know about?

Dr. Hussain:

I think probably perhaps I can focus on two major – what I would consider major highlights, and those were the results from two randomized Phase III clinical trials.

One of the trials is called the VISION trial. And the VISION trial was a Phase III randomized trial evaluating lutetium-PSMA-617 treatment in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. And the delightful thing about this study is that that study was positive. The PSMA story has been really going on for a few years now. And there’s the PSMA for purposes of scans, imaging, to assess the cancer. And the FDA just approved a PSMA PET imaging this year.

I think it was in May when it was approved. And that would help better define if the cancer is spread or not, and it help with the decision regarding treatment. But the second part is treatment purposes, so identifying the cancer location and trying to attack it with a specific sort of targeted attack to the tumor is really important.

And so, the FDA is currently looking at this particular agent. And I am hopeful that we will hear soon from the FDA, hopefully before the end of the year, and maybe – who knows? – maybe by summer, middle summer or end of summer. Because I do think that would be a major benchmark in there. And so, that’s one thing.

The other clinical trial that I thought was interesting from a data perspective – and for disclosure, I am one of the investigators on this study. And this was an intergroup Southwest Oncology, or SWOG, sponsored clinical trial. So, it’s a federal study that Dr. Aggarwal presented. And this was a study that was aiming at maximizing, again, the anti-tumor therapy with the use of a drug which I call is the younger brother of abiraterone.

So, abiraterone is a drug that is FDA-approved and has been around for several years right now for both castration-resistant prostate cancer and certainly hormone-sensitive metastatic disease. And so, TAK 700 (Orteronel) is a younger brother, I call it, of abiraterone (Zytiga). And one of the potential advantageous when this trial was designed was the fact that you don’t need to use prednisone. And the trial was completed. It was a national clinical trial. And what was interesting is that there is certainly what appears to be a potential benefit, but not in terms of the conclusive based on the way the study was designed.

Having said that, what I thought was remarkable is that patients who basically were only on the control arm was LHRH therapy, so this could’ve been like leuprorelin (Lupron), goserelin (Zoladex), or something like that plus bicalutamide, which is what we call combined androgen deprivation. And that was sort of like the strongest control arm we could do at the time when the trial was designed.

Remarkably, the patients who were on that arm had a median survival of basically 70 months. That’s the median. That’s the bell-shaped curve with the number in the middle. Seventy months is probably the longest ever in any other randomized trials in this disease space, in the hormone-sensitive space. So, that tells us is that men are living longer with prostate cancer, even though it’s metastatic disease; and, yes, it’s not necessarily curable, but men are living longer. And it’s a function of all of the better treatments that are supportive care and everything that was going on.

And so, the control arm, as I mentioned, was the 70.2 months. The actual experimental arm was about 81.1 months. And again, I don’t know where things will go from this. Obviously, I’m not the sponsor not the FDA. But the point here is that men are living longer, and so wellness and health become even more so important than we ever did. And as I tell my patients, every day you’ll live longer. The odds of living longer is there because of better treatments coming on.

So, to me – not to take too much time from the interview – to me, these were the two highlights: new, approved – I’m sorry, new treatment that I’m hoping will be FDA-approved and, obviously, the fact that men are living longer.

Katherine:

How can patients keep up to date on the research that’s going on?

Dr. Hussain:

I’m a bit biased, obviously. I’m a member of ASCO.

And what I would recommend to my patients is to look at the cancer.net website. The cancer.net is a website that is an ASCO-generated website specifically for patients and families to review. It is vetted. The committees are not run just by physicians, oncologists, a multidisciplinary team, but also patient representative. So, the lingo and the presentation are lay-friendly, I call it, there.

The other part I would say, the NCI website, and the American Cancer Society, the American Urological Association. I would say there’s a lot of stuff on the media. The difficulty is vetting what is sort of fake, what is not so accurate, or bias versus there. I also think that the NCCN has also some resources for patients.

And one thing I always tell patients: explore, look, but make sure that you talk to your doctor about the meanings of everything because sometimes it can be not – it could be misleading, I should say, or maybe not very clear on what the implications are.