Tag Archive for: Talzenna

An Overview of Metastatic Breast Cancer Treatment Options

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An Overview of Metastatic Breast Cancer Treatment Options from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What metastatic breast cancer (MBC) treatment options are available? Dr. Jane Lowe Meisel provides an overview of MBC treatment approaches, including CDK4-6 inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, PARP inhibitors, and immunotherapy.

Jane Lowe Meisel, MD is an Associate Professor of Hematology and Medical Oncology at Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University. Learn more about Dr. Meisel here.

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Well, let’s talk about treatment options for advanced disease. Can you review the types of treatments available for metastatic breast cancer?

Dr. Meisel:

Absolutely. And what I’ll do is, I’ll give you a broad overview and then because there’s so much and this is such a rich environment, I mean, I give hour long lectures just about the treatment of metastatic triple-negative breast cancer to our fellows. So, there is so much meaty information here. But I’ll give an overview with some key buzzwords so then people can go look up things that matter more to them or interest them more. So, as I said, we start with thinking about, is this hormone receptor-positive or estrogen-positive breast cancer? Is this HER2-positive or is this triple-negative? And those factors really send us down different paths.

So, if someone is estrogen-positive, I had mentioned before the PALOMA and MONALEESA studies showing that CDK4-6 inhibitors, which is a class of drugs that the first one was approved in 2015 and then two others have been approved subsequently. So, relatively new drugs. But those drugs, which are pills, added to traditional anti-estrogen therapy which would be aromatase inhibitors or fulvestrant.

Are often great first line options for these patients. And people can do well for years on just that alone, with estrogen-positive metastatic breast cancer. On average, about two years before people progress and need something new. And then after that, there are lots of trials ongoing looking at different ways in which an estrogen-positive breast cancer might progress on that regimen and how do we target that. So that there are multiple other anti-estrogen options down the line that people can use in estrogen-positive breast cancer before they need to even think about going on to something like chemotherapy.

So, really lots and lots of options for those patients, but probably starting with a CDK4-6 inhibitor plus anti-estrogen combination. And then in HER2-positive breast cancer, typically the first line treatment would be what we call monoclonal antibodies directed at HER2. So, something like Herceptin and Perjeta, which you may have heard of. And often combined with chemotherapy. But again, this is one of those areas that is also very, I think the art of medicine is very important and patient dependent.

Some of these regimen depend a little bit on patient’s age and other medical problems and desires, whether to include chemotherapy along with that frontline anti-HER2 regimen. Or whether to think about something like anti-estrogen therapy if the patient is HER2-positive and estrogen-positive. And then there are a lot of other different things we’re also using in HER2-positive disease after patients progress on that initial therapy, so there are what we call, antibody drug conjugates, where a chemotherapy like drug is attached to an antibody that then brings the chemo to the HER2-positive cell and allows for chemotherapy penetration more directly.

And then a class of drugs called tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which are oral drugs that get directed at HER2. So, another really exciting area to treat and a place where we’ve seen so many advances. And then in triple-negative breast cancer, I’d mentioned that chemotherapy has really been the mainstay of treatment historically because there weren’t great targets. But recently we’ve seen that immunotherapy, along with chemotherapy drugs like Keytruda, which you may have heard of.

Or atezolizumab, which is Mesenteric, can be used along with chemo and patients that overexpress a molecule called, PDL1. And that can actually include not just how long patients spend on the first treatment, but how long they live. So, we’re seeing a lot of triple-negative patients being great candidates for immune-based regimens now. And then for patients who have inherited a BRCA gene mutation, which many of you may have heard of. That gene mutation can actually predispose a triple-negative patient to be more receptive to a class of drugs called PARP inhibitors.

So, drugs like Olaparib or Talazoparib are new drugs that’ve been approved in the last couple of years in triple-negative metastatic breast cancer for patients who carry a BRCA1 mutation or BRCA2 mutation. And then there are also antibody drug conjugates in triple-negative breast cancer as well. The Trodelvy that’s been approved and then of course others that are in clinical trials currently. So, as you can see, it’s complex. I mean, the treatment of metastatic breast cancer is complicated. And so, it’s important I think to really be able to have a dialogue with your provider about what they’re recommending for you and why.

And I think there are often lots of options. And so, as much as you can make your doctor aware of what matters to you in terms of what side effects are you most afraid of or would you like most to avoid, what dosing schedules would be idea for your schedule for the rest of your life. So that you can deal with taking kids to school or the job that you’re currently working on or whatever, I think helps your doctor help you come up with the right regimen for you.

What Are Some Hereditary Factors Impacting Prostate Cancer Patients?

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What Are Some Hereditary Factors Impacting Prostate Cancer Patients? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Along with aging, hereditary factors also contribute to prostate cancer incidence. Expert Dr. Leanne Burnham details some of the hereditary factors, their mechanism of action, and some treatments under study in prostate cancer clinical trials for African American men.

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Dr. Leanne Burnham

So, cancer is a disease of aging, and cancer is a hereditary disease for a lot of different kinds of cancers, not all, but for a lot of them. And so prostate cancer is one of those that we know for sure that there are some genetic variations that are passed down from our parents that would make men either predisposed or not to get prostate cancer and also would predispose them to get aggressive prostate cancer.

And so, for example, if you have a father, an uncle, grandfather, if you have family members that have had prostate cancer, and beyond that, if you had women in your family that have had breast cancer, then that increases your chance as a man to get prostate cancer and to get it even younger than other races would. And so certain things that we look at in the lab and in the clinic at City of Hope are really trying to understand what those hereditary factors are, and then how you can target them with drug treatments specifically.

So, for example, we have a clinical trial that a team of us developed, and we are looking at the ability of something called PARP inhibitor not to get too technical with you, but PARP inhibitors, if you want to Google it, they are at the forefront of prostate cancer treatments right now, and especially a few running in clinical trials. And so there is a hereditary disposition, there is a mutation on the BRCA gene that leads to PARP inhibitors benefiting any person that would have that BRCA mutation.

What we’re doing in our clinical trial is we are using a PARP inhibitor called talazoparib (Talzenna), and we are not only providing that to patients that have the spark commutation, but we are extending it to patients that may not have that mutation, and the reason for is because, and I definitely don’t want to get crazy technical, but the reason for it in a nutshell, as we know in cancer there is an interaction between PARP inhibition and androgen receptor function and reaction to treatments. And so, you may have heard of androgen and androgen receptor when it comes to prostate cancer, it’s really the fancy way of saying testosterone, and prostate cancer needs testosterone, or it needs androgen and androgen receptor to function and to grow. And so, what we want to see in this clinical trial is if we target, if we use PARP inhibitors in combination with hormone therapy that’s targeting androgen production androgen receptor, will we see better treatment and better response to the drugs in those patients. And the extra cool part to me is we know that there are variations in DNA segments that affect androgen receptor function in African American men. And so, for a specific mechanism that I won’t dive into, it involves trinucleotide repeats and link, segments links and all this, but because of these variations and androgen receptor in African American men that we know was associated with their ancestry and what they’ve inherited in their own DNA, this drug should work better in African American men. And we will be able to tease that out in this clinical trial. So, it’s an opportunity for African American men who have prostate cancer who have not developed castration resistance yet, but who do have metastatic prostate cancer so, at that point, there is not a cure, right, and so you can go to your physician, and you can get a standard of care therapy, or you may want to consider this clinical trial where you would receive standard care therapy. And then also, as I said before this VIP access to this new drug, this PARP inhibitor that we think may improve outcomes in men.