Breast Cancer Archives

 

How to Stay Healthy after Breast Cancer Treatment

Numerous research studies have shown that avoiding sedentary life and taking regular physical exercise, along with a healthy diet and habits, is essential to prevent breast cancer.

But what about women who have already suffered from this disease and are still in the treatment and recovery phase? Although studies focus on specific sports such as Nordic walking or archery; experts are clear: physical activity can bring many benefits both physically and psychologically.

Fewer Relapses and Higher Quality of Life

According to data from the GEICAM Breast Cancer Research Group, women who remain active after diagnosis have a 67% lower risk of relapse than those with an inactive lifestyle.

In addition, regular exercise improves your quality of life. Exercising helps reduce fatigue and sleep problems. Besides, staying active improves the patient’s mood, increases her sense of well-being and reduces stress and anxiety.

Recovering from Breast Surgery

If there is no edema (swelling) or pain, the patient can return to normal life one week after the surgery. And if everything goes well, she can start playing sports in the first few weeks.

In some cases, however, it may be necessary to put yourself in the hands of a specialised physiotherapist before that. The consequences of the surgery vary depending on whether it has been conservative – the tumour has been removed while maintaining the breast – or a mastectomy has been necessary.

There may be a shortening of the skin between the chest and the armpit that affects the length of the arm. There may also be peripheral nerve-type sequelae, such as pain or lack of sensation. Especially in the case of mastectomy, but sometimes it also happens with conservative surgery.

“Physio” to Prevent Lymphedema

When it has also been necessary to remove the lymph nodes (lymphadenectomy), there is a 10% chance that the patient will suffer from lymphedema, a risk that increases to 20-25% if radiotherapy is also performed in the armpit, according to data from the Spanish Association Against Cancer.

Lymphedema consists of an accumulation of fluid in the arm, which causes an increase in its perimeter, heaviness, hardening, pain and difficulty in moving it.

In cases of lymphadenectomy and mastectomy 3 weeks or a month of physical therapy aimed at mobilizing the arm to prevent and treat these problems are recommended.

The specialized physiotherapist will adapt the treatment to each patient and then recommend which sports are most indicated in each case. As well as the stretching, relaxation and breathing exercises that can be done at home.

Exercising Strengthens the Immune System

What if the patient has to have radiation or chemotherapy? In this case, the treatment does not influence the possibility of starting physical exercise, although it is recommended to individualize it. In other words, adapt it to the patient’s condition and the physical activity to which she was previously accustomed.

There is evidence when regular practice can improve recovery of defenses, for example, influence of chemo is reduced.

Decrease the Side Effects

The breast cancer specialist also points out that after surgery most patients have to follow hormonal treatment for 5 years which causes a series of metabolic changes.

It can cause different disorders such as increased cholesterol, mood swings, etc. And it has been proven that exercising can help regulate these changes, reduce the side effects of hormone treatment or at least lower its intensity.

Better Aerobic Sports

As for what type of sports can be most recommended; there are none that are contraindicated, but that they should be evaluated individually.

The recent scientific evidence is in favor of aerobic and endurance exercise. Increased body mass index is associated with an increased risk of recurrence (reoccurrence of the disease) due to the mechanism of hormone production. And the weight control achieved with aerobic exercise is associated with the prevention of relapses.

Walking at a good pace, running, cycling or swimming are some of the aerobic exercises. Being lower intensity sports, but performed for longer, they are beneficial for the cardiovascular system and lung capacity, and improving endurance.

Besides, doctors highlight swimming, since in addition to mobilizing the arms, in water exercises the impact on the joints is cushioned, an aspect that must be taken into account if the patient suffers from osteoporosis or osteoarthritis as can happen after menopause. Swimming does not harm anyone.

Nordic Walking

I’m sure you’ve seen quite a few people walking around town with sticks lately. It’s called Nordic Walking and several studies have shown that this sport, which is affordable and easy to practice and can also be very beneficial in the recovery from breast cancer.

A publication by a group of Italian scientists describes that Nordic walking activates the trunk and upper limbs when walking, increasing their range of motion and the body’s total muscle strength.

By working the upper body (arms, shoulders, back), it improves blood circulation in the arms, stimulates lymphatic drainage and can improve secondary lymphedema in breast cancer.

The specialist recalls that lymphedema and alterations in local sensation, as well as the risk of deep vein thrombosis due to local circulation being affected are the main sequelae in the case of mastectomy if accompanied by lymphadenectomy.

And to prevent these problems, it may be advisable to do any exercise that is aimed at weight control and improving the venous return of the extremities”.


About the author: Nicholas H. Parker is a nutritionist and allergy expert. Besides, he has his own column on the site of buy essay cheap service. So he can share his experience with others. In this case, Nicholas has an opportunity to deal with work and hobbies simultaneously.

Cancer Survivors: Managing Emotions After Cancer Treatment

Since the 1980s, doctors have tried to describe the stages cancer survivors normally go through. Most divide them into a version of the three stages described below:

Acute Survival (Living With Cancer) – Covers cancer diagnosis and any subsequent treatment. During this time, patients will undergo treatment and may be invited to participate in a clinical trial to study new cancer treatments. Sometimes services are offered to patients and their caregivers to address emotional, psychological and financial problems.

Prolonged survival (transient cancer): Post-treatment period during which the risk of recurrence is relatively high. Many patients are relieved that treatment has ended, but are concerned that they will not visit the oncologist regularly. During this stage, patients often visit the oncologist two to four times a year, depending on their circumstances.

Permanent survival (living after cancer): survival after treatment and long-term. Although two out of three survivors declare that their lives have returned to normal, a third affirms that they continue to have physical, psychosocial or economic problems. During this stage, most survivors are cared for again by their GP. Ideally, they have developed a long-term follow-up plan with the oncologist for their regular doctor to implement.

Social and Emotional Repercussions of Cancer

In addition to the physical effects of cancer, survivors experience psychological, emotional, and spiritual consequences. Many of them affect quality of life and can manifest many years after treatment. Here are some of the most common problems cancer survivors face:

Fear of Recurrence

Many survivors live in fear that the cancer will return at some point. In some cases, a major event, such as the anniversary of the diagnosis or the end of treatment with the oncologist, can trigger these feelings. Fear can be good if it encourages you to discuss your health changes with your doctor, but it can also cause unnecessary worry. Knowing your own body will help you distinguish between normal changes and more serious symptoms.

Pain

Grief is the natural result of loss. In cancer, losses refer to health, sexual desire, fertility, and physical independence. To overcome your pain, it is important to experience all of these feelings. Support groups and psychological assistance can help you deal with these problems.

Depression

It is estimated that 70% of cancer survivors experience depression at some point. Depression can be difficult to diagnose in cancer survivors, since the symptoms are very similar to the side effects of cancer treatment, such as weight loss, tiredness, insomnia, and inability to concentrate. In a 10-year follow-up study, symptoms of depression have been found to be associated with shorter survival, so seeking treatment for depression is essential.

Body Image and Self-esteem

Cancer survivors who have suffered amputations, disfigurements, and loss of organs such as the colon or bladder often have to overcome their problems to relate to themselves and to others. A negative body image and low self-esteem can affect the survivor’s ability to maintain relationships with their partner, which will have important consequences on their quality of life. Good communication is essential to maintain or regain intimacy after cancer. Consult a doctor if problems persist.

Spirituality

Many survivors feel that life takes on new meaning after cancer and renew their commitment to certain spiritual practices or organized religion. Research indicates that spirituality improves quality of life through a strong social support network.

Survivor’s Fault

Some people feel guilty about surviving cancer when others don’t. You may be wondering “Why me?” Or reevaluate your goals and ambitions in life. If you have a prolonged feeling of guilt, a psychotherapist, a member of the clergy, or a support group can help you express your feelings.

Relations

Possibly the biggest challenge cancer survivors face is how others react to their disease. Friends, coworkers, and family members may feel uncomfortable when discussing the diagnosis of cancer. They can keep silent, avoid you, or pretend that nothing has happened. Others may use humor to try to distract you and not think about your situation, instead of offering to talk about your problems. Cancer can be a long-lasting disease, so it is essential to overcome communication barriers.

Social and Work Life

Social and professional reintegration can be accompanied by many fears: concern about being exposed to a higher risk of infection, lack of enough energy to reach the end of the workday and anxiety about not being able to think clearly due to the so-called “neurological impairment by chemotherapy “or memory loss. In overcoming a life and death situation, many cancer survivors feel alienated from people who have not had the same experience and turn to other survivors for support and friendship.

You may be reluctant to reveal to your bosses and colleagues that you are receiving cancer treatment for fear of being treated differently or even losing your job and health insurance. This creates an atmosphere of uncertainty that contributes to emotional stress. Again, honest communication with your colleagues will help you overcome these feelings.


About the author: Diane H. Wong is copywriter at write essay for me service. Besides, she is a professional nutritionist. So she is going to start writing her own blog. It can help her share her knowledge with others.

10 Ways of Thriving After Cancer

First and foremost, “surviving” cancer is amazing. After all, cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in the world! So, if you are a survivor, you are indeed worthy of praise. 

There are many types of cancers out there. One thing that they all have in common is that they are a result of uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells anywhere in a body. Early detection of cancerous growth results in a good prognosis as there is nearly no definitive cure for any form of cancer at its late stages.

Again, whether yours was at its late-stage or not and you survived, you are a winner! At this point, you should hold no reserve about cancer resurfacing and instead THRIVE. 

Now that you have survived cancer, the next step is reintegration back into society and doing the best you can to thrive while doing so. 

1. Battle your fear & anxiety head-on 

Long after getting cleared of cancer, survivors have to fight an emotional battle of fear and anxiety. No matter what the medical reports say about their health status, there is the seemingly never-ending fear of the cancer returning. 

This emotional turmoil is insurmountable and almost never avoidable unless you normally just have a strong will. You must quench this fear so that you can thrive.  A chat with your doctor is vital. Disclose whatever concerns you have about your health. Your doctor may even schedule frequent testing and care plans to make you feel better. 

2. Be devoted to your physical therapy sessions 

Cancer is usually for the long term. So, when the health providers eventually manage to get rid of all the cancerous growths, you may be left with a physical limitation like immobility. Such a physical limitation may make life less enjoyable, thus your doctor’s statutory recommendation for physiotherapy.

 Be dedicated to treatment sessions and work closely with the physical therapist as well as your loved ones. Don’t be afraid to ask for continued support as you heal.

3. Try a new hobby 

Don’t rush to get back to your old self before cancer. Try to enjoy the process more by finding new sports or leisure activities that fill your time. 

So, instead of getting mopey and worrying over cancer resurfacing, try knitting for a change, go golfing, try swimming! There is nothing too small or too big to try, and the main goal is to get you taken by any activity other than sitting down and getting paranoid. 

4. Consider returning to work

A defining part of getting reintegrated back into society after cancer is a career. If you were working before cancer, going back to work can help redefine your life. 

If you weren’t, try finding a new skill or going job-seeking. This gives you a sense of normalcy, but even better, it occupies your time! Remember, one of the most important ways to thrive after a battle with cancer is to not dwell on the past and simply enjoy the moment. 

5. Find intimacy with your loved ones 

There is nothing better than speaking to people who genuinely love you. Such emotional talks are sure to renew your confidence and help you build strong emotional support. If you are dating or married, it’ll help a great deal to bear your thoughts before your partner. Keeping it all inside won’t help and may even make you distant from them. 

6. If possible, start exercising

Numerous benefits accompany exercise. These range between boosting your physical endurance to giving your mental health a much-needed boost. 

Aside from that, nothing beats that sense of accomplishment that comes with completing an exercise session every day. Before starting an exercise regime, tell your doctor; and you may have him refer you to a physical therapist with knowledge of care for cancer survivors like you. 

If you are strong enough to exercise independently, start small with home workouts and build your way up to going for a walk at the park and then the gym. 

7. Make A List of Your Fears

This is on emotional terrain. Write down your deepest fears about life after cancer or what you think may prevent you from enjoying this new phase. This may include fear of the cancer returning, fears about your health overall, concerns of satisfying your partner in bed like you once did, fears of losing your job or doing poorly at it, and many more others. 

No matter how many they are, penning these fears down on paper can help you tackle them. After writing, you may even discover that some of these are so insignificant and shouldn’t be any trouble. Either way, you are tackling these problems head-on. 

8. Let go of the past 

This is an essential task if you want to thrive following a battle with cancer. Letting go of the past may be harder for people who have been fighting bouts of cancer over a significant number of years, but there is indeed nothing better than finding a new you. 

Cancer puts a dent in your mental health, so it may pose a challenge to let go of your history. If this is you, speaking to a counselor or even your doctor will be beneficial. 

9. Accept that there are going to be bad days 

It is a part of living to have good and bad days. As a cancer survivor, you can’t escape this, and you may even be more vulnerable, having battled one of the world’s deadliest diseases. As you strive to get back to normalcy, you have to realize that not every day will be good and that the process may be a lot harder than you expect. 

An optimistic attitude and never giving up are crucial to overcoming the dismay or depression that may set in when you’re not successful at something you try to do. You can also create a backup plan for such days e.g., take a walk with your partner, go to the cinema, etc. 

10. Share your experience with support groups 

There is nothing like working closely with people who have had similar experiences with you. Whether they are still battling cancer or not, speaking to others about your own experience surviving the disease will give them a ray of hope. It will equally do you a lot of good. 


Resource links: www.aicr.org, www.curetoday.com, www.inovanewsroom.org

PEN-Powered Activity Guide

Empowered! Podcast: Meet Andrea Conners

Today, we’re extremely proud to introduce our first-ever Empowered! podcast. Empowered! will bring you conversations around topics that are important to patients and care partners.

For our first episode, we meet Andrea Conners. Andrea is Patient Empowerment Network’s Executive Director. Andrea shares a little bit about herself, about PEN, and her inspiration in getting involved.


How Can You Best Support A Friend With Cancer?

What happens when someone close to you has been diagnosed with cancer?

How do you find the right words to say?

What is the best way to support them?

And how do you cope with your own emotions and feelings at the same time?

In this month’s article, I am sharing advice that comes directly from those who have personal experience of cancer – either as a patient themselves or as a friend or family member to someone with cancer.  The following tips are some of the things that friends said and did that were most helpful to cancer patients at the time of diagnosis and treatment.

Firstly, acknowledge that this can be a hard time for you too

Hearing that a friend has been diagnosed with cancer may impact you in ways that you might not be prepared for.  You may have many different emotions to cope with. You may feel angry, sad, and scared that this is happening to your friend. You may even find the news hard to take in and feel numb.   Breast cancer survivor, Nicole McClean[1] describes her feelings of numbness on hearing the news that her best friend was diagnosed with the same disease:  “I didn’t know what to feel. I didn’t know what to say. Everything I had said to other people didn’t really apply because this was MY friend. Not a stranger that I was comforting. Not even myself that I had to give a pep talk to.”

But don’t make it about you

In the shock of hearing about a friend’s diagnosis, it can be tempting to slip into a place of dwelling on your own fears and anxieties.  Nicole cautions others not to make this about themselves. “Please don’t be a friend like me. Don’t be the friend who makes the person with the diagnosis have to stop her own grieving to console you,” she says. “This is her moment. Her time to BE consoled. I don’t ever want her to feel like she needs to console me or comfort me during this time. That’s no longer her role. It is now mine.”

Just ask what’s needed

“My number one tip,” says radiation oncologist, Dr Matthew Katz (@subatomicdoc),  is “just ask what you can do to help. It can be hard to predict and may vary at different times in the cancer experience.”  Breast  surgeon, Dr Deanna Attai (@DrAttai) agrees: “Ask the patient what do you need, ask if they just want some company to sit, listen and be present.”

Above all, advises author and advocate, Nancy Stordahl (@NancysPoint) “don’t try to be a fixer and please, avoid using platitudes. Don’t tell her she’s strong, brave or courageous. Don’t add to her burden by making her feel she must live up to some gold standard of “doing cancer right”. Let her be real. Witness her pain. Listen. Just be there.”

Listen, hear and do

“The steps to being a good friend and supporter are simple”, says Nicole, “Listen and do.”  The first part is listening. “Listen to her. Or just sit with her silently. But either way, give her space where she’s comfortable sharing with you what’s in her heart without that moment becoming about you.“  

John Moore (@john_chilmark), founder of Chilmark Research, echoes this when he says: “Listen, truly listen and they will open up in time to the fear they hold within – just how scary it can be at times.”

Julia, co-founder of online breast cancer support community @BCCWW agrees. “Listen and hear,” she advises,  “if they have bad days let them, cancer isn’t fun times. Flip side: if they feel good, believe them.”

And it’s ok to not know what to say sometimes.

“Something that I think is helpful is for friends and family to remember that it’s okay if you don’t know what to say to the person with cancer,” explains Lisa Valentine (@HabitgratLisa), ·who blogs at habitualgratitude.com. “Show up, say “I don’t know what to say, but I am here for you.” Take it from there. Showing up and listening usually takes care of what can happen next.”

HER2 breast cancer patient, Tracy (@tracyintenbury) suggests offering to go to “chemo sessions if the person with cancer would otherwise be attending alone.”  Metastatic breast cancer patient, Ilene Kaminsky (@ilenealizah) appreciated those who attended medical appointments with her “especially during the first months when everything seemed to proceed at the pace of tar, and again during critical appointments/ chemo days.”

Do what needs to be done

Don’t ask her what she needs, just do something that she needs,”  recommends Nicole. “Show up, and help out.” Chair of Cardiomyopathy, CR UK patient board and NCRI rep for kidney and bladder cancer, Alison Fielding (@alisonfielding) agrees: “Make specific offers of help such as lifts, company or chores rather than waiting to be asked.”

“Anyone who said let me know if you need anything wasn’t going to get an answer,” explains Ilene “so during difficult times, one or two of my friends would do my wash, change the sheets and put the clothes away. She’d bring me smoothies while I’d be knocked out from my pre-taxol Benadryl and knew exactly what I’d like.”

Clinical Professor of Pathology, Dr David Grenache (@ClinChemDoc), cautions following through with offers of help. “From experience: when you tell them you will do what you can to help, then follow through with that when you are asked for help.  You may have to drop a high priority task but when the call for help comes. Go!” 

Victoria (@terrortoria), founder and community manager of @YBCN_UK (which supports young women with breast cancer), recalls a friend who “made home made soup for me when I told her I couldn’t bring myself to eat things. She left them on my doorstep as I couldn’t bring myself to see people either for a time. It was a 90-minute round trip for her. She’d listened to how I felt and then helped me within my limits.”

This theme of cooked meals comes up again and again. 

“Cook meals so the person with cancer has something warm and nutritious,” recommends Tracy.  Maureen Kenny (@MaureenKenny1), a patient living with secondary breast cancer, agrees, saying “you can never go wrong with a cooked meal.”

After a long day in hospital, breast cancer patient advocate, Siobhan Feeney (@BreastDense)  recalls the day she came home to find “in the porch, cooked dinner, homemade bread, marmalade and fresh eggs.” A gift she says she’ll never forget. 

Alleviating the pressure of cooking and housework is a super practical way to help a friend with cancer. Sarah Connor (@sacosw), shares a story about her neighbour who “came once a week, took away a basket of dirty clothes, brought them back washed, dried, ready to put away. She didn’t know me very well. Still makes me tingle.”

Give thoughtful gifts

From warm socks and soft blankets to body lotion and lip balm, there are many gifts you can bring a friend who is going through treatment. Beverly A. Zavaleta MD[2], author of Braving Chemo, writes:  “Each time someone sent me a gift I felt a connectedness to the giver and to the “outside world,” which was a welcome escape from the cancer world that I was living in… when I received a gift, I appreciated the time that that person took to remember me, to think of what I might need and to choose, assemble or make the gift.”

Breast cancer survivor, Karen Murray (@murraykaren) recommends practical gifts like “hand cream (skin very dry after chemo), gel for mouth ulcers (also common), some nice sweets/fruit.”

Male breast cancer survivor, Dennis Keim (@denniskeim) suggests “a jar of Aquaphor might be a nice gift. Especially if their skin is getting hammered by chemo.”

“Help the cancer patient pamper themselves,” proposes Lisa Valentine. “You know your friend or family member well enough–get them something they wouldn’t get themselves because they would think it’s extravagant–i.e. the expensive chocolate or a pedicure.” What may seem like an indulgence can also be extremely practical. “Taking me for gel nails protected my ever softening nails,” explains Ilene Kaminsky.

Although be mindful that not everyone appreciates the same things. 

“I wasn’t interested in toiletries, candles. Wine gums – they mask the taste of a nasty pre-chemo antiemetic,” says Syliva (@SylviaB_). “People often think buying flowers is naff. I adored it when people bought me flowers. A couple of people bought spectacular flowering plants.”  Breast cancer blogger, Sheri[3] received the fabulous gift of a monthly subscription to in-home flower deliveries during treatment.

Help with treatment decisions

If you have already been through cancer yourself, your friend may turn to you for treatment advice. You can guide them to helpful resources  and share your own experience, but ultimately the final decision is theirs alone. Sometimes you may not agree about treatment decisions. This can be hard for both of you. Try to accept this and support their decision. “I think not being critical with someone’s choices is very important. Support should not be in spite of circumstances,” says Ilene Kaminsky.

Offer compassion and kindness

Two-times breast cancer survivor and patient advocate Terri Coutee[4] believes the best gifts you can offer a friend is compassion and kindness. “Hold a hand if you are with a friend or loved one in person,” she advises. “You don’t even have to say anything. Perhaps your warm, human touch is enough. Tell them you have no idea how they are feeling at the moment but want to support them in any way you can. Be sensitive to the fact they may only need someone to listen, not advise.”

John Hanley (@ChemoCookery) considers “small practical actions and warm, soothing, short reassuring words are perfect.” Words like “I’m going nowhere and I’ll be here shoulder to shoulder when you need me. A little note/text/card “Here for you 24/7 anytime.”A HUG, an Embrace, a hand, eye contact.”

Sara Liyanage, author of Ticking Off Breast Cancer [5]  reminds us that “a cancer diagnosis turns your world upside down and overnight you can become scared, emotional, vulnerable and anxious. Having friends and family step up and show kindness is a lifeline which can carry you through from diagnosis to the end of treatment (and importantly, beyond).”

Treat your friend like you normally would

Researcher, Caroline Lloyd (@TheGriefGeek), cautions us not to “make it all about the cancer, they are still a person.”  Writer and metastatic breast cancer patient, Julia Barnickle (@JuliaBarnickle) agrees. “I prefer to keep conversation as normal as possible for my own sake – I don’t want cancer to take over my life.”

Stage 4 melanoma patient advocate, Kay Curtin (@kaycurtin1) suggests you talk to your friend “like you would any friend. We haven’t suddenly become aliens who require a different style of language,”  she points out.  Sherry Reynolds (@Cascadia), whose Mom is a 15-year metastatic breast cancer patient, talks about how her mother “really appreciated it when people talked to her about regular things vs always talking about her cancer or asking how she was doing. She was living with her cancer, it wasn’t who she is.”

Know when to back off

“What I didn’t want, which is equally important, was people trying to encourage me to go anywhere or do anything,” says Syliva (@SylviaB_).“ I spent a lot of time on my sofa and felt guilty saying no to people who wanted me to go out.”

Knowing when to be there for your friend, and when to give them space isn’t always easy.  but it’s an important balancing act as a good friend.  In Tips for Being A Great Cancer Friend, Steve Rubin,[6] points out that “sometimes, the overstimulation from nurses popping in, PT sessions, and all the tests/drug schedules can become so exhausting that you just want to be left alone. Other times, the loneliness kicks in and you could really use a friendly face.”

It may take time to find the right balance, so let your friend guide you.   Nicole McClean shares her experience with her friend: “I haven’t spoken to her a lot. I didn’t want to become that sort of pesky, well-intentioned friend who searched for every little thing that might show how she was feeling at any particular moment.  Because I know that her feelings would change from moment to moment and sometimes… sometimes it’s just too much to have someone repeatedly ask you… “how are you really feeling?” even when you know they mean well. At this point, I am letting her guide me into how much she needs me and where she wants me to be.”  

At the same time, Terri Coutee advises gentle persistence:  “Don’t give up if you offer help and they don’t respond. Revisit your offer to do something for them with gentle persistence. One day they may decide they need your help,”  she says.  Maureen Kenny recalls “a friend who texted me every time she was about to go shopping to see if I needed/wanted anything while she was out. I rarely did but I always really appreciated her asking.”

Make your support ongoing

Support is not just one and done.  In the shock and drama of a crisis, friends rally round, but once the shock has worn off many disappear. True friends stick around long after the initial days, weeks and months of a cancer diagnosis. Ilene asks that friends continue to“remember birthdays, cancerversaries, and remember me on holidays. A card means a lot even to just say hi.”

Final thoughts

Many studies have found that cancer survivors with strong emotional support tend to better adjust to the changes cancer brings to their lives, have a more positive outlook, and often report a better quality of life. Research has shown that people with cancer need support from friends. You can make a big difference in the life of someone with cancer. [7]

“I personally loved just knowing I was cared for, says lobular breast cancer campaigner, Claire Turner (@ClaireTTweets). “A number of friends didn’t contact me or come and see me and that hurt, so simply be there in whatever way means something,” she advises.

“The truth is basic,” says Nicole McClean, “nobody wants somebody they love to go through cancer. Especially if they’ve been through it themselves. You want people you love to be spared this type of hardship. But you can’t protect them from it. You can only help them through it. Be there for them in the ways that they need.”

Tailoring your help to what your friend needs and enjoys most is the best way to be a friend to them. As four-times cancer survivor Sarah Dow (@he4dgirl) points out “the answers will surely be as varied as we are, both in life generally, our experience of cancer, and our connection with our friend.”


[1] Nicole McClean. My Fabulous Boobies.

[2] Beverly A. Zavaleta MD, The Best Gifts For Chemotherapy Patients

[3] Life After Why

[4] Terri Coutee, DiepCJourney

[5] Sara Liyanage, “What To Do (And What Not To Do) For Someone With Breast Cancer”

[6] Steve Rubin, The (Other) C Word

[7] American Cancer Society, “How to Be a Friend to Someone With Cancer”

Confused About Immunotherapy and Its Side Effects? You Aren’t Alone

“You don’t look like you have cancer.”

More than one patient undergoing immunotherapy to treat cancer has reported hearing statements like that. Immunotherapy is one of the recent advances in cancer treatment that belie the stereotypes about the effects of cancer treatment. 

The side effects of immunotherapy are different from those associated with chemotherapy and radiation. However, that does not mean immunotherapy does not have side effects. Patients and care partners need to be aware of these potential side effects and to be vigilant in addressing them with their oncologists because they can signal more serious complications if left untreated.

What is Immunotherapy?

Despite the increase of immunotherapy treatment options in recent years and considerble media attention paid to advancements in this field, there remains confusion about immunotherapy and its side effects. Many cancer patients are unaware of whether immunotherapy treatments are available for their specific diagnosis. Others don’t know that genetic profiling of their tumors is usually required to determine if immunotherapy is an option and not all treatment centers routinely conduct genetic profiles of tumors. A  survey by The Cancer Support Community found that the majority of patients who received immunotherapy knew little to nothing about it prior to treatment and were unfamiliar with what to expect.

Immunotherapy works by manipulating the patient’s immune system to attack cancer cells. It is perceived as gentler and more natural than chemotherapy and radiation, without the same destructive effect on the body’s healthy tissues.  This, combined with a lack of prior understanding of immunotherapy, can lead patients and care partners ill-prepared for possible side effects.

Furthermore, immunotherapy is a category of therapies, not a single type of treatment. There are a variety of immunotherapy drugs, most of which are administered via infusion.  Side effects will vary by drug, the cancer and its location, treatment dose, and the patient’s overall health.

The following are the most common types of immunotherapy.

  • Checkpoint inhibitors use drugs to block proteins in the patient’s immune system that would otherwise restrain the immune system, often referred to as taking the “brakes” off the immune system.
  • CAR-T therapy modifies the patient’s T-cells in a lab to enhance their ability to bind to cancer cells and attack and kill them.
  • Oncolytic virus therapy uses genetically modified viruses to kill cancer cells.
  • Another therapy uses cytokines (small proteins that carry messages between cells) to stimulate the immune cells to attack cancer.

Immunotherapy can be part of combination therapy. It might be combined with chemotherapy. It might be used to shrink a tumor that is then surgically removed.  Or multiple immunotherapy drugs might be used simultaneously.

What Are The Side Effects?

With immunotherapies, side effects typically occur when the immune system gets too revved up from the treatment. The most common side effects for immunotherapy treatments are fatigue, headache, and fever with flu-like symptoms. Some people also experience general inflammation often in the form of a rash. Many melanoma patients report blotchy skin discoloration, called vitiligo, during treatment. These milder side effects can usually be managed with over-the-counter remedies and adjustments to daily activities.

For checkpoint inhibitors, the fastest growing segment of immunotherapy treatments, mild side effects occur in 30% – 50% of patients. Serious side effects typically occur in less than 5% of patients. (See “Understanding Immunotherapy Side Effects” from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and the American Society of Clinical Oncology.)

Less common side effects are blisters, joint pain, thyroid inflammation, and colitis (inflamed colon resulting in diarrhea with cramping). Some patients who receive CAR T-cell therapy develop a condition known as cytokine release syndrome, which causes fever, elevated heart rate, low blood pressure, and rash. 

In rare cases, immunotherapy has resulted in lung inflammation, hepatitis, inflammation of the pituitary, and detrimental effects on the nervous and endocrine systems. In most cases, the conditions clear up when treatment ends.  However, there have been outcomes in which immunotherapy caused diabetes or tuberculosis.

“Overall there are fewer side effects [with immunotherapy],” explained Dr. Justin Gainor, a lung and esophageal cancer specialist at Mass General during an Immunotherapy Patient Summit hosted by the Cancer Research Institute. “But the immune system can affect anything from the top of the head down to the toes. Any organ has the potential to be affected.”

As the application of immunotherapy has expanded, so has our understanding of the potential side effects. Like most medical treatments, how one person responds to immunotherapy can be different from another even when the cancer diagnosis and drug therapy are the same.

The essential thing patients and care partners need to know about side effects is they should always be reported to their oncologist or nurse oncologist.

Why Patients Should Talk to Their Provider About Immunotherapy Side Effects

Because immunotherapy has created newer therapy options, there isn’t the volume of experiences as with older treatments. The infinite number of variables that patients provide once a treatment moves beyond clinical trials and into the general patient population generate more diverse outcomes.  And, as most therapies are less than 10 years old, there hasn’t been an opportunity to study the long-term effect of these therapies. This is why oncologists advise patients and their caregivers to be extra vigilant in noting any changes experienced during and after treatment.

Many side effects are easy to treat but medical providers want patients to be forthcoming in discussing any and all side effects. This is in part to improve understanding of side effects, but also because a mild cough or a case of diarrhea might be harbingers of a more systemic issue that will grow worse if left untreated.

Patients should not be hesitant to discuss side effects because they fear they will be taken off immunotherapy.  Sometimes a pause in treatment might be necessary, but the earlier the oncologist is made aware of a side effect, the less likely that will be necessary.

In addition, patients undergoing immunotherapy should always take the name(s) of their immunotherapy drugs and the name of their oncologist when seeing medical professionals outside of their cancer treatment team. This is especially important when visiting the ER.  Because immunotherapy drugs are newer and highly targeted to certain cancers, many medical professionals remain unfamiliar with drug interactions and treating related side effects.

Immunotherapy On The Rise

Immunotherapy treatments have resulted in reports of remission in cases that would’ve been deemed hopeless just five or 10 years ago.  The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved various immunotherapy treatments for melanoma, lung cancer, head and neck cancer, bladder cancer, cervical cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, lymphoma, breast cancer, and most recently bladder cancer.  (Here is a list of  immunotherapies by cancer type from the Cancer Research Institute.)

“It’s revolutionized how we treat our patients,” says Dr. Gainor of Mass General about immunotherapy’s impact on lung and esophageal cancer.

Advances in immunotherapy research and trials continue to generate optimism and excitement. A clinical study in Houston is looking at using immunotherapy to prevent a recurrence. Researchers in Britain recently announced a discovery that might lead to advances in immunotherapy treatments to a much broader array of cancers.

While there is excitement around the field of immunotherapy and it has resulted in unprecedented success in treating some previously hard-to-treat cancers, it remains an option for a minority of cancer diagnoses.  It works best on solid tumors with more mutations, often referred to as having a high-mutational load or microsatellite instability (MSI) high. And it is not universally successful for every patient.

With hundreds of clinical trials involving immunotherapy alone or in combination with other therapies, it is certain more treatment options are on the horizon. As more therapies are developed and more patients with a greater variety of conditions undergo immunotherapy, we will also increase our understanding of potential side effects.

Side effects should not dissuade patients and care partners from considering immunotherapy if it is available or from advocating for genetic tests to deteimine if it is an option. Many patients undergoing immunotherapy have previously undergone chemotherapy and report that the side effects are fewer and milder by comparison.  The important thing is that patients and their partners know what to expect and communicate with their treatment team.

If the next 10 years in immunotherapy research and development are anything link eth elast 10, we can expect more exciting advancements in the battle against cancer. For more perspective on what’s ahead for immunotherapy see the Cancer Research Institute’s article: Cancer Immunotherapy in 2020 and Beyond.

BCRF: Investigating Breast Cancer

Investigating Breast Cancer, the official podcast of the Breast Cancer Research Foundation, examines the latest in breast cancer news with the most respected minds in science.

The series contains insightful conversations with BCRF’s scientific leadership and features experts that are taking part in groundbreaking science every day. As the only organization dedicated exclusively to breast cancer research, BCRF’s podcast reflects a multitude of hot topics, examining the promise of scientific discovery. Simply search for Investigating Breast Cancer and subscribe to the channel in your Podcast app, available through any of the players below:

Check out our full library of podcast conversations below.


Dr. Priscilla Brastianos (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Eric Winer (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Walter Willett (click through for the full transcript)

Dr. Lawrence Shulman (click through for the full transcript)

Dr. Luca Gianni (click through for the full transcript)

Dr. Susan Horwtiz (click through for the full transcript)

Dr. Gabriel Hortobagyi (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Sofia Merajver (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Joseph Sparano (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Ben Park (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Hedvig Hricak(click through for full transcript)

Dr. Michael Wigler (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Annette Stanton(click through for full transcript)

Dr. Alan Ashworth (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Robert Schneider (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Jack Cuzick (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Jedd Wolchok(click through for full transcript)

Dr. Peter Kuhn (click through for full transcript)

Drs. Daniele Gilkes and Paul Macklin (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Anna Maria Storniolo (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Debra Barton (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Michael Clarke (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Arti Hurria (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Mina Bissell (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Charles Perou (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Judy Garber (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Marc Hurlbert (click through for full transcript)

Dr. Larry Norton (click through for full transcript)

LBBC: How Diagnosis May Impact Your Emotions

This was originally published by Living Beyond Breast Cancer here.


Practical Concerns

At the beginning, your doctors are giving you a lot of new medical information. You might feel overwhelmed and wonder how you will ever make sense of everything. Practical concerns about health insurance, keeping track of your medical records, getting transportation to and from appointments, and adjusting your home and work life to accommodate treatments may also be worrying you. Think about who you can turn to for help with these tasks.

You may feel pressure, from yourself or from others, to start treatment quickly. This could cause you to worry that you don’t have enough time to gather and process the information you need. Remember that in most cases, breast cancer treatment is not an emergency and taking time to make your decisions is OK.

Start by talking with your care team about a timeline for treatment. Get clarity about how long you can take to make decisions. Take this time to learn more about your diagnosis and treatment options, and to gather the people you want around you for support. Taking time to understand your options may give you confidence. Once you have a solid plan, you will likely feel less uncertain. Taking action may help you feel calmer and in control.

You may also be concerned about how your treatment will affect your or your family’s day-to-day life. You may worry about keeping your job, income, or health insurance if you have to take time off from work. Make a list of the things that worry you and share them with your provider. He or she may be able to direct you to resources that will help you manage money, job and insurance concerns.

Also share your list of practical concerns — whether transportation, child care or food shopping — with your personal support team. Remember, people want to help and giving them a job will make them feel better as well.

Starting Treatment

As you develop a plan and transition toward treatment, the feelings you had right after your diagnosis may lessen or change. Once you have a plan, you may feel more hopeful and grounded. Many women feel better when treatments begin because they know the therapy is working to get rid of the cancer.

Surgerychemotherapytargeted therapyhormonal therapy, and radiation therapy can prompt strong or mixed emotions, too. Perhaps you dread starting treatment and worry about side effects. Share your concerns with your care team before treatment begins. They can address your fears and suggest ways to manage or even prevent some side effects.

46 Year Old Kristen Nauss Recently Diagnosed With Breast Cancer

This podcast was originally posted on WVFM on September 17, 2018 here.


Access to Healthcare Podcast

Join us as we discuss healthcare issues that matter to you.

Coverage of Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention Services

This was originally published by The Kaiser Family Foundation on September 26, 2019 here.


Among women in the United States, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death. In 2016, an estimated 3.5 million women in the U.S. were living with breast cancer. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) and many state laws have provisions that assure that most women with private insurance, Medicaid, and Medicare have coverage for breast cancer screening services. This typically includes screening mammography for the general population of women, but also can include genetic testing and preventive medications for high-risk women over the age of 35. This factsheet discusses breast cancer screening and prevention services, and reviews the scope of private and public insurance coverage, as well as access to those services for women in the US.

Breast Cancer in the United States

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the U.S. and makes up 15% of all new cancer diagnoses. Approximately 1 in 8 women (12.8%) will be diagnosed with breast cancer during their lifetime.

  • In 2019 there will be an estimated 268,600 new cases of female breast cancer and 41,760 deaths attributable to breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer is most commonly diagnosed among middle-aged and older women, with 70% of new cases diagnosed among women 55 and older (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Seven in Ten Cases of Breast Cancer are Diagnosed Among Women 55 and Older

  • Most breast cancers are diagnosed at an early stage. Sixty-two percent of breast cancers diagnosed are localized, meaning they are found only in the part of the body they started, while 6% of cases diagnosed have metastasized, meaning the cancer has spread to other regions of the body.
  • Risk factors for breast cancer include but are not limited to: a family history of breast cancer, genetic predispositions, personal history with breast cancer, breast density, obesity, drinking alcohol, early menstruation, delayed childbearing and having fewer children.
  • In the U.S., while white women have the highest incidence of breast cancer, black women have higher breast cancer mortality rates (Figure 2). These disparities are likely attributable to a combination of factors, such as differences in stage at diagnoses, tumor biology, and genetics, as well as disparities in access to screening, follow up care and treatment.

Figure 2: White Women Have the Highest Incidence of Breast Cancer, but Mortality Rates are Higher Among Black Women

  • Although very rare, men can develop breast cancer. In 2019, there will be approximately 2,670 cases of male breast cancer diagnosed and 500 deaths.

Coverage for Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention

While several health organizations issue guidelines for breast cancer screening and prevention, private insurance coverage of preventive services under the ACA is governed by recommendations from the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) and the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). Under these guidelines, private group and individual insurance plans and state Medicaid expansion programs must cover the following breast cancer screening and prevention services at no cost to the consumer: 1) screening mammography at least every 2 years and as frequently as once a year for women ages 40 to 74 with average-risk for breast cancer; 2) genetic counseling and testing for mutation of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in some women with a personal or family history of breast, ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer; 3) preventive medication for some women with elevated risk of breast cancer and at low risk for adverse medication effects (Table 1). Some medical professionals recommend other services, such as screening MRIs for women at higher risk for breast cancer, but these services are not currently subject to the ACA’s preventive services coverage requirement.

Table 1:  Breast Cancer Preventive Services Covered Without Cost-Sharing
Preventive ServiceTarget PopulationRecommendation
Breast Cancer Screening
(HRSA & USPSTF)
Women ages 40 to 74 with average-risk for breast cancer (HRSA)Women age 50-74 (USPSTF)Screening mammography at least every 2 years and as frequently as once a yearScreening mammography every 2 years
BRCA- Related Cancer: Risk Assessment, Genetic Counseling and Genetic Testing (USPSTF)Women with a personal history or family history of breast, ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal cancer or ancestry associated with BRCA 1 and/or 2 gene mutationPrimary care clinicians should assess women with a personal or family history of breast, ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal cancer or who have an ancestry associated with breast cancer susceptibility 1 and 2 (BRCA1/2) gene mutations with an appropriate brief familial risk assessment tool. Women with a positive result on the risk assessment tool should receive genetic counseling and, if indicated after counseling, genetic testing.
Breast Cancer: Medications for Risk Reduction (USPSTF)Women age 35+ at increased risk for breast cancerClinicians should offer to prescribe risk reducing medications, such as tamoxifen, raloxifene, or aromatase inhibitors, to women who are at increased risk for breast cancer and at low risk for adverse medication effect

NOTE: Women with family members with breast, ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal cancer should be screened with one of several screening tools designed to identify a family history that may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.
SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation. Preventive Services Tracker. As of September 2019.

Mammography

  • Mammography is a low-dose x-ray procedure that provide images of the internal structures of the breast and is the most common screening test for breast cancer.
  • Current HRSA guidelines, which define no-cost coverage standards for private insurance, recommend biennial screening mammography to start no earlier than age 40 and no later than age 50 for average-risk women and continue through at least age 74, while the USPSTF breast cancer screening guidelines recommend biennial screening mammography for women aged 50 to 74, and states that starting mammography screening before age 50 should be an individual decision based on preference and patient values. The USPSTF also concludes that there is insufficient evidence to assess the benefits and harms of screening mammography for women 75 years and older.
  • In 2015, 58% of women ages 40-49 and 72% of women ages 50-74 reported having had a mammogram in the past two years (Figure 3). Overall, between 2000 and 2015, mammography rates stayed relatively stable. Black women (70%) and women with some college education and more (71%) have the highest mammography rates (Appendix Table 1).

Figure 3: Mammography Use in the United States by Age Group and Insurance Coverage

  • Mammography rates vary by state. Ohio and Kansas reported the highest mammography rates (81%) in the nation, while Connecticut reported the lowest rates at 61% (Figure 4 & Appendix Table 2).

Figure 4: Mammography Rates Vary Across States

  • Research shows that women with insurance coverage are more likely to report having had a mammogram in the past two years. In 2015, only 30% of uninsured women ages 40 to 64 reported having had a mammogram in the past two years compared to 72% of privately insured women and 58% of women with Medicaid coverage (Figure 3).
  • Most professional guidelines suggest starting mammography after age 40, but 47% of women believe women without a family history of breast cancer should begin mammography screening before age 40 (Figure 5).

Figure 5: Almost Half of Women Think Women Without Family History of Breast Cancer Should Begin Mammography Screening Before Age 40

Genetic Testing and Screening for BRCA1/BRCA2 Mutations

  • Mutations to BRCA1 and BRCA2, tumor suppressor genes, increase the risk of female breast and ovarian cancers, as well as Fallopian tube, peritoneum, pancreatic, and skin cancers. While almost 13% of women in the general population will develop breast cancer at some point in their lives, 72% of women who have inherited the BRCA1 mutation and 69% of women who have inherited the BRCA2 mutation will develop breast cancer by the age of 80.
  • Factors associated with an increased likelihood of having a harmful BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation include: breast cancer diagnoses before age 50, cancer in both breasts, both breast and ovarian cancers in the same individual, multiple cases of breast cancers, two or more BRCA1 or BRCA2 related cancer deaths in the family, cases of male breast cancer, and being of Ashkenazi Jewish descent.
  • Currently, the USPSTF recommends that primary care providers screen women with a personal or family history of breast, ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal cancers or have an ancestry associated with BRCA 1/ 2 gene mutations with one of several screening tools for an increased risk in BRCA genetic mutations. The USPSTF recommends that women with positive screenings receive genetic counseling and if necessary BRCA genetic testing.

Preventive Medication

  • The use of medications to help reduce the risk of or delay the onset of cancer is called chemoprevention. The drugs tamoxifen, raloxifene, and aromatase inhibitors reduce primary breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women.
  • The USPSTF recommends that clinicians should discuss and offer to prescribe these risk-reducing medications to some women 35 and older who are at an increased risk for breast cancer and at low-risk for adverse medication effects. Women who are not at an increased risk for breast cancer should not take these medications.

Coverage and Utilization of Services

Most women with public and private insurance have coverage for breast cancer screening services, but the scope of coverage can differ based on the type of insurance plan, how they qualify for Medicaid, and in the case of Medicare, where they live. While there are programs to assist uninsured and underserved women, these programs only reach a fraction of eligible women.

  • Private Individual and Group Insurance Plans—The ACA requires most private group and individual insurance plans, including most employer plans, to cover all services rated by the USPSTF with an “A” or “B” without consumer cost-sharing, as well as preventive services for women recommended by HRSA. Plans must cover the full cost of mammograms starting at age 40, genetic screening for high-risk women, and breast cancer preventive medication for high risk women under this policy.
  • Medicaid— Women who qualify for Medicaid based on their state’s decision to expand Medicaid under the ACA are entitled to the same screening and preventive services as women who are covered by private insurance. For women who qualify based on other traditional eligibility pathways, breast cancer screening and preventive services are considered “optional” under traditional Medicaid programs and the scope of coverage is determined by the state. A 2015 state survey of Medicaid programs, however, found that most states cover breast cancer screening and prevention services under expansion and traditional eligibility pathways.
  • Medicare—Medicare Part B covers annual screening mammograms at no-cost for women 40 and over. Coverage for BRCA genetic testing is not required nationally, but may be covered in some regions based on local coverage determinations. Women enrolled in a Medicare Part D drug plan who are at high risk for breast cancer may have coverage for chemoprevention drugs, but there is no requirement for Part D plans to cover these drugs without cost sharing.
  • TRICARE—TRICARE, the public program for military personnel and dependents, covers screening mammography for women 40 and older, BRCA genetic counseling, and chemoprevention, but is not required to offer coverage without cost-sharing. Out-of-pocket costs for consumers vary by an individual’s specific level of TRICARE coverage and active duty status.
  • The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP)—The NBCCEDP helps low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women gain access to breast and cervical cancer screening, diagnostic services, and referrals to treatment. Uninsured and underinsured women are eligible for the program if they are at or below 250% Federal Poverty Level (FPL) and are between the ages of 40 to 64 for breast cancer screenings. Although about 10% of U.S. women are eligible for the NBCCEDP breast cancer screenings, the program only serves about 11% of those who are eligible. In 2017 almost 192,000 women received NBCCEDP funded mammograms.
  • The Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment Act (BCCPTA)—Passed in 2000, the BCCPTA gives states the option to extend Medicaid coverage to uninsured women under 65 who are diagnosed with breast or cervical cancer through NBCCEDP screening programs. Although all states adopted this option, states have different eligibility requirements. In 20 states and DC, women are only eligible for Medicaid coverage if their screening and diagnosis was paid for by NBCEEDP funds; in 14 states women are eligible for Medicaid if their provider receives NBCEEDP funds or the services provided fell within the scope of the NBCEEDP grant; and in 16 states women are eligible for Medicaid coverage for treatment regardless of where they were screened as long as they meet the other eligibility criteria. In 2013, almost 57,000 uninsured women with a breast cancer diagnosis gained Medicaid coverage through the BCCPTA.
  • While many women now receive no-cost coverage for mammography services, women who get diagnostic mammograms, those who get preventive services out-of-network or who are in grand-fathered plans may be subject to co-payments, cost-sharing or deductibles. In the 2017 Kaiser Women’s Health Survey, 16% of women with private insurance reported paying out-of-pocket costs for a mammogram, compared to 3% of women with Medicaid coverage and 11% of uninsured women.

Appendix Table 1

Appendix Table 2

Appendix Table 2: Mammography Rates by State, 2014-2016


Percent of women ages 40 and older who report having had a mammogram within the past 2 years

StateAll WomenWhiteBlackHispanicAsian & Native
Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
American Indian/
Alaska Native
United States73%73%78%72%72%67%
Alabama73%71%79%n/an/a68%
Alaska79%79%83%70%n/an/a
Arizona75%71%79%67%n/an/a
Arkansas76%75%80%77%77%n/a
California75%73%81%60%72%n/a
Colorado78%76%n/a79%79%n/a
Connecticut61%62%n/a47%n/an/a
Delaware73%73%79%72%n/an/a
DC67%67%73%69%n/an/a
Florida74%74%80%73%n/an/a
Georgia63%62%n/an/an/a68%
Hawaii71%72%74%57%n/a63%
Idaho74%74%76%n/an/an/a
Illinois74%72%78%73%n/an/a
Indiana77%77%n/an/an/a60%
Iowa78%77%84%77%69%71%
Kansas81%81%81%83%82%n/a
Kentucky75%75%79%72%78%n/a
Louisiana76%77%75%72%59%69%
Maine68%67%71%n/an/an/a
Maryland69%68%77%79%n/an/a
Massachusetts68%68%n/a54%n/a66%
Michigan69%70%70%55%n/a56%
Minnesota68%67%69%70%70%n/a
Mississippi78%78%n/an/an/an/a
Missouri75%74%80%79%71%n/a
Montana65%65%n/a66%n/a64%
Nebraska74%74%77%79%67%63%
Nevada76%76%78%62%n/a71%
New Hampshire72%73%n/an/an/a67%
New Jersey73%72%78%70%n/a88%
New Mexico70%70%76%67%61%63%
New York68%67%70%62%n/a72%
North Carolina69%70%n/a62%n/an/a
North Dakota72%72%76%69%n/an/a
Ohio81%81%75%80%n/an/a
Oklahoma72%71%77%58%n/an/a
Oregon75%75%n/an/an/a71%
Pennsylvania72%72%78%n/an/an/a
Rhode Island69%69%72%66%73%64%
South Carolina67%68%n/a61%n/an/a
South Dakota66%66%72%n/an/an/a
Tennessee73%73%n/an/an/an/a
Texas75%75%84%70%61%n/a
Utah71%71%75%64%73%62%
Vermont72%72%75%n/an/an/a
Virginia75%76%76%n/an/an/a
Washington63%64%n/a60%n/an/a
West Virginia76%77%83%74%76%n/a
Wisconsin64%67%n/a74%64%n/a
Wyoming79%n/an/a79%n/an/a

Breast Cancer Treatment and Side Effects

This was originally published by breastcancer.org here.


In recent years, there’s been an explosion of life-saving treatment advances against breast cancer, bringing new hope and excitement. Instead of only one or two options, today there’s an overwhelming menu of treatment choices that fight the complex mix of cells in each individual cancer. The decisions — surgery, then perhaps radiation, hormonal (anti-estrogen) therapy, and/or chemotherapy — can feel overwhelming.

Breastcancer.org can help you understand your cancer stage and appropriate options, so you and your doctors can arrive at the best treatment plan for YOU.

In the following pages of the Treatment and Side Effects section, you can learn about:Planning Your Treatment What types of treatment are available, the most likely sequence of treatments, treatment options by cancer stage, and fitting treatment into your schedule.Getting a Second OpinionReasons for getting a second opinion about your treatment plan, how to go about getting one, and what to do once you’ve got it.SurgeryBreast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy), mastectomy, and lymph node dissection, and what to expect from each. Also included: Prophylactic surgery and breast reconstruction.ChemotherapyHow chemotherapy works, who should get it, different types and combinations, and side effects and how to manage them.Radiation TherapyHow radiation therapy works, who it’s for, advantages, side effects, and what to expect when you get it.Hormonal TherapyThe link between hormones and breast cancer and how different groups of drugs — including ERDs, SERMs, and aromatase inhibitors — can affect that link. Also covered: Side effects of hormonal therapies.Targeted TherapyHow different drugs work, who should get them, how they’re given, side effects, and major studies.ImmunotherapyWhat is immunotherapy, different types of immunotherapy, and who it’s for.Complementary and Holistic MedicineHow complementary medicine techniques such as acupuncture, meditation, and yoga could be a helpful addition to your regular medical treatment. Includes research on complementary techniques and ways to find qualified practitioners.Drugs for Treatment and Risk ReductionA reference list of drugs used to treat and reduce the risk of breast cancer, including how they work, to whom they are typically given, and side effects.Treatments for PainWays to treat cancer- and treatment-related pain, including types of medications and tips on talking to your doctors about pain.Treatment Side EffectsA reference list of side effects and ways to manage them.LymphedemaAll about lymphedema, including who is at risk, what to watch out for, how to reduce risk of lymphedema flare-ups, and how to find a lymphedema therapist.Clinical TrialsWhat clinical trials are and how they work, why they’re important, and how to find trials that may be appropriate for you.

A New Standard of Care for HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer?

This podcast was originally published by Dr. Rashmi Murthy on December 11, 2019 on breastcancer.org here.


Dr. Rashmi Murthy, assistant professor of breast medical oncology at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, discusses the results of the HER2CLIMB study that she presented at the 2019 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium showing that the experimental medicine tucatinib offers benefits to people diagnosed with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer and may be a new standard of care.

Listen to the episode to hear Dr. Murthy explain:

  • A summary of the study results
  • Why this study included people with brain metastases
  • The side effects of tucatinib
  • Why she thinks the results are practice changing