PEN Blog Archives

Empowering Patients Facing a Renal Cell Carcinoma Diagnosis

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), commonly referred to as kidney cancer, may present as can be daunting and multifaceted. What proactive measures can patients and their caregivers implement to optimize their care experience?  With this idea in mind, the Patient Empowerment Network initiated the START HERE Renal Cell Carcinoma program, which aims to close the gap in the expert and patient voice to build empowerment.

Lisa Hatfield and Dr. Moshe Ornstein

Patient-Expert Q&A Webinar Topics and Key Takeaways

 In the Patient-Expert Q&A webinar, kidney cancer expert Dr. Moshe Ornstein shared his expertise to help patients and care partners boost their knowledge and confidence. Cancer patient and Empowerment Lead Lisa Hatfield moderated the discussions and shared some of her perspectives as a patient. Some of the discussion covered:

Kidney cancer diagnosis breaks down into two main categories. Dr. Ornstein detailed the two types. “There is the patient that presents with a localized kidney cancer. So they came to the emergency room because they were having belly pain, and they were found to have a big mass growing in their kidney that is proven to be kidney cancer. And then there’s the patient who has advanced disease, metastatic disease that has spread beyond the kidney. Either they came in with metastatic disease, in other words, their kidneys in place, and they have cancer beyond the kidney. Or they already had a surgery a year or two ago, and now they come back, and the cancer has returned elsewhere in the body.

Preparing patients for their cancer journey is top of mind for Dr. Ornstein, and he discussed how he approaches this preparation for the main types of patients. “We talk about what kind of surveillance, what kind of watching or monitoring of the cancer are we going to do, how often they’re going to get CAT scans. So really try to give them the big picture about what cancer they have, what the outlook is, and what we’re going to do to keep a close eye on them. For the patient who has an advanced cancer, in some ways it’s similar. When I say advanced, I mean a cancer that has spread beyond the kidney that’s going to require therapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, a clinical trial, whatever it might be.

Some kidney cancer patients may wonder or even feel remorse over what caused them to get cancer. Dr. Ornstein explained that even though the cause isn’t always known, there are some known risk factors like asbestos, some types of gasoline exposure, and secondhand smoke. Dr. Ornstein also shared, “We do have known risk factors for kidney cancer, whether it’s obesity, smoking, high blood pressure, chronic kidney disease. So there are certain risk factors and associations, but it’s really difficult for a specific patient to be able to pinpoint this caused the kidney cancer. And I think it’s reassuring for patients to know that as a general rule, it’s not something that a patient did that caused the kidney cancer, and it’s not somebody’s fault that they have the kidney cancer.”

Although some kidney cancer patients will be monitored with imaging scans rather than starting treatment right away, Dr. Ornstein shared that the vast majority will start treatment as soon as possible. “…probably 95 percent of these patients are going to get an immunotherapy-based combination as their first line of treatment. Immunotherapy has different names in the literature. You might see immunotherapy, you might see checkpoint inhibitors. But what these are doing is they’re “releasing the brakes” on the body’s own immune system to attack the cancer. So the immunotherapy is either given in combination with another immunotherapy.

Lisa Hatfield and Dr. Moshe Ornstein

Kidney cancer clinical trials generally fall into one of two buckets. Dr. Ornstein explained that one bucket is comprised of clinical trials that are investigating novel therapies. He explained further about the second bucket of clinical trials. “…And the other class of clinical trials is really sort of optimizing the drugs we already have. So we know that as a general rule, giving immunotherapy plus targeted therapy is better than giving immunotherapy alone. But what about trials looking at giving two immunotherapies plus a targeted therapy? We know that patients either get immunotherapy and immunotherapy, or an immunotherapy and a targeted therapy. What about if we gave two immunotherapies and a targeted therapy? Can three be better than two? So there are trials both in the front-line setting and in the refractory setting, looking at these novel therapies in the one bucket. And then there are also trials looking at these combinations and different ways of mixing and matching therapies that we already have to optimize patient outcomes.

It’s an exciting time with new kidney cancer therapies, and these are just some of the main takeaways from the Renal Cell Carcinoma Patient-Expert Q&A webinar. We hope you can use these valuable kidney cancer resources to build your knowledge and confidence toward becoming a more empowered patient or care partner. 

START HERE Renal Cell Carcinoma Program Resources

The program series includes the following resources:

What’s REALLY the News You Can Use?

“New study shows baby otters prevent diseases!” “Chocolate promotes weight loss!” Don’t we wish headlines like that were true?  Unfortunately, some of the things we read about possible new cancer treatments are just about as likely.   

Because we seek hope from these good reports, it can be easy to misinterpret what we hear about studies and results. How do you know when reading about a study’s findings whether it’s a real breakthrough or just a sensational story? 

First, let’s go over the basics of research.  

Basics of Research

  • Scientific method is how scientists figure out if some treatment makes a difference by conducting an experiment.  
  • In cancer research, the experimental process of understanding if a particular treatment is effective and safe is called a clinical trial 
  • One study can seem to prove almost anything; it’s only through repeated, tightly monitored and designed clinical research that we can know that a treatment actually works.  An example: I ate chocolate AND I lost weight; that doesn’t mean the chocolate CAUSED the weight loss. 

Cancer Research Facts

  • There are strict regulations for designing and conducting trials and reporting results, monitored by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 
  • The journey from an idea to an approved treatment can take many, many years, thousands of scientists, hundreds of thousands of patients, and millions of dollars. Only a fraction of clinical trials result in an approved treatment that is available to the public.  
  • Cancer researchers start with experiments in the laboratory, often done on cells, tissues, or animals whose cells work like human cells. If the results are promising, the researcher (also known as a Principal Investigator or PI) will apply to the FDA to begin a clinical trial, sharing data and a detailed design for testing the treatment on humans.  
  • Once the application is approved, the trial begins and goes through a series of phases that are closely monitored not only by the FDA, but by the internal review board (IRB) of the institution where the trial is taking place. These phases determine if the treatment works, if it’s safe, and ultimately if it works better than what has been regarded as the “standard of care” for a specific cancer type. 
  • If the clinical trial meets the criteria stated in the initial design, it is presented to the FDA for approval. There is even more rigorous review of the research design and results, including peer review by other researchers, before the treatment is approved. 
  • Once approved for public use, the treatment is continuously scrutinized for long-term side effects and other adverse events that may indicate serious problems. Sometimes, a treatment approved for one cancer type seems promising for others, and it will go through another clinical trial. 

Here are some factors that add credibility to articles and news stories that report findings:  

  • It’s reported by a neutral (non-political or entertainment) source. Examples include the Associate Press, Nature magazine, and medical publications such as the New England Journal of Medicine of the Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). 
  • The phrase “versus standard of care” lets us know there was an experimental group that did receive the test drug and a control group that did not. 
  • Funding sources, when identified, are the National Institutes of Health, academic medical centers or research universities.  
  • The sample size is very important: the larger the study, the more significant the results and the farther along in the clinical research process it has proven valid. 
  • The entity making the report isn’t trying to see you something. 

The good news? There are AMAZING treatments currently in clinical trials that once would have seemed like science fiction. This June, our team will report “breaking news” about new cancer treatments from the ASCO annual meeting in Chicago. We are thrilled to share with you that one of OUR programs, Empowering Providers to Empower Patients (EPEP), is being published among ASCO’s online abstracts.  

Have a question about something you see online? Reach out to us at and we will help you interpret how the information might apply to you. 

Empowering Patients: Bridging the Health Literacy Divide for Informed Decision-Making

Health literacy, as broadly defined by the World Health Organization,  involves the capacity of individuals to “gain access to, understand, and use information in ways which promote and maintain good health for themselves, their families, and their communities.”

The goal of health literacy is not ‘dumbing down’ information; it’s about leveling up and empowering individuals to make informed decisions about their health and medical care.

The State of Health Literacy in the U.S.

According to the National Assessment of Adult Literacy, 36% of adults in the United States possess basic or below-basic health literacy. This statistic has profound and multifaceted implications. Firstly, low health literacy contributes to health inequality. Health literacy is a major barrier to accessing health resources and services. This imbalance contributes to disparities in health outcomes, creating a divide that widens existing inequalities.

Secondly, low health literacy affects individuals’ ability to engage in self-care effectively. Almost four out of ten adults struggle to manage their medications or misunderstand essential medical instructions.

Moreover, trust in healthcare providers is closely tied to health literacy. Effective healthcare relies on trust. Low health literacy, however, can undermine trust in healthcare professionals.

In our role as patient advocates, we strive to make health information more accessible, reliable, and easily understandable. Below is a checklist of seven steps you can take to improve your advocacy’s health literacy level.

7-Point Checklist to Improve Health Literacy

1. Accessibility

Healthcare is often filled with jargon and technical language, making it intimidating and confusing. The goal of our advocacy is to minimize health communication barriers so that individuals can make informed decisions no matter what their educational background or medical language experience may be. Embracing accessible language bridges the communication divide, empowering individuals to navigate the complexity of healthcare with confidence.

Actionable Tip: Break complex information down into smaller, digestible chunks to make it easier to understand. Organize information using clear headings and bullet points. If medical terms are unavoidable, provide clear definitions.

You can learn more about accessible content by reading Transforming Your Social Media Presence: 5 Steps to Foster Inclusivity and Advocate for All

2. Clear Navigation

Clear navigation of health content requires logical organization of information. For instance, when presenting information about a medical condition, organize it chronologically from symptoms to treatment options.  Additionally, a navigation system that is clear and easy to use should also work across a wide variety of devices, ensuring a consistent experience across computers, tablets, and smartphones.

Actionable Tip: Make your website or blog easy to navigate. There should be a prominent search bar and a menu with clearly labeled categories or a clickable icon to help people find the information they need when they visit your site.

3. Cultural Sensitivity

When health information reflects an individual’s cultural context, they are more likely to understand and resonate with it.  Health and culture are deeply intertwined, and cultural sensitivity involves recognizing and respecting that health is perceived and pursued differently in different cultures. Trust can be built by respecting these differences, dispelling misconceptions, and bridging gaps.

Actionable Tip: Avoid making assumptions about individuals based on stereotypes or generalizations. If possible, seek feedback from community leaders or representatives to ensure that your communications align with cultural values and sensitivities.

4. Visual Aids

Visual aids, such as charts, graphs, illustrations, and diagrams, enhance health communication by making information more engaging and accessible. Visual learners can grasp health-related concepts more easily through these aids than through text-based information. Visual aids also act as a universal language transcending linguistic barriers and making health information accessible to a wider range of individuals.

Actionable Tip: Ensure visual aids are accessible to everyone.  Provide alternative formats for those with visual impairments, such as text descriptions or audio explanations.

Further Reading: Patient Advocacy: 6 Tips for Making A Visual Impact on Social Media – Patient Empowerment Network (

5. Inclusive Design

Different learning styles are recognized through inclusive design. Visual aids may be preferred by some, whereas auditory information may be preferred by others. By considering different learning styles and abilities, inclusive design empowers individuals to actively participate in health education, leading to improved health literacy.

Actionable Tip:  Use alt text (short for alternative text) for images. Individuals with visual impairments can understand website images this way. In addition, consider closed captions for videos and readable fonts with sufficient color contrast.

6. Interactive Platforms

Interactive content, such as live video streaming creates an experience that reaches beyond static information dissemination. It empowers individuals to engage with expert insights and creates a sense of community around health-related topics. This approach can contribute significantly to enhancing health literacy.

Actionable Tip: Bring in healthcare professionals to share their expertise on your livestream.   Ask attendees to submit questions in advance or during the live session to encourage active participation. Closed captioning should be available to ensure inclusivity and accessibility.

7. Trustworthy Sources

Users feel more confident in the reliability of health information when credible sources and publication dates are transparently disclosed. Maintain trustworthiness by reviewing and updating health content regularly. This ensures that information remains accurate, aligns with the latest research, and meets evolving standards.

Actionable Tip: To keep users up to date on the currency of content, clearly indicate when it was last reviewed or updated. By regularly updating your content, you demonstrate your commitment to providing accurate and relevant information to your audience and establish long-term trust.

Further Reading: 12 Tips to Create an Educational and Inspiring Roundup of Healthcare News


The patient advocacy community can play a key role in closing the health literacy gap. By championing accessible, trustworthy health information, we contribute to a more equitable society. Our mission is clear: empower patients through knowledge, and transform health outcomes for all.

PRESS RELEASE: Patient Empowerment Network Recognized as a Healthy People 2030 Champion

For Immediate Release:

Patient Empowerment Network Recognized as a Healthy People 2030 Champion for Supporting the Initiative’s Vision

Bothell, WA — Patient Empowerment Network (PEN) is pleased to be recognized by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) as a Healthy People 2030 Champion.

As a Healthy People 2030 Champion, Patient Empowerment Network has demonstrated a commitment to helping achieve the Healthy People 2030 vision of a society in which all people can achieve their full potential for health and well-being across the lifespan.

ODPHP recognizes Patient Empowerment Network, along with other Healthy People 2030 Champions, as part of a growing network of organizations partnering with ODPHP to improve health and well-being at the local, state, and tribal level.

“All people deserve fair access to the best healthcare and support they need, regardless of their background or circumstances,” said Tracy Rode, Executive Director of PEN. “That’s particularly true in cancer care, where underrepresented communities struggle for health equity. PEN is proud to join our efforts with other Healthy People 2030 Champions in improving care and survivorship for people with cancer.”

“ODPHP is thrilled to recognize Patient Empowerment Network for its work to support the Healthy People 2030 vision,” says RADM Paul Reed, MD, ODPHP Director. “Only by collaborating with partners nationwide can we achieve Healthy People 2030’s overarching goals and objectives.”

Healthy People 2030 is the fifth iteration of the Healthy People initiative, which sets 10- year national objectives to improve health and well-being nationwide. Healthy People 2030 Champions are public and private organizations that are working to help achieve Healthy People objectives. They receive official support and recognition from ODPHP.

About Patient Empowerment Network:

Patient Empowerment Network (PEN) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization trusted by millions of cancer patients, care partners, and health care professionals worldwide to achieve improved health literacy, equity, and treatment outcomes at every step of their journey. PEN’s mission is to offer trusted information to empower anyone impacted by cancer, toward fulfilling our vision of every cancer patient having the knowledge they need to navigate the complexities of cancer.

Healthy People 2030 Champion is a service mark of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Used with permission. Participation by Patient Empowerment Network does not imply endorsement by HHS/ODPHP.

About the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP)

ODPHP plays a vital role in keeping the nation healthy through Healthy People 2030, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, the President’s Council on Sports, Fitness & Nutrition, and other programs, services, and education activities. ODPHP is part of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health (OASH) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. To learn more about ODPHP, visit or follow @HealthGov on Twitter.


Your Cancer Journey is Yours 

I’ll never forget how I felt on October 1, 2010, when a phone call changed my life. After a routine annual “neck check” turned out to not be routine at all, I learned that I had thyroid cancer. That day, I became a member of a family of over 18 million cancer survivors in the United States. 

I overshare all the time. I figure if I’m going through something, I might as well let someone else learn from it. I started sharing my diagnosis with friends, who in turn told others. And wow, did those people rally around me! Offers to drive my kids (4th and 5th grade at the time), food, gifts; people were excited to be part of my journey and to meet milestones and revel in good news. I truly felt like a “trophy patient.” And I quickly met a “scar sister,” whose surgery preceded mine by three weeks, allowing her to be an unparalleled source of information and support.  

Fast forward 13½ years, I’m still here! While I still have active cancer cells (thanks to a recurrence with metastasis in 2012), I’ve been stable since 2013. I had a squamous cell carcinoma removed from my left eyebrow in 2019, so I’ve now got two very visible scars to show for my three diagnoses.  

How does my story tie to the title, “Your cancer journey is yours”? Because YOU don’t have to overshare, or even share. YOU don’t have to be, as a friend experiencing a recurrence put it, “everyone’s inspiring cancer patient.” YOU don’t have to do blog posts, appear in videos or be in support groups. YOU don’t have to wear a ribbon or dye your hair pink or teal or whatever your cancer color is. As my kids say, “YOU do you.” Many of us feel tremendous support from the community of people who’ve faced cancer, but it’s your choice whether and with whom to share your experience. 

The National Cancer Institute defines a survivor: “An individual is considered a cancer survivor from the time of diagnosis through the balance of life. There are many types of survivors, including those living with cancer and those free of cancer.” That’s the one thing I want you to take away from this post: YOU ARE A SURVIVOR. Whether you’re newly diagnosed or have been living with or beyond cancer for years, YOU are a survivor. Survivorship is on your terms, whether you shout it from the rooftops or keep it a secret.

If you’ve been less public with your cancer journey and would like to connect with others like you, here are some options for connection: 

  • PEN’s Empowerment Leads: these wonderful volunteers are the heart of our efforts to connect survivors with support. 
  • PEN’s partner organizations that offer survivor support 
  • For support related to your exact diagnosis, visit PEN’s web site, which shares resources by cancer type. 
  • Please feel free to reach out to me at It would be my honor to help you find your people.

I never thought anything would mean more to me than the support I got from fellow survivors. I was wrong. Being that survivor is the most meaningful experience, and it’s why I am honored to lead the Patient Empowerment Network.

How to Make the Most of Our New Translation Feature

In an increasingly interconnected world, breaking language barriers is essential for reaching a global audience. We understand the importance of making our content accessible to people with cancer and their families from different linguistic backgrounds, and that’s why we’re thrilled to introduce our latest website translation feature. This powerful tool allows you to translate our website into multiple languages. In this blog post, we’ll guide you through how to use this feature effectively.

Step 1: Finding the Language Selector

To begin exploring our website in your preferred language, you first need to locate the language selector. This is positioned in the top right corner of your screen.


Location of translation feature.

Step 2: Choose Your Preferred Language

Next, click on the language selector, and a menu will appear, displaying a list of available languages. Scroll up or down to select the language you’d like to view the website in.


Language selection tool

Step 3: Explore Translated Content

Once you’ve chosen your preferred language, you’ll notice that the content on the website will be translated accordingly. You can now navigate our website in a language that’s comfortable for you.

Step 4: Accessing Specific Pages

Our translation feature extends to all pages of the website, ensuring a seamless experience throughout your visit. Simply navigate to different sections, and the content will be automatically translated into the selected language.


In conclusion, our new Website Translation feature is designed to provide a user-friendly, multilingual experience for all our visitors. With just a few clicks, you can explore our content in the language of your choice, making it more accessible and relevant to your needs.

Overcoming Barriers to Accessing Small Cell Lung Cancer Care

Patient Empowerment Network (PEN) has a deep commitment to educate and empower patients and care partners in the lung cancer community. Lung cancer treatment options are ever-evolving with new testing and treatments, and it’s essential for patients and families to educate themselves with health literacy tools and resources on updated information in lung cancer care. With this goal in mind, PEN created the [ACT]IVATED Small Cell Lung Cancer program, which aims to inform, empower, and engage patients to stay abreast of lung cancer care updates.

The [ACT]IVATED Small Cell Lung Cancer program is geared to newly diagnosed lung cancer patients, yet it is beneficial for limited stage and extensive stage patients alike and for patient advocates. [ACT]IVATED Small Cell Lung Cancer helps patients and care partners stay abreast of the latest options for their lung cancer, provides patient activation tools to help overcome barriers to accessing care and powerful tips for self-advocacy, coping, and living well with cancer.


Small Cell Lung Cancer and Proactive Patients

Unfortunately, the stigma of lung cancer follows small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients as well. Patient navigator Diana explained some of the history of lung cancer stigma. “Even though smoking is a major risk factor for SCLC, nobody deserves to get cancer. Nicotine is an addictive substance that is extremely difficult for many smokers to quit – especially for those who started at a very young age. Past TV ads to stop smoking built a stigma around cigarette smoking that has created an environment of blame around lung cancer. The stigma is many times greater for extensive stage small cell lung cancer patients.

Advancing on the path to informed and optimal care requires patients to make efforts in self-education and empowerment. These efforts come in various forms but include approaches like improving clinical trial access, learning more from credible resources, asking questions to ensure your best care, and helping to educate others about lung cancer. Cancer patient Lisa Hatfield spoke with lung cancer expert Dr. Rafael Santana-Davila, Dr. Vinicius Ernani, and Beth Sandy to learn some key questions and actions for patients to take. 

Small cell lung cancer falls under one of two categories – limited stage or extensive stage. Dr. Rafael Santana-Davila explained the distinguishing factors and the importance of communication between the medical team members. “In the majority of cases, there’s a very clear distinction, for example, patient has metastatic disease to the liver, that clearly is extensive, stage, but there are occasions where, limited and extensive is very hard to know…all of medicine is a team sport, but treatment of cancer is more because the medical oncologists need to talk to the radiation oncologists to make sure that we’re on the same page as to what is the best treatment we can offer a patient.“

It’s essential for SCLC patients and care partners to prepare themselves for the treatment journey to help ensure their best care. Dr. Santana-Davila shared some key questions to ask to empower themselves for treatment. “…key questions that families should ask at the outset of care, and this is for extensive stage cancer as well as any other cancer, is ‘What are the goals of treatment? What do I expect it to be? How is my life going to look a few months from now? And what can I expect?’ That is, for me, very important that patients know before they start on the journey of treatment.

Thoracic medical oncology nurse practitioner Beth Sandy from Abramson Cancer Center shared patient advice for questions to ask at the outset of care to help patients empower themselves. “…make sure you know your stage, make sure you’re understanding what your treatments will be, and then make sure you understand what support services are available to you.”

Patients from underrepresented communities and all patients should ask questions to help ensure optimal care. Dr. Santana-Davila shared advice on proactive questions to ask. “’What are the latest developments in the treatment of this lung cancer? And am I eligible to receive those treatments? And is this a time where I should seek a second opinion or be referred to a clinical trial and another center?’”

Nancy Gatschet

Nancy Gatschet

Small cell lung cancer patients must be heard by their doctors for their best care. SCLC survivor and PEN Board Member Nancy Gatschet shared her experience with her care team members and their roles in her care. “Doctors matter. A lot. I was treated at an NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center by several exceptional doctors. What made them exceptional? Their listening and observational skills first and foremost, their dedication to staying current with research, and their caring.”

Small Cell Lung Cancer Clinical Trials and Future Treatments

 Clinical trials are vital for refining and advancing treatments for small cell lung cancer. Dr. Santana-Davila shared his perspective about clinical trials and also explained that many clinical trials can assist patients with transportation and lodging costs. “So it’s important for patients to consider clinical trials. That is where we’re analyzing the future medications, and many of those future medications will become the standard of care and by participating in clinical trials, patients will have access to those medications.

Even though non-small cell lung cancer has had more treatment advancements in comparison to small cell lung cancer, that doesn’t mean that the future is bleak. Dr. Santana-Davila shared his perspective about the future of SCLC care and clinical trial opportunities. “So although it’s true that patients with non-small cell lung cancer have had more advances, there is still a lot of hope for the future. And what I can tell you it’s changing rapidly. And in a year, the treatments that we may have available will be different. And all those things are right now going into clinical trials.”

Dr. Vinicius Ernani from the Mayo Clinic sees a bright future for SCLC treatment as well. He shared his perspective with Lisa Hatfield, “…we have some important drugs coming in early development, like I mentioned before, ADCs, antibody drug conjugates. So my hope, that is we are going to be in a better spot in the near future.


[ACT]IVATED Small Cell Lung Cancer Program Resources

The [ACT]IVATED Small Cell Lung Cancer program series takes a three-part approach to inform, empower, and engage both the overall lung cancer community and patient groups who experience health disparities. The series includes the following resources:

[ACT]IVATED Animated Video Series

[ACT]IVATED Expert Interviews



Though there are small cell lung cancer challenges and stigma, patients and care partners can take action to educate themselves to help ensure optimal care. We hope you can benefit from these valuable resources to aid in your lung cancer care for yourself or for your loved one.

12 Ways To Become A Stronger Advocate: A Month-by-Month Guide to Achieving Your Advocacy Goals in 2024

As we begin a new year, now is an ideal time to review your advocacy goals and determine how to make a bigger impact in 2024.

This article outlines 12 actionable approaches to enhance your advocacy efforts in the upcoming year. This list isn’t exhaustive, and you don’t need to complete all of the activities to make a difference.  Go at your own pace.  Be sure to set small, manageable goals to avoid getting overwhelmed. Tracking your progress from month to month will allow you to see the positive impact you’re making in the world.

January: Define Your Vision

Kickstart your year with a compelling vision for your advocacy. Structure and refine your vision using SMART principles. SMART stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound.

Here’s how you might apply these principles to help you set SMART objectives for awareness-raising activities:

  • Specific: Develop a clear and specific objective, for example, increasing awareness about breast cancer early detection on social media.
  • Measurable: Set a metric for success, such as “achieve 1,000 shares of awareness posts.”
  • Achievable: Is this goal achievable? Consider how many social media followers you have, how much time you are willing to devote to the campaign, etc.
  • Relevant: Align the awareness campaign with Breast Cancer Awareness Month and leverage relevant hashtags to maximize impact.
  • Time-bound: Launch the campaign on the first day of Breast Cancer Awareness Month and conclude it by the end of the month.

February: Build Partnerships

Collaboration amplifies impact. Establishing meaningful partnerships not only broadens the scope of your activities but also infuses them with diverse perspectives and expertise. Do some research this month to find organizations and individuals with similar missions or advocacy goals to yours.  Aim to find partners who complement your efforts and have skills or resources you can use. Show how collaboration can benefit both parties by crafting a compelling narrative about your advocacy goals.  Identify influencers or thought leaders with a large following within your advocacy space. Provide them with a clear proposal on how their influence can help advance your cause.

March: Capitalize on Awareness Days

Take advantage of awareness days, weeks, and months to inform and educate your audience. Prepare a list of specific dates and create a content calendar dedicating specific time frames for planning, creating, and promoting content around each designated date.  You will need to brainstorm ideas, outline topics, and decide on the format (blog posts, videos, infographics, etc.). Add the dates to your social media calendar. Plan posts leading up to the event to generate anticipation, on the day of the event to participate actively, and follow-up content to sustain engagement. Use relevant hashtags to increase visibility.

April: Compile a Glossary of Medical Terms

One of the things I remember most when I was a newly diagnosed patient was how mystifying the world of cancer was for me. Having to learn unknown medical terms and scientific jargon was like learning a whole new language. Make the process less mystifying for newly diagnosed patients by putting together a useful list of medical and scientific terms (as I did with this Clinical Trials Jargon Buster). Think about adding interactive features to the glossary, such as hyperlinks to related terms, multimedia elements, and cross-references. This enhances the learning experience and engagement for users.

May: Optimize Your Social Profiles

Creating a compelling online profile is essential for building a strong digital presence. By investing time and effort into optimizing your online profile, you create a positive and impactful first impression. This, in turn, encourages individuals to follow you, engage with your content, and join your advocacy efforts.

  • Profile Picture: Choose a high-quality shot where your face is clear and easily recognizable. Adjust the dimensions of your profile picture to match each platform’s specifications.
  • Custom Header Image: Add a custom header image that complements your advocacy efforts. This could be an image of you engaged in a relevant activity, for instance holding a sign with a powerful message, or representing a current campaign.
  • Profile Information: Fill out all sections of your profile with relevant information. Include a concise yet informative bio that highlights your cause. Use keywords related to your advocacy to make your profile easily discoverable through search. If applicable, include highlights of your advocacy achievements, campaigns, or collaborations. This builds credibility and demonstrates the impact of your work.
  • Location Details: If you want to connect with local communities, specify your location.
  • Contact Information: If appropriate, include contact information such as an email address or a link to your website. This allows interested individuals or potential collaborators to reach out to you easily.

June: Conduct A Content Audit

This month, evaluate your existing content.   To ensure your existing content is relevant, accurate, and accessible, you need to review it regularly.

  • Review and Update Information: Begin by systematically reviewing all your content, including blog posts, articles, social media posts, and any other published materials. Check for outdated statistics, recommendations, or references that may have changed since the content was created. Be proactive in updating these elements to ensure that your audience receives accurate and reliable information. This not only maintains your credibility but also demonstrates your commitment to staying current and informed.
  • Assess Accessibility: Evaluate the accessibility of your content by considering language, literacy levels, and cultural sensitivity. Make sure your language is clear, concise, and easy to understand. Whenever necessary, provide explanations or definitions of medical terms.
  • Optimize Fonts for Readability: Pay attention to the fonts used in your digital content. Choose sans-serif fonts like Arial, Verdana, or Open Sans for better legibility on screens. Sans-serif fonts are clean and easier to read, especially in smaller sizes. Contrast and Color Considerations: Ensure sufficient contrast between text and background colors. High contrast improves readability, especially for individuals with visual impairments or those viewing content in different lighting conditions.
  • Alt Text for Images: If your content includes images, provide descriptive alt text for each image. Alt text, or alternative text, is a brief textual description of the content of an image, allowing individuals who use screen readers or other assistive technologies to understand and interpret the visual information on a webpage.

July:  Mid-Year Review and Adjustments

We’ve reached the halfway point of the year.  Now is a good time to take stock of what you’ve achieved in the first six months of 2024.

  • Reflect on Goals and Progress: Review the goals you set at the beginning of the year. Assess how each goal is progressing.
  • Revise Timelines and Strategies: If certain goals are behind schedule or not progressing as expected, consider revising timelines and strategies.
  • Assess Personal Advocacy Goals: Reflect on your personal growth and development as an advocate. Identify the skills and knowledge you’ve gained over the past six months.
  • Enroll in Training Programs and Workshops: Based on your self-assessment, seek out relevant training programs, workshops, or courses to enhance your skills. This could include social media strategies, communication skills, leadership development, or any other areas that align with your identified growth areas.
  • Seek Mentorship: Consider seeking mentorship from experienced advocates. A mentor can provide valuable guidance, share insights, and offer constructive feedback to help you navigate challenges and accelerate your growth.
  • Acknowledge and Celebrate Milestones: Celebrate the milestones and successes you’ve achieved in the first half of the year. Share these achievements with your audience to build momentum and inspire continued support.
  • Refine Strategies for the Second Half: Based on your mid-year review, refine your strategies for the remaining months of the year. Incorporate the lessons learned, capitalize on successful approaches, and leverage your newfound skills to propel your advocacy forward.

August:  Hone Your Writing Skills

Writing persuasively is a foundational skill for advocates aiming to communicate effectively, mobilize support, and drive positive change. Here are some tips to keep in mind:

  • Use Everyday Language: Using plain, everyday words ensures that your message is easily understood by a broader range of people. It promotes inclusivity and prevents confusion, aligning with the principle of clear and concise communication.
  • Speak Directly to the Reader: Personalizing your writing by using pronouns like “we” and “you” establish a direct and conversational tone. It creates a more approachable and inclusive communication style, building trust between the writer and the audience.
  • Follow Mark Twain’s Advice: In his advice “Don’t let fluff, flowers, or verbosity creep in”, Mark Twain stresses the importance of clarity and conciseness. Extraneous details and overly complex language can dilute your message’s impact.
  • One Idea per Sentence: Presenting one idea per sentence promotes clarity and prevents information overload. Readers can digest information in bite-sized chunks, making it more digestible and accessible. In addition, this approach ensures that readers who skim or scan the text capture essential information.
  • Edit for Clarity and Conciseness: After writing, take the time to review and edit your content. Ensure that each sentence serves a purpose, and eliminate unnecessary words or phrases.

September: Perfect Your Presentation Skills

Advocates with strong presentation skills can communicate their points clearly and persuasively to a variety of audiences. This month take time to explore resources and books that focus on effective public speaking and presentation skills. Look for renowned titles such as “Talk Like TED” by Carmine Gallo or “Presentation Zen” by Garr Reynolds. These resources provide insights into structuring compelling narratives, engaging audiences, and delivering memorable presentations.

Analyze speeches from accomplished advocates, leaders, or public figures. Observe their delivery style, how they structure their presentations, and the techniques they use to captivate their audience. Learning from successful speakers can provide valuable insights and inspiration for refining your own approach.

Enroll in online courses or participate in webinars dedicated to enhancing presentation skills. Platforms like Coursera, LinkedIn Learning, or Udemy offer courses on public speaking, storytelling, and presentation design.

Consider joining local or online public speaking groups where you can practice and receive constructive feedback. Toastmasters International is a well-known organization that provides a supportive environment for individuals to develop their speaking skills. Regular practice in a supportive community can significantly boost your confidence and proficiency.

October: Try Some New Tools

Let’s have some fun this month by trying some of the many available tools to enhance your online activities. Whether you need to edit an image, make custom graphics, or schedule your posts, there’s a tool for you.

  • Graphic Design Tools: Explore graphic design tools like Canva, Adobe Spark, or Piktochart. These platforms offer user-friendly interfaces with pre-designed templates, making it easy to create visually appealing graphics for social media posts, and other content.
  • Image Editing: Experiment with image editing tools to enhance and customize your visuals. Adobe Photoshop Express, Pixlr, or Fotor are excellent choices for editing images, adding filters, adjusting colors, and incorporating creative elements.
  • Social Media Schedulers: Simplify your social media management with scheduling tools like Buffer, Hootsuite, or Later. These tools often come with analytics features to track post performance.
  • Video Editing Platforms: Dive into the world of video content using tools like InVideo, Kapwing, or Adobe Premiere Rush. Create engaging videos, edit footage, and add special effects to convey your advocacy message in a dynamic and captivating way.
  • Survey and Feedback Tools: Gather insights and feedback from your audience using survey tools like Google Forms, Typeform, or SurveyMonkey.
  • Webinar and Virtual Event Platforms: Host engaging webinars or virtual events using tools like Zoom, Microsoft Teams, or Webex. These platforms offer features for presentations, Q&A sessions, and audience interaction, making online events more dynamic and participatory.
  • Podcast Creation Tools: Explore podcast creation tools like Anchor, Audacity, or Descript. Podcasts are a versatile and engaging medium for sharing stories, interviews, and information.
  • Data Visualization Tools: Turn complex data into compelling visuals with tools like Tableau, Datawrapper, or Infogram.
  • Browser Extensions: Enhance your online browsing experience with helpful extensions. Grammarly can assist with proofreading, Pocket allows you to save articles for later, and Bitly shortens URLs for cleaner sharing.

More tools to try: I’ve compiled a list of my favorite tools here.

November: Express Gratitude

Keep November’s theme of thanksgiving in mind this month by showing your appreciation to your supporters. This sense of appreciation not only encourages continued support but also deepens the emotional connection between advocates and their shared mission, fortifying the foundation of your advocacy efforts for sustained success.

Here are some suggested ways to show your appreciation:

  • Send sincere and personalized thank-you messages that go beyond generic expressions of appreciation. Whether through handwritten notes, emails, or personalized social media shout-outs, individualized messages demonstrate that you value and recognize the distinct roles each person has played.
  • Create social media posts or graphics that highlight the contributions of specific individuals. Include photos that showcase the impact they’ve made.
  • Consider organizing an appreciation event to celebrate and thank your supporters. This could be a virtual gathering, a webinar, or an in-person event.
  • Launch a gratitude campaign that spans the month. Encourage supporters to share their experiences and express gratitude to others within the community.

December: Reflect and Plan for the Future

The year’s end offers another opportunity to reflect on your advocacy journey and evaluate its progress.  Dive into the data and metrics associated with your advocacy initiatives. Assess the reach and impact of your campaigns by analyzing social media analytics, website traffic, email engagement, and other relevant metrics. Identify patterns, trends, and areas of improvement to inform future strategies.

Reflect on both successes and challenges encountered during the year. Identify the strategies that resonated most with your followers and contributed to success. Equally important, analyze the challenges faced and the lessons learned. Use this information to refine your approach and address any recurring issues in the future.

Finally, develop a strategic plan for the upcoming year based on the insights gained from your reflections and analyses. Outline specific goals, action steps, and timelines. The key to elevating your advocacy in 2024 will be consistency, commitment, and collaboration. Following this guide will  give you the framework to take your advocacy to new heights.  Let’s work together to make a positive difference in the new year.

Cancer Awareness Calendar 2024


Cervical Cancer Awareness Month

Blood Donor Month


National Cancer Prevention Month

Gallbladder and Bile Duct Cancer Awareness Month

World Cancer Day (February 4, 2024)

National Donor Day (February 14, 2024)

Rare Disease Day (February 29, 2024)


Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month

Kidney Cancer Awareness Month

Multiple Myeloma Awareness Month

Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Day (March 3, 2024)

International Women’s Day (March 8, 2024)

Anal Cancer Awareness Day (March 21, 2024)


Head and Neck Cancer Awareness Month

National Cancer Control Month

Esophageal Cancer Awareness Month

Minority Cancer Awareness Month

Minority Health Month

Testicular Cancer Awareness Month

World Health Day (April 7, 2024)

AML Awareness Day (April 21, 2024)


Bladder Cancer Awareness Month

Brain Tumor Awareness Month

Cancer Research Month

Clinical Trial Awareness Week

Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness Month

Skin Cancer Detection and Prevention Month

Melanoma Monday (May 6, 2024)

Women’s Check-up Day (May 13, 2024)

Women’s Health Week (May 12-18, 2024)


Cancer Survivors Month

Cancer Survivors Day (June 2, 2024)

Men’s Health Week (June 10-16, 2024)


UV Safety Awareness Month

Sarcoma and Bone Cancer Awareness Month


Summer Sun Safety Month

World Lung Cancer Day (August 1, 2024)


Childhood Cancer Awareness Month

Uterine Cancer Awareness Month

Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Month

Blood Cancer Awareness Month

Thyroid Cancer Awareness Month

Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month

Prostate Cancer Awareness Month

MPN Awareness Day (September 14, 2024)

World Lymphoma Day (September 15, 2024)

Take a Loved One to the Doctor Day (September 17, 2024)


Breast Cancer Awareness Month

Liver Cancer Awareness Month

National Mammography Day (October 18, 2024)


Lung Cancer Awareness Month

National Family Caregiver Month

Carcinoid Cancer Awareness Month

Pancreatic Cancer Awareness Month

Stomach Cancer Awareness Month

PODCAST: Gastric Cancer: How to Access the Best Care and Treatment for YOU

Advances in gastric cancer research have led to more personalized therapy for patients. Dr. Yelena Janjigian discusses how biomarker testing can help guide a patient’s prognosis and treatment path, reviews currently available gastric cancer therapies, and shares tips for self-advocacy.

Dr. Yelena Janjigian is Chief of Gastrointestinal Oncology Service at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. 

See More From INSIST! Gastric Cancer

Download Resource Guide




Hello and welcome. I’m your host, Katherine Banwell. Today’s program focuses on helping patients understand gastric cancer treatment options based on their individual disease. We’ll review the latest research and provide tips for self-advocacy to help patients access better care.  

Before we meet our guest, let’s review a few important details. The reminder email that you received about this webinar contains a link to a program resource guide. If you haven’t already, click that link to access information to follow along during the webinar. At the end of this program, you’ll receive a link to a program survey. Please take a moment to provide feedback about your experience today in order to help us plan future webinars.  

And finally, before we get into the discussion, please remember that this program is not a substitute for seeking medical advice. Please refer to your healthcare team about what might be best for you. Well, let’s meet our guest today. Joining me is Dr. Yelena Janjigian. Dr. Janjigian, welcome. Would you please introduce yourself? 

Dr. Janjigian:

Thank you so much, Katherine, for this opportunity. My name is Yelena Janjigian. I’m a medical oncologist. And I oversee the GI oncology service at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York. We’re a large group of doctors, over 40 physicians who treat everything from esophagus cancer to rectal cancer. And my research focus and my passion has been in developing new treatments for patients with stomach cancer, so I personally focus on this disease clinically and from research perspective.  


Okay. Lovely.  

Well, thank you so much for joining us today. I’d like to start by learning about the latest research news. Are there recent advances in gastric cancer that patients should know about? 

Dr. Janjigian:

That’s a great question. The field of gastric cancer research has accelerated and evolved immensely over the last three years. We’ve had several important approvals for treatment of metastatic disease both for biomarkers selected population and immunotherapy targeted therapies. So, there’s been a lot of research, a lot of effort and some positive data that the patients and clinicians should be aware of.  


And what excites you about the research you’re involved with? 

Dr. Janjigian:

I’ve been focused on gastric cancer for nearly two decades. So, my recent advances have really helped to understand how we can improve patient’s survival better, potentially cure more patients, and understand the different subsets of cancer treatments and patients with gastric cancer understanding that not all gastric cancer is the same.  

So, I think being able to zoom in on different subsets and target personalized approaches for each individual patient is why I stay in research, why I stay in gastric cancer research because we’ve been able to make some major breakthroughs.  


That’s excellent news. How can patients stay up to date with treatment options? 

Dr. Janjigian:

That’s a great question. And recently there’s been a lot of resources online through both the big pharma really educating patients with patient-friendly handouts. And many of my big recent papers when we publish them in big journals like Lancet or Lancet Oncology, for example, or JCO, there’s always a patient-friendly handout that comes with that data that helps patients understand some of the endpoints, how do we describe why this study is positive? 

Or why is the FDA decided to approve the drug? So, there are many patient handouts that come with some of these papers. And it’s interesting, a lot of my patients come in. When they see me, they say, “Oh, it’s so good to finally meet you. I’ve watched a lot of your videos.” So, because of COVID actually, a lot of the scientific content that used to be just in in-person meetings behind doors for doctors, now it’s all online because a lot of these scientific presentations are now made for virtual content as well. So, patients have access to it. That’s double-edged sometimes. It’s a little bit of an information overload, and it may actually make patients feel more anxious than reassure them, right? Because it’s a lot of jargon and not too – but some patients find it helpful.  


Yeah, I can see that. It can be a double-edged sword.   

Dr. Janjigian:



Well, thank you for that advice. So, now that we’ve heard what’s happening in research, let’s review some more basic information about gastric cancer. First, gastric cancer is sometimes referred to as stomach cancer. Is that the same thing, or are both terms correct?  

Dr. Janjigian:

Yeah. So, stomach is really where the cancer starts. But we can talk about stomach or abdomen. But gastric and stomach are the same tumor location basically. What’s interesting actually, some patients also have tumors that start at the bottom of their esophagus and extend into the stomach. So, biologically a lot of these cancers behave similarly. In fact, in United States the most common location for these cancers actually is in between the gastric esophageal junction and the stomach.  

So, it’s in the location in of the cancer that’s at the very top of the stomach. But in short, stomach cancer and gastric cancer are interchangeable. And as I mentioned, for many of our viewers, actually gastro-esophageal junction is also part of the same disease.  


Could you tell us what tests are used to diagnose gastric cancer? 

Dr. Janjigian:

Most of our patients, when they come in to see me, by then the diagnosis of cancer has been made because I’m on oncologist.  

In clinical practice, patients often present with vague symptoms or no symptoms at all. And that’s an important point for our clinicians to understand. In patients who have chronic acid reflux or have, for example, other risk factors such as H. pylori infection, often they end up getting endoscopy at the time, for example, for their first colonoscopy. So, the age of colonoscopy, the first colonoscopy has is getting earlier and earlier with each update, because colon cancer is increasing in incidents in younger adults. So, sometimes patients present and get first endoscopy, for example, which is an upper test with a camera when they’re getting their colonoscopies. In other patients, unfortunately, they present with more progressive symptoms. Often, it’s difficulty swallowing, regurgitation of food, and weight loss, which is obviously very dramatic.  

And so they end up getting an endoscopy because of that and referred by their doctors.   


How is gastric cancer staged? And what do the stages mean? 

Dr. Janjigian:

Yeah. So, the most important part of the staging of gastric cancer and what patients ask me, “What is my risk of cancerous recurrence? What is my stage?” Really what it comes down to is the depth of invasion. So, it’s not only the size of the tumor, but how deep is it going into the muscle of the stomach, because stomach and your esophagus are basically a muscular bag, right? And so how deep is the invasion of the tumor into the wall? And also how likely are the lymph nodes to being involved? So, we assess it based on clinical symptoms such as swallowing difficulty and so forth. But in some patients, because the tumor is lower down in their stomach, they may not have very many symptoms, because there’s a lot more give in this muscular bag that our stomach is.  

And so we test the endoscopic ultrasound to look at the depth of an invasion and also other X-ray type imaging such as a PET scan, a P-E-T scan or a CAT scan, which gives us a sense of tumor location whether or not we think the lymph nodes may be involved. And ultimately the final way to assess, especially in patients who are undergoing surgery, is their microscopic involvement of the lymph nodes? Because that often drives the likelihood of cancer coming back after surgery.  


And how do the stages work for gastric cancer? 

Dr. Janjigian:

So, in gastric cancer it’s either early, intermediate, or late stage. And this goes from stage I to IV. So, stage IV  tumors is where most of the cancers are present. Over probably 50 percent of our patients present already at the time of diagnosis with more advanced stages. 

Biologically this cancer just tends to move quickly. So, even in between endoscopies in patients who get endoscopies frequently, often it goes from 0 to stage III or IV because of the lymph node involvement and also spread of microscopic cells, right? Tiny, tiny cells before we even see them, they spread through the bloodstream to other organs or lymph nodes outside of your abdomen. So, that’s considered to be stage IV. And then early, early stage disease is stage I. Those usually that we can just scoop them out using endoscopic procedures. They don’t even need to have full surgery. And then stage II and III is usually if there’s some involvement of the tumor through the muscle or into the muscle of the stomach and also some lymph node involvement. But that’s how we stage it.  


Okay. I’d like to move onto current gastric cancer treatment options. Can you provide an overview of what’s available now?  

Dr. Janjigian:

Right. So, in patients with intermediate or early-stage tumors, really surgery is the main way to cure patients. Occasionally when we have an amazing response to chemotherapy or chemotherapy with immunotherapy or just immunotherapy, we can avoid surgery. But in most patients, surgery in early-stage disease is a gold standard for cure. Of course, it can be a very jarring thing to say to someone. “We have to take out. your stomach.” But patients do live without either fully their stomach removed or partially removed. And that’s the gold standard. We do additionally other treatments to help maximize chances of cure, but surgery is the main state. As I mentioned earlier, most of our patients, however, present with later stages where surgery is not feasible.  

And when I say it’s not feasible, we would only attempt an operation if we thought there was a possibility of removing the cancer completely. Leaving some of the tumor behind, even if it’s only 1 percent of the cancer behind, makes patients unwell. They may not be able to tolerate additional chemo, so we do not recommend doing suboptimal surgery unless cancer can be completely removed. So, in those patients, we always explain the situation. And the disease is not potentially as curable, but it’s absolutely always treatable. And since the development of our immunotherapy options, really, we’ve changed the trajectory and the course of those cancers. We won’t know the stage or the final response to therapy until we’ve start it. But in those patients, usually a form of long-term therapy. Chronic treatment is very important.  

And usually it involves a combination of chemotherapy and some targeted agents, biologic agents, meaning that they were designed in the lab to target the cancer specifically. And usually, they involve some sort of immunotherapy.  


Excuse me. Can you go into some detail about the targeted therapies and immunotherapies that you use?  

Dr. Janjigian:

Sure. So, conventional chemotherapy works on any rapidly dividing cell. And these are chemotherapies that have been tried and true in the clinic for decades, right? And they work still in gastric. And in  particular they’re very important. And then over the last 10 years or so, we’ve started developing target agents in the lab that target the specific biologic tumor biomarkers. And when you think about tumor biomarkers, I would think about them as almost ZIP codes, right? How do you direct the cancer cell to die? 

And how do you inhibit the cancer cell for the thing that is uniquely what’s making it grow as opposed to normal cells, right? So, that’s the difference between chemotherapy because chemotherapy can affect any rapidly dividing normal cell and cancer cell, while biologic agents ideally only affect the target, cancer, the cell. So, that’s why it’s very appealing to do both to help maximize response and survival on treatment. So, the biologic therapies that are available in and already approved in our disease for stomach cancer are something called HER2 directed treatments. And that’s been my focus in the lab. And then in my group has really spearheaded a lot of this research for HER2-positive tumors. In gastric cancer it occurs in up to 20 to 30 percent of tumors, but we have drugs such as trastuzumab or Herceptin, T-DXd, trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki (Enhertu) or in HER2 that target these agents.  

And furthermore, our work here at Memorial Sloan Kettering demonstrated the combination therapies really for HER2-positive disease has helped improve outcomes in those patients. So, that’s biologic therapy. Other biologic therapies that’s approved in gastric cancer is something called VEGFR-2 inhibitor. These are drugs that target blood vessel formation around the tumor to help the chemotherapy drugs work well and better. Those drugs are called ramucirumab or Cyramza. And that’s used in a combination of chemotherapy in second-line treatment. And there’s other drugs such as regorafenib (Stivarga) and other inhibitors that maybe have some targetable activity in our disease. And last but not the least is immunotherapy. So, immunotherapy’s a completely different class of drugs.  

We think about immunotherapies, really the fundamental problem with cancer, right? The cancer issues that it started as a normal cell. So, at some point, it was a normal cell that then became and went awry and went rogue. And the body did not recognize that there was a problem. And the immune system did not eliminate that cancer cell. Before it started to metastasize and give us problems in their body, right? So, the fundamental question is why is the body’s immune system, why did it not recognize it as a abnormal cell? Well, because it really acts and looks like a normal cell from the immune perspective. Our immune system is trained not to hurt us, right? And that’s why in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or other autoimmune disorders, what happens is the immune system goes awry. So, what the immune checkpoint blockade or immunotherapy for cancer does, is it helps take some of those brakes off our immune system and help our immune system recognize the cancer and give it permission to say, “Hey, you know what?  

You thought it was a normal cell. It’s not. It’s a cancer cell. Please help us eliminate it.” And that’s worked well because I think in for some of our patients, the immune system actually knows how to target and suppress the cancer much better than any of the fancy drugs we can design in the lab. And that’s why in some patients, immune checkpoint blockade immunotherapy has been such a game changer if you do respond, your duration and durability of response is so much more better than anything that would go to just done on our own in the lab or with other chemotherapies. So, it really is a nice way to think about it. And the patients feel like they’re part of the solutions. It’s always nice for them to have that.  

But it’s been a real game changer for both HER2-positive and HER2-negative disease in combination with chemotherapy. I’ve had the pleasure of leading some of these studies. And it’s nice to be able to update the three or the four or the five-year survival rate from these studies in a disease where in the past most patients died within a year.   


Dr. Janjigian, I’d like to talk about what goes into deciding on a best treatment for a patient. Is there testing that helps you understand a patient’s individual disease? 

Dr. Janjigian:

One is an important factor about this disease, and when the patient comes in, the number one factor that helps us decide, what treatment to assign, is how well is the patient feeling? What are their nutritional deficits? How functional they are. Are they able to tolerate the treatment?

Because as an oncologist, the first rule is do no harm. Most patients come in when they’re first diagnosed are pretty well functional. They’re still able to eat. And so, they’re really up for the most aggressive. And that’s probably the number one wish I have from patients. I just want us to stay well and stay alive. So, we can be very aggressive with them, at least folks that come to see us in New York. And so, then the decision fork is really do you want only standard therapy, or are you interested in clinical trials? And I think what I am able to really explain to the patients, which is great, is that the benefit of trials – and, of course, you can never guarantee that a trial will be successful, right? Because that’s by definition – a clinical trial is experimental therapy. But for gastric cancer and stomach cancer where we need as many treatment options as possible, a clinical trial gives you an opportunity to try something different, and then go back to standard therapy, and then try experimental therapy, and then go back to standard therapy.  

So, it gives you as many options as possible. The way that I help our patients visualize this is you’re trying to cross a very wide and somewhat turbulent river. And you need as many stepping stones as possible. And a clinical trial, if it makes sense for you and if you’re able to do it physically, it gives you that other option. The most important other factor is to understand which subset of stomach cancer you have, right? Because biomarker testing has helped us tremendously to advance this disease. If you look at and if you watch any of my talks, I usually have this timeline of therapeutic development in stomach cancer until really this past year.  

We’re 2022, 2021. There was over a decade of negative trials, right? And the reason why I think is because the design of the trial really focused on targeting all the patients the same way. And now the trials are becoming more and more sophisticated. So, when we talk about the biomarker testing of the tumor, the patient’s specific tumor.  

It’s important for the patient to ask their physician. “What is the status of my tumor?” And the four critical biomarkers are microsatellite instability, HER2, PD-L1, and Claudin-18.2. So, those four biomarkers have really helped us transform this field especially in patients with metastatic disease. And in all of the tertiary cancer centers, certainly here at Memorial Sloan Kettering,  for each of the subsets we have a full research portfolio.  

So the patients have both standard and experimental options available to them.             


Well, how can test results like biomarker testing affect the patient’s prognosis and treatment options? 

Dr. Janjigian:

It will depend on the treatment and how it is paired to the biomarkers. So, for example, a certain subset of tumors such as microsatellite and stable tumors are patients with PD-L1 high tumors or even patients with HER2-positive tumors. Now in clinical trials, we see that those patients have an outstanding dramatic response to combination therapies often with chemotherapy or immunotherapy together or even HER2 directed therapy with immunity therapy. So, it really will impact how likely your tumor is to shrink. And if the tumor is shrinking, and if you’re feeling better, obviously that translates to better survival.  


Yeah. What questions should patients be asking about their test results? 

Dr. Janjigian:

I think it’s important for patients to be very clear with their providers about their willingness to undergo repeated biopsies if needed.  

I think the number one misunderstanding or misnomer that I see when patients come in to see me as a highly trained specialists, and they’re seeking me out for expertise and second and third and fourth opinions is that when the biomarker test is not done, often the answer in the community from the physician was, “Well, there was insufficient tissue or the tissue quality was not great, and that’s we’re going to do it. And it turns out the patient is perfectly willing and able to undergo a second biopsy. They really do not mind because a lot of times it’s just as simple as having a repeat endoscopy. Or even on treatment off and the problem is it’s a constantly evolving cancer. So, for example, if you receive first-line treatment and then you progressed and you need additional treatment, often it’s important to get a second biopsy to understand what your biomarkers are at that point. 

And I described this to my patients. We can’t get into a battle with outdated maps. We need to know. And sometimes when there’s a misunderstanding, the doctors think, “Maybe the patient wouldn’t be willing to do it. Or they are risk-averse.” And the patient’s more than willing to do it. So, I think communicating your wishes and your intent clearly with your doctors and not being shy to ask questions, and also not being shy to seek out clinical trials, right? So, yesterday I was in clinic. I see a lot of this disease. I often see 30 patients at clinic. I had an 80-year-old patient in my clinic, right? And before you meet the patient, most doctors would think, “Well, it’s an elderly patient. They wouldn’t even be interested in clinical trials. What are we trying to accomplish here?” 



Dr. Janjigian:

But this patient clearly is – he exercises five days a week. He’s extremely active. He wants the best options for him.  

So, I am not an ageist, so I asked him. I said, “What are your sort of goals of this therapy? And how interested are you in clinical trials?” And him and the family were extremely enthusiastic. And, “We’re going to go for it, and we’re going to try.” So, I think having those conversations with your doctors – because you remember gastric cancer is very rare. In my clinic I see 30 patients, but in most normal sort of oncology practices, it’s lung, breast, and colon, the big three that sort of saturate the schedule of the oncologists. So, if they see one or two gastric cancers a month, they may not be thinking along the same lines of your disease. So, then you have to ask the questions of, “Are there any clinical trials? Should I see a specialist?” Did you do all of my biomarkers? 


Yeah, yeah. That’s really great information to have.  

Are there other decision factors involved in deciding on treatment options? You mentioned age, comorbidities. What else do you look at? 

Dr. Janjigian:

Yeah, the other important factor as I said is nutrition. Being able to stay fit and stay independent is very important. Some of my patients ask me, and then they feel like what they eat is so important that as soon as they get their diagnosis, they restrict their diet. And then they start losing weight. And that’s not good. The number one negative prognostic factor is if you lose more than 10 percent of your body weight within the first few months of the diagnosis – because you get really weak, and then you can’t tolerate the chemotherapy. So, I tell the patients, “Your body will take from you whatever it wants. The cancer will take from you, from your body. So, you need to support yourself nutritionally.” So, if you don’t feel like eating a salad, but you are craving a cookie, it’s okay.  

Have that cookie; just don’t lose weight. And I think that’s the number one. And also, the other factor is how do you communicate your diagnosis and your prognosis to your family and your friends? Because then everybody’s asking and making you in some ways anxious, your job. And what I tell patients is, “It’s on need-to-know basis.” If you find love and support, then you can tell people. Otherwise, you can just loosely kind of mention that you need some help, and you’re going through treatment without specific details. And the great part about these combination immunotherapies is that a lot of our functional patients actually continue to work through this. And so, we fill out whatever forms they need for their jobs and so forth. But we have lawyers that are continuing to work, teachers, and sometimes even construction workers. So, really, I would say make decisions as they come up.  

Don’t run too far ahead and sort of assume that you’re going to not be well. But if you want to take some time off, that’s okay too. And so, I think the treatment paradigm for this disease has evolved so much that there’s a lot of misconceptions. And I think the job of a good oncologist is to let the patient live their life in as normal a fashion as possible. So, we work the chemo schedules around their schedule. Some of these immunotherapies you can give once a month. So, I have patients who will fly into see me, for example, get the dose, and then go back home. So, I think don’t be afraid to ask for what you need.  


Yeah. Well, that leads us very smoothly into self-advocacy. And it’s really important that patients advocate for themselves. So, if a patient has a question or they’re unsure about a decision, why is it so important for them to speak up?  

Dr. Janjigian:

What I always tell my patients and I explain to them, that often the doctors know a lot of information. But there’s so much information that it’s almost impossible to – and we only have 15 to 20 minutes together. So, it’s almost impossible to communicate everything that we know to you. So, you need to drive a bit of what the focus is of priorities in each visit and get as much information as you can. But also in some ways, follow the doctor’s lead. So, it’s a balance of information exchange. Use the portal as much as possible as well. The patient portal is often for follow-up questions. Write questions down. We have our nurse practitioners, our nurses, our fellows that continue to educate the patients because as things come up, and the field is so complicated that there  are just so many things that you can ask at one single appointment.  

So, it’s okay to forget something, but just write it down. In the end like anything else, you only have one sort of chance to do this in a way that you want it to be done. And as treatment progresses and you’re not feeling well, and maybe you don’t want to keep coming in for appointments and would rather go spend time in Aruba or Florida or somewhere sunny as opposed to – that’s okay. I think a lot of times it’s your life. You only have one. And I strongly believe in anything to try to get as much out of every interaction as possible using all the resources that are available to you.  


Well, I’d like to close today with getting your thoughts on how you feel about the state of gastric cancer care. Are you hopeful about treatment options? 

Dr. Janjigian:

I’m extremely hopeful. And usually, I finish all of my scientific talks. I’m a physician scientist.  

I travel a lot to meetings. And my goal now in my career is to attract more and more young talent and scientists that will help us make the next wave of breakthroughs for this difficult disease. I think we’ve made a lot of progress, but the reality is: We’re still not curing enough patients. And so, our next wave is not just to stabilize and help people live longer but cure them definitively and permanently. And so, I finish every single presentation I have by how much the possibility and how fruitful this field has been. Personally, for my work and career of those that I’ve mentored throughout the years all over the world. So, I’m very hopeful for the next five, 10 years in this field. It will continue to get better.   


It sounds very promising. Dr. Janjigian, thank you so much for joining us today.  

Dr. Janjigian:

Thank you. Great question.  


And thank you to all of our partners.   

If you’d like to watch this webinar again, there will be a replay available soon. You’ll receive an email when it’s ready. And don’t forget to take the survey immediately following this webinar. It will help us as we plan future programs. To learn more about gastric cancer and to access tools to help you become a proactive patient, visit I’m Kathrine Banwell. It’s good to have you with us today.  

PODCAST: What Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment is Right for You?


What’s the best approach for YOUR lung cancer? Dr. Isabel Preeshagul discusses the importance of engaging in your lung cancer care decisions, shares advice for working with your team to determine a treatment approach, and reviews factors that affect therapy options. Dr. Preeshagul also provides an update on the latest research and clinical trials.

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul is a thoracic medical oncologist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Learn more about Dr. Preeshagul.

Download Program Resource Guide

See More From INSIST! Lung Cancer


Katherine Banwell:

Hello and welcome. I’m Katherine Banwell, your host for today’s program. Today, we’ll discuss the latest advances in non-small cell lung cancer care as part of our Insist series, which encourages patients to play an active role and insist on better care. Before we get into the discussion, please remember that this program is not a substitute for seeking medical advice. Please refer to your healthcare team about what might be best for you. Well, let’s meet our guest today. Joining me is Dr. Isabel Preeshagul. Dr. Preeshagul, it’s so good to have you with us. Thank you. Would you introduce yourself? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

Yes. Thank you so much for having me and for the very kind introduction. My name’s Isabel Preeshagul. I am a Thoracic Medical Oncologist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and it is a huge honor to be here with you today. 

Katherine Banwell:

Well, we’re so glad to have you with us. I’d like to start with a question pertaining to our series title, Insist. Why is it essential for patients to collaborate with their providers on care treatment decisions? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

So, collaborating is so important, right? I always tell my patients this is not a dictatorship, right? This is a collaborative effort where I’m here to guide you, but you are the captain of the ship. 

You are the one that needs to make all of the decisions, and I’m here to make sure that the ship goes in a smooth direction, so making sure we have open lines of communication that the patients and their caregivers feel comfortable talking to me and my team and also vice versa and that we trust each other. It’s so important because we are going for a marathon, right? We’re not going for a sprint. This is a long-term relationship, whether we’re treating for cure or we’re treating you with palliative intent and it’s treatable but not curable. We’re going to be following with each other for a long time.  

Katherine Banwell:

A lung cancer healthcare team, of course, consists of a number of different providers. Would you tell us about the various members on a team? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

Sure. So, there is – there are the people that do the scheduling, that make sure that the CAT scan is scheduled, that the MRI is done, your chemo gets scheduled, all of that. The schedulers are super important and an integral part of our team.  

And then we also have our office coordinators  that answers the phone calls and passes along the messages and assists with scheduling and sort of sets expectations and is the face of the practice. Then you have an office practice nurse or an oncology practice nurse who is the doctor’s right hand, making sure that the patients get proper chemotherapy teaches, making sure that they understand about possible side effects, risks versus benefits, making sure medications are up to date, assessing symptoms.  

They are sort of the front line when it comes to any patient call they’re triaging, and they’re escalating or deescalating. That would be the office practice nurse. And then you have an advanced care practitioner, an APP. You either have a nurse practitioner or a PA that’s working with you that’s sometimes seeing patients independently, sometimes putting chemotherapy orders, you know, really serving as almost as another doctor. 

If for some reason there is something that the doctor’s not available to do, the doctor needs in a pinch, or my patients that are almost at long-term follow-up that are doing great that are just kind of coasting, I will share with my NP and make sure that they know her just as well as they know me. And sometimes there’s a fellow or there’s a resident or there’s a med student that’s part of the team as well because see one, do one, teach one. It’s really important to teach those that are coming after you and serve as mentors and really include them in part of the team and part of the decision-making. And then you have the doctor that just kind of oversees everything.  

Katherine Banwell:

Of course. How would you define treatment goals for people with lung cancer? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

So, the goal of treatment, I think, is really contingent upon someone’s stage, but it’s also contingent upon what’s important to the patient, right? So, we have patients that are stage I all the way to stage IIIC that we treat with intention to cure.

And patients that have stage IV disease, it’s treatable but not curable. So, I am very transparent with that as long as I have the information to have that discussion. With that being said, there are some patients with stage IIIdisease or stage I disease that don’t really want treatment and want to focus on quality of life. And that’s okay too. And in which case, you know, at some point, their cancer will likely progress. How quickly or when that will happen, we don’t know. Could they pass from something else? It’s possible. But you really need to talk about what’s important to the patient, because it’s not always cut and dry.  

Katherine Banwell:

As you mentioned, Dr. Preeshagul, there are several different support members on a team. What would you say to patients or even care partners who can sometimes feel like they’re bothering their healthcare team with their questions and comments? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

So, we do get that concern a lot. And I always say, “I’m here for you 24/7. And, if it’s not me, it’s someone that’s just as qualified to answer your questions no matter what.” 

“And I would rather get a phone call at 3:00 a.m. than get a phone call at 9:00 a.m., and you need to go to the hospital right now or God forbid something happened. I get a phone call from someone in the ICU that you went overnight and terrible things happened. So, I want the phone calls to come through to keep you out of the hospital and keep you from going south. So, call me.” And I never try to – I don’t try to outline contingency plans or criteria of what would warrant a call, because then you end up getting in trouble.  

I always just tell my patient, “Think about how you’re feeling now in front of me. If you’re feeling any different than how you feel at this very moment, call me.”  

Katherine Banwell:

Good advice. I’d like to turn to the clinical side of non-small cell lung cancer. What tests help you identify the type and stage of lung cancer?  

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

Obviously, you need a CAT scan. You need a CAT scan of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, and you need an MRI brain and a PET scan.  

Those are really the gold standards for determining clinical staging. In regards to pathologic staging, it’s really important to have tissue samplings. So, you biopsy a site of disease that’s concerning to you. If it looks like there’s only disease in the chest, you want to biopsy the site where there’s the tumor, and then you talk with your thoracic surgery or pulmonary team to determine the best way to sample the mediastinum for full staging.  

Katherine Banwell:

Why is an accurate diagnosis so important?  

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

So, an accurate diagnosis is so important because lung cancer is by no means black and white anymore. There are so many histologic subtypes that we are learning about. There are so many different molecular drivers that we are learning about. So, making sure you have the right diagnosis, full and next-generation sequencing testing, all of the imaging that you need could really make or break your treatment plan.  

Katherine Banwell:

Dr. Preeshagul, let’s talk about biomarker testing. How is biomarker testing for lung cancer different from hereditary genetic testing?

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

So, we do do hereditary genetic testing for lung cancer patients as well. So, I think let’s backtrack a little bit. When you’re doing on a patient, there’s germline mutations and there’s somatic mutations. And germline mutations are mutations that you might get from Mom and Dad that they got from their parents and so on and so forth that you could give to your children or your brother and sister or whatever. So, that’s germline testing that could be passed along.  

That would be like BRCA or any other APC gene, but we are learning more and more that there are mutations in lung cancer that do have a hereditary aspect to them. So, we are learning now that while we do somatic testing, which is to find a mutation that just spontaneously happened in your tumor all on its own, it’s really important to pair that with germline testing to make sure that there isn’t some kind of heritable mutation that’s also driving this lung cancer.  

Katherine Banwell:

You mentioned hereditary genetic testing. Should family members of people with lung cancer undergo genetic testing then just to be reassured? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

So, if there is a germline mutation, then they should – the family members should be referred to a geneticist to have that discussion.   

Katherine Banwell:

What are common lung cancer biomarkers? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

So, we have nine biomarkers within approval right now, but there are so many. There’s more than I could even talk about today. But some of the more common ones are EGFR, ALK, ROS1, MET exon 14. You have KRAS, KRAS-G12C, which is a newer one. We have NTRK. We have RET. The list goes on, HER2. I could talk for – there’s not enough time on this Zoom video to talk about all of the mutations. But there are nine mutations with approvals as of now to date, this very moment. That could change tomorrow.  

Katherine Banwell:

Of course, it could. How do biomarkers in lung cancer affect treatment options for lung cancer patients? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

So, it used to only be in stage IV, but now we are learning that biomarker testing is really important from the get-go because we have induction or neoadjuvant protocols that are looking at giving targeted therapy before patients go to surgery. 

We know that there’s FDA approval for patients to get targeted therapy after surgery, and there’s a survival advantage there. So, make sure that you have next-generation sequencing testing regardless of your stage.  

Katherine Banwell:

Okay. That’s good advice. So, we’ve heard how testing and a patient’s individual disease can lead to more targeted options. And you just mentioned targeted therapies. How do they work? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

So, there’s many different targeted therapies that we have. Some of given as an infusion. For HER2, for example, we have TDXD, and we have T-DM1. TDXD is the only drug that’s FDA-approved in this setting. There are clinical trials looking at T-DM1. For EGFR Exon 20, we have another infusional drug called amivantamab (Rybrevant). For EGFR Exon 19 and Exon 21, we have a pill called osimertinib (Tagrisso). For KRAS, there’s a pill. For most of the driver alterations, it’s a pill, but some of them it does require infusional therapy. 

But these are therapies that are targeted at the cells that harbor that mutation.  

Katherine Banwell:

Let’s turn to immunotherapy. What is it, and how does it work? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

So, immunotherapy is basically teaching your body to recognize cancer as foreign. So, when you have – I always kind of use this hand model. So, basically, a normal cell has, let’s say, three prongs. And then sometimes what happens is cancer will grow a marker called PD-L1 that makes it hide from the immune system. So, the body thinks that this is a normal cell. So, what immunotherapy does is it comes up and it sort of puts a cap on that PD-L1 so that the cell looks foreign again and the body can attack that cell and get rid of it. So, it’s almost like ramping up your immune system to recognize that marker and get rid of that cell. 

Katherine Banwell:

What is the regimen for immunotherapy, and how often is treatment administered? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

So, immunotherapy is approved in the neoadjuvant setting, which means before chemotherapy. It’s approved after chemotherapy, and it’s approved in the stage IV setting. There are many different regimens and many different dosings and many different drugs. But it’s typically given in your veins, either once every three weeks or once every four weeks for a certain amount of time. If it’s given in a curative setting and it’s given indefinitely or until there’s disease progression or intolerance in the stage IV setting.  

Katherine Banwell:

Okay. Let’s touch upon the side effects of these types of treatment. You’ve mentioned that there are so many, but what are some of the major side effects, and how are they managed? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

Side effects of immunotherapy can include pneumonitis, which is inflammation of the lungs, any kind of endocrinopathy like issues with your thyroid, issues with your pancreas like diabetes.  

It can cause colitis, which is diarrhea, inflammation of the colon, hepatitis, inflammation of the liver. It can cause cerebritis, inflammation of the brain. It can cause arthritis or arthralgias, inflammation of the bones. And it can also cause rash and fatigue. 

Typically, if it’s the thyroid, it’s managed with thyroid replacement hormone or a drug that would calm down the thyroid if it’s overactive. Pneumonitis is steroids. Hepatitis is sometimes treated with steroids. Colitis, steroids typically. Steroids usually come somewhere in there, usually not with the endocrinopathies, but the other itis’s, it’s typically – we start with steroids and go up from there. And the goal is to really recognize these toxicities before they become a problem and just at the glimmer of them just starting.  

Katherine Banwell:

So, would you consider these treatments to be personalized medicine then? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

So, it’s personalized in the sense that if someone has a high PD-L1 expression, there may be some data to demonstrate that they may benefit from immunotherapy or have a response. If someone can’t tolerate chemotherapy or is not interested in chemotherapy or has other reasons that may preclude them from getting it, it might be reasonable. So, in that sense, it is considered personalized.  

Katherine Banwell:

How would you define personalized medicine? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

To me, personalized medicine takes into account the biologic makeup of a patient’s disease like if they have a mutation and what their PD-L1 status is, what the histologic makeup of it. What’s their stage? And then, on the other hand, what’s important to that patient? If they’re a tailor, you want to make sure you’re not giving them a medication that’s going to cause neuropathy, so they can’t use their hands.  

If they enjoy playing the harp or the piano, same thing. If their goal is to continue to run marathons, you may want to avoid something that’s going to cause inflammation of the lungs and risk them for pneumonitis. Tailoring to make sure that the treatment is part of their life but does not become their life. 

Katherine Banwell:

If the test results don’t reveal one of the biomarkers you’ve been talking about, what other treatments are available?  

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

So, if I don’t have an FDA approval, then sometimes we look to see if there is a clinical trial in our early phase drug development program, and we talk about a clinical trial. If there’s no clinical trial and I don’t have an FDA approval, then we have to talk about what options are considered standard of care and how to make that work into the patient’s lifestyle.  

Katherine Banwell:

What about surgery? When is it used?  

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

Surgery is typically used in the curative setting with early-stage disease. We’re really trying to give patients some kind of chemotherapy or some kind of treatment before they go to surgery. It’s shown to improve outcomes. It just gives us a en vivo view of how the tumor will respond to the treatment. So, we typically use surgery in the curative setting. And, at times, it’s appropriate to use surgery for a metastasectomy when you have one little site that’s growing. Sometimes after a tumor board discussion, it might be reasonable to resect that area.  

Katherine Banwell:

Is radiation still used? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

Same thing. It can be used in the curative setting, typically for patients with stage IIIB or stage IIIC disease and combined with chemotherapy patients that are not considered surgical candidates, or it’s used in the palliative setting when patients have painful metastases. 

Katherine Banwell:

Would you define the B and C? You’ve mentioned that a couple of times.  

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:


Katherine Banwell:

We’re used to hearing Stage 1, 2, 3, 4. But what’s a stage IIIB and a stage IIIC? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

Yeah. Sure. Sure. So, it does get a little bit into the weeds here about the size of the tumor and the amount of lymph nodes and location of the lymph nodes. But basically, stage IIIA is considered resectable. That means – that could be the size of the tumor with no lymph nodes, or it could be a smaller tumor with a lymph node on the same side as the disease. Stage IIIB would be a lymph node right underneath the windpipe at the station 7. And stage IIIB also includes lymph nodes that have crossed over to the contralateral side. And stage IIIC would be lymph nodes that are maybe up at the contralateral supraclavicular space. 

Katherine Banwell:

Okay. Do treatment options change if the lung cancer returns? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

Yes, they do change depending on if this is the same tumor type that’s come back. It’s typically a different treatment algorithm, yeah.   

Katherine Banwell:

Okay. And should biomarker testing be done again if a relapse occurs? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

100 percent. Because it guides everything about a patient’s treatment. It’s super important.  

Katherine Banwell:

Okay. What are you excited about right now in lung cancer research? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

I am excited and overwhelmed by the fact that we have so many approvals and so much exciting data that was just presented at ASCO and World Lung and ESMO that it’s next to impossible to keep up. And I’m happy that we have that problem, and I’m happy that the patients have – there’s a spotlight on lung cancer when we were in the shadows. And now, I think we have the spotlight. 

And all of these approvals, you know, with it being Lung Cancer Awareness Month as well, I think is just so important. Just to make sure that we get the knowledge of these new approvals out there though, that is another struggle. 

Katherine Banwell:

Well, are there any current clinical trials that look promising to you? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

Yeah, I think there are many clinical trials. In the induction setting, there was some data that was just presented on ALINA looking at adjuvant alectinib (Alecensa). We just had a – we have approval for adjuvant osimertinib (Tagrisso) and the ADAURA trial.  

But we are learning more and more that as these targeted therapies have approval in stage IV, we’re trialing them in stage III, and then we’re going to trial them in earlier stages and earlier settings. So, this has been the pattern of how drugs get approved. So, yes, there’s lots of exciting data coming through. 

Katherine Banwell:

That’s excellent. Can you talk about antibody drug conjugates and where they fit into lung cancer care? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

Yeah. That’s a great question. I don’t think anyone knows the answer as to where they fit in just yet. 

We have probably over 300 antibody drug conjugates that are in development right now. And one of the more common ones that we use is trastuzumab deruxtecan (Enhertu), or TDXD, which is used in patients that harbor HER2 alterations in the stage IV lung cancer setting. It is basically almost like a Trojan horse. So, you have this antibody.  

It’s typically IgG1, immunoglobulin. And then you have a linker, and then at the end of that linker is the warhead or the chemotherapy agent. So, the antibody comes in towards the cancer cell looking very innocent. It binds to the cancer cell. And, once it binds, then everyone inside the Trojan horse or this warhead rush into the cell and get to do its damage. So, it’s a totally different mechanism. We’re trying to outsmart some of the bypass mechanisms that cancer cells develop. And this may be the new wave, but stay tuned, more to come.  

Katherine Banwell:

Right. So, it’s promising.  How can patients find out more about current clinical trials? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

So, you can always ask your healthcare practitioner if there are any clinical trials at the institution that you’re at, but has all the clinical trials that are available nationally and internationally.  

You just type in your disease type. You can type in a couple keywords, EGFR maybe or ROS1 or stage IV, something along those lines, and then it should populate a list of clinical trials and what institutions have them open, if they’re still accruing or if they’re not, and a contact on that trial.  

Katherine Banwell:

If a patient is interested in a clinical trial, what kinds of questions should they be asking their healthcare about the trial? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

So, the first question to ask is, “Do we have any clinical trials that are appropriate for me?” If the answer is yes, “Are they appropriate for me now, or are they appropriate for me if what I’m on right now is not working?” 

So, trying to figure out where that will be, and if they are appropriate for you now, how can I get evaluated, and how can we get things underway? 

Katherine Banwell:

Yeah. What would you say to patients who are interested in participating in a clinical trial, but they’re nervous about it?

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

I think one thing that I love about being on a clinical trial is that there are more eyes are on you, because we are looking to get something approved, and we are just watching every single little granular detail. In a way, it’s almost like you’re being more micromanaged than if you were on standard of care because of just how many stops and checks there are, how many eyes are looking at your labs after the doctor and the nurse and the nurse practitioner, and the fellow take a look at everything. It’s 10 other people. So, it’s almost like it’s extra safe because of all of that. It’s exciting because you are hopefully getting tomorrow’s treatment today, right? 

You’re trailblazing the way for other people after you. So, I think it’s exciting, but, of course, it’s nerve-wracking. It’s something new. You don’t know if it’s going to work. But I have to believe that the way that clinical trials are designed now and the clinical trials that we choose to open here, we really hope are going to be pushing the space forward. 

Katherine Banwell:

Yeah. I’d like to get to a few questions that we received from audience members prior to the program. How do you help a family member that is an overwhelmed caregiver but refuses help? Any tips on how to provide support to this person?  

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

I mean, I think we see caregiver burnout thousands of times a day, unfortunately, and the first thing is knowing how to recognize it. And the second most important thing is taking the time away from the visit with the patient to address the burnt-out caregiver, because there is not enough time in any visit to ever – there’s never enough time in my mind to spend with a patient.  

I’m always pulled in a thousand different directions. And I think we all feel that. But taking the appropriate time to sit down and to say, “Hey. Listen. I recognize that you’re burnt out. I can see it. Who is in your corner helping you?” And just directing focus away from the patient just for a moment and to really focus on that caregiver and to rely on the social work team and the case manager and the support groups that your institution may have and to make sure that they know about those resources. 

Katherine Banwell:

Yeah. Here’s another question we received. “Can you share more information regarding treatments available for stage IV lung cancer and their side effects?” 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

It depends on if this is non-small cell or small cell. It depends on if you have a driver alteration or not. So, I think that is a little bit challenging to talk about in just one session. But basically, you’re probably looking at some kind of targeted therapy if you have a mutation versus standard of care if you don’t have a targeted mutation versus a clinical trial. And I think those are kind of like the big baskets.  

Katherine Banwell:

When is a second opinion necessary? Dr. Isabel Preeshagul: A second opinion is necessary anytime you want a second opinion.  

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

There is no right or wrong time, any time. You’re just not jiving with your oncologist after the first day you met them, second opinion. You’re at the end of the line and you really want toknow more, second opinion. You’ve met two other doctors. You’re not jiving, third opinion. It’s always appropriate anytime you want. 

Katherine Banwell:

So, the patient shouldn’t feel obligated to stay with that one provider? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

Never. Never, never, never, never, never. No. Please don’t feel that way. There are no hard feelings. And, if there are, that’s not the right oncologist for you. It needs to feel like a perfect friendship. And, if it’s not that, it’s not the right thing.    

Katherine Banwell:

Before we close, Dr. Preeshagul, I’d like to get your final thoughts. What would you say to the audience about the future of lung cancer care and treatment? 

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

I do think that the future is bright because, as I mentioned, there is now this light that is shining in the lung cancer space. And things are getting approved. and discoveries are getting made faster than we can even keep up, which is exciting and overwhelming and daunting. But I am happy that, finally, this space is taking off, so I feel optimistic.  

Katherine Banwell:

Okay. All right. Well, I wanna thank you so much for taking the time to join us today, Dr. Preeshagul.  

Dr. Isabel Preeshagul:

Thank you so much for having me. These were wonderful questions, and I look forward to many more discussions with you. Thank you.  

Katherine Banwell:

And thank you to all of our partners. To learn more about lung cancer and to access tools to help you become a proactive patient, visit I’m Katherine Banwell. Thanks for being with us today.   

Elevating Cancer Advocacy: 10 Strategies for Effective Information Dissemination

As patient advocates we not only want to educate and support cancer research and awareness, but we also want to inspire hope.  In this month’s article, I discuss 10 types of content that can help you communicate and disseminate information, advance cancer advocacy, and encourage and empower those affected by cancer.

1. Treatment Journey Timelines

Share informative timelines outlining the typical journey of a cancer patient from diagnosis to treatment and recovery.

What to share:

  • Key information about surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and any other pertinent treatments.
  • Highlight the importance of support systems during treatment.
  • Address the common side effects associated with different treatments.
  • Include images that highlight the various stages of the journey, from diagnosis and treatment to recovery, providing a visual timeline of the cancer experience.
  • Conclude the timeline by exploring the phase of life after active treatment.

2. Visual Content

Use graphics, videos, or infographics to make your content more visually appealing  The human brain processes visual information much faster than text, making visual content not only more engaging but also more memorable. In addition to enhancing understanding and engagement, visual content is more likely to be shared across various social media platforms. People are more likely to share visually appealing and informative content with their networks, contributing to the dissemination of important medical information.

What to share:

  • Make complex concepts more accessible and easier to understand with infographics.
  • Live video streaming can be used to host interactive Q&A sessions and webinars with experts in the field who can answer questions and provide valuable insights. This real-time interaction provides valuable information as well as a more engaging experience for your audience.

3. Personal Stories

Use written narratives, images, and video testimonials to  describe the emotional and physical effects of being diagnosed with cancer.

What to share:

  • Explore the emotional roller coaster you experienced, detailing the shock, anxiety, and uncertainty that often accompany a diagnosis of cancer.
  • Share images that capture the visual aspects of the cancer journey.
  • Offer practical advice on managing the physical side effects of cancer treatment, such as nausea.
  • Share a range of coping strategies such as mindfulness techniques, support group recommendations, and mental health resources.
  • Highlight the importance of seeking professional counseling and the value of connecting with others who have faced similar challenges.
  • Acknowledge the ongoing challenges survivors may face, such as mental health concerns, or a fear of recurrence.
  • Offer words of encouragement and messages of hope. Remind others that they are not alone in their journey and that strength can be found in community and shared experiences.

4. Cancer Prevention Tips

As a cancer advocate, your aim is not only to raise awareness but also to empower others with practical advice that promotes a proactive approach to wellness and reduces the risk of cancer.

What to share:

  • Address common misconceptions surrounding diet and cancer, discussing evidence-based findings on the impact of various foods on cancer risk.
  • Provide practical tips on incorporating a balanced and cancer-preventive diet, emphasizing the importance of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins.
  • Provide actionable advice on incorporating regular exercise into daily routines, catering to various fitness levels and preferences.
  • Outline recommended screening guidelines for various types of cancer, stressing the importance of regular check-ups and screenings based on age, gender, and family history.
  • Collaborate with oncologists, researchers, and other cancer experts to discuss recent research findings related to cancer prevention. Address emerging trends, breakthroughs, and advancements in the field, providing your audience with up-to-date and credible information.

5. Clinical Trial Information

Clinical trials often explore novel treatments that may be more effective than standard therapies. By sharing information about ongoing trials, you can open doors for patients to access innovative and potentially transformative medical interventions.

What to share:

  • Start by providing educational content that explains the concept of clinical trials, their purpose, and their significance in advancing medical research. Break down the different phases of clinical trials, emphasizing how they contribute to the development of new treatments.
  • Acknowledge common concerns and misconceptions surrounding clinical trials, such as fear of receiving a placebo, uncertainty about side effects, or worries about being treated as a “guinea pig.” Provide clear, factual information to address these concerns and build trust in the clinical trial process.
  • Ensure that information is easily accessible to patients. Create user-friendly resources that list ongoing trials, their eligibility criteria, and contact information for trial coordinators.
  • Stress the importance of informed decision-making when considering participation in a clinical trial. Provide resources that guide patients on questions to ask, considerations to weigh, and how to engage in meaningful conversations with their healthcare team.
  • Emphasize the importance of diverse participation in clinical trials. Advocate for increased representation of various demographics to ensure that trial results are applicable to a broader population.
  • Establish partnerships with oncologists, nurses, research institutions, universities, and medical centers conducting clinical trials. Collaborate to amplify the reach of trial information and ensure that advocates are well-informed about the latest developments.

6.  Legislation and Policy Updates

By sharing  legislative changes related to cancer research funding, healthcare policies, and patient rights,  you can empower individuals facing a cancer diagnosis, ensuring that they are aware of their rights and can actively participate in their treatment decisions.

What to share:

  • Advocate for legislation that safeguards patient privacy. Stress the significance of maintaining the confidentiality of medical information and protecting patient data in the digital age. Help your audience understand their rights regarding the privacy of their health information.
  • Advocate for legislation that supports and emphasizes the active participation of patients in their treatment decisions. Share information on laws that empower patients to be partners in their healthcare journey, fostering a collaborative relationship with their healthcare providers.
  • Advocate for initiatives that promote transparent communication between healthcare providers and patients. Stress the importance of clear and understandable information, ensuring that patients have the knowledge needed to make informed choices about their care.

7. Conference Reports

Conference reporting facilitates the dissemination of the latest research, treatment updates, and policy discussions to a broader audience, which is a crucial aspect of cancer advocacy.

What to share:

  • Summaries of key sessions and presentations. Highlight significant findings, breakthroughs, and advancements in cancer research, treatment, and patient care.
  • Livetweet important points, quotes, and visuals to engage a wider audience.
  • Conduct interviews with keynote speakers, researchers, healthcare professionals, and fellow advocates. Gather their perspectives on emerging trends, challenges, and opportunities in the field of cancer.
  • Ensure that your conference reports are accessible to a diverse audience. Use clear language, provide explanations for technical terms, and consider different formats to accommodate various learning styles and preferences.

8. Cancer Awareness Days, Weeks, and Months

Compile a list of key cancer-related awareness days, weeks, or months throughout the year. These designated days are important for educating the public, destigmatizing the disease, and advocating for essential research funding.   Integrate these awareness days into your content calendar, dedicating specific time frames for planning, creating, and promoting content around each designated date.

What to share

  • Highlight significant dates such as World Cancer Day on February 4th, National Cancer Prevention Month, Breast Cancer Awareness Month, etc.
  • Plan focused campaigns during these dates, leveraging relevant hashtags and encouraging your audience to participate.
  • Develop a variety of content types, including articles, infographics, videos, and social media posts, to cater to different audience preferences. Ensure that your content is informative, emotionally resonant, and shareable.
  • Use relevant hashtags associated with each awareness day.
  • Provide educational resources including fact sheets, downloadable guides, and links to reputable sources. Empower your audience with accurate information to promote understanding and dispel myths.

9. Think Beyond Cancer

Thinking beyond cancer-specific days and aligning your advocacy efforts with impactful occasions like International Women’s Day can broaden the scope of your message and connect with a wider audience.

What to share:

  • International Women’s Day (March 8th): Highlight the impact of cancer on women’s health, emphasizing gender-specific cancers and advocating for gender equality in cancer research, treatment, and support.
  • International Day of Yoga (June 21st): Share information on how activities like yoga can complement cancer treatment, alleviate stress, and improve overall well-being.
  • World Mental Health Day (October 10th): Address the impact of cancer on mental health. Provide resources on coping strategies, discuss emotional aspects of cancer journeys, and advocate for increased mental health support.
  • World No Alcohol Day (October 2nd): Share information on the link between alcohol consumption and certain cancers, encouraging responsible drinking habits to reduce cancer risk.
  • World Osteoporosis Day (October 20th): Address the impact of certain cancer treatments on bone health. Provide information on how cancer survivors can maintain bone health and prevent osteoporosis.

9.  Interactive Content

By incorporating interactive content, such as online polls, information can be shared in a more dynamic and engaging way. Audiences are not only educated but also engaged and mobilized through a two-way interaction.

What to share:

  • Turn cancer awareness into an interactive learning experience by crafting polls that function as educational quizzes. Ask participants about cancer-related risk factors, symptoms, or prevention methods, providing instant feedback and valuable insights.
  • Combat misinformation and address stigma by using polls to confront prevalent myths about cancer. Create questions that challenge misconceptions, enabling participants to contribute to dispelling stereotypes and fostering a more informed and empathic online community.
  • Extend the impact of interactive content by promoting cross-platform engagement. Encourage followers to share poll results on various social media channels, multiplying the reach of awareness initiatives and fostering organic conversations about cancer-related topics.

I hope you’ve found these content suggestions helpful. Implementing these ideas can not only raise awareness about cancer but also inspire action, foster community, and contribute significantly to the advancement of cancer advocacy.

You might also like to read

The Patient Advocate’s Guide to Social Media Content Planning – Patient Empowerment Network (

Transforming Your Social Media Presence: 5 Steps to Foster Inclusivity and Advocate for All – Patient Empowerment Network (

November 2023 Digital Health Round Up

Scientists and researchers are using technology to advance the fight against cancer, inventing machines to help with prevention and treatment of the disease. A simple finger stick test has been developed to help brain cancer patients monitor for recurrence from home. Scientists have invented a machine to help produce T cells quickly for immunotherapy treatments. A non-invasive device that uses ultrasound waves offers hope for liver cancer treatment.

Finger-Prick Test Could Help Spot Brain Cancer Recurrence Sooner

Scientists at University of Sheffield and Nottingham Trent University are developing the world’s first finger-prick test to spot brain tumors. More than 300,000 people worldwide are diagnosed with brain cancer each year, and while treatments have improved over the last few decades, recurrence remains a risk. It is a finger-prick test using medical technology of the lateral flow test. This test is easy to use and affordable. It can detect molecules in the blood that are specific to the patient’s tumor so it can catch recurrence early. The risk of brain cancer recurring is significant and can aggressively spread if not caught early. Instead of MRI ‘s every six months, this simple test could be done weekly, at home, to monitor for the cancer coming back.

Machine Can Quickly Produce Needed Cells for Cancer Treatment

In the journal Biotechnology Progress, Washington State University researchers have reported that they developed a mini-fridge sized bioreactor that is able to manufacture the cells, called T cells, at 95% of the maximum growth rate about 30% faster than current technologies. These T cells can be used for immunotherapy treatment to help fight cancer. Cart therapy can be challenging due to the cost and time required to grow the amount of T cells needed. Scientists applied 40 years of research, made this bioreactor using centrifugal force to grow the cells. It is made with a sterile cabinet so it can be used in a bigger variety of circumstances. The scientist’s goal is to make enough cells for three treatments immunotherapy within three days.

This Non-Invasive Device Blasts Apart Tumors with Sound Waves

 This week, the US Food and Drug administration gave the green light to a device that uses ultrasound waves to blast apart tumors in the liver. This technique, which requires no needles, injections, knives, or drugs, it’s called histotripsy, and it’s being developed by a company called HistoSonics. This machine sends high energy ultrasound waves to the tumor and that action makes micro bubbles. When the micro bubbles breakdown, it stresses the tumor cells, causing the tumor to break apart. The small bits are then taken out by the patient’s own immune system, which in turn helps the immune system recognize and remember the cancer cells to help prevent recurrence. The whole process is painless with a faster recovery time. This machine uses imaging and a robotic arm for a more precise aim, saving more healthy tissue.

PODCAST: Thrive | Advice for Managing Potential CAR T-Cell Therapy Side Effects


Dr. Adriana Rossi, a myeloma expert and researcher, discusses how CAR T-cell therapy has revolutionized care, the process for undergoing this therapy, common side effects of this treatment, and advice for patients considering this option. Dr. Rossi also shares updates in CAR T-cell therapy research and explains what she’s excited about in myeloma care.

Dr. Adriana Rossi is Co-director of the CAR T and stem cell transplant program at the Center for Excellence for Multiple Myeloma at Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. Learn more about Dr. Rossi.

Download Resource Guide

See More From Thrive CAR T-Cell Therapy


Katherine Banwell:

Hello, and welcome. I am your host, Katherine Banwell. Today’s program is part of our Thrive series, where we will discuss what to expect and how to manage side effects of CAR T-cell therapy.  

Before we get into the discussion, please remember that this program is not a substitute for seeking medical advice. Please refer to your healthcare team about what might be best for you.  

Well, let’s meet our guest today. Joining us is Dr. Adriana Rossi. Dr. Rossi, welcome. Would you please introduce yourself?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Thank you so much. I am one of the codirectors of the CAR T program at Mount Sinai in New York City and thrilled to be with you today.  

Katherine Banwell:

Thank you. Since we’ll be discussing the ins and outs of CAR T-cell therapy, I thought we could start with your perspective as a researcher in the field. How has this therapy revolutionized myeloma care?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

It absolutely has. And I would say in time we’ve had – this is now our fourth revolution. Stem cell transplants was the first time we actually achieved what we call a complete remission in at least a few patients, making myeloma disappear.  

Then, we had the second revolution with the novel agents. Now, we had drug therapies that were giving us these complete remission still at about a 30 percent rate. And then, the monoclonal antibodies were the most recent revolution. And currently, we are in what we call the T-cell redirection.   

It really has been driven by CAR T-cell therapies and something we call bispecific antibodies, which also use your patient’s T cells to kill the myeloma. We are now seeing absolutely unprecedented response rates, meaning almost everybody is responding. Also, depth of response, which we have really learned over time is a way to translate into long remissions. So, every long, very significant remissions. And the early data in patients who have had many prior lines.  

Katherine Banwell:

So, it is very encouraging news.  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

It is very encouraging.  

Katherine Banwell:

Let’s start with an overview of CAR T-cell therapy. Could you explain how the treatment works?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Absolutely. So, CAR T specifically is speaking to T cells, which are a normal part of the immune system that have been engineered and modified. So, normal part of the immune system T cells have a lot of checks and balances and are constantly looking for cells that are supposed to be killed. For example, something that has a virus in it.  

When we engineer the CAR T-cells, we modify, one, the target so they are now trained to find the specific target on a tumor cell. And we remove all these checks and balances. So, once that T-cell finds its target, it can kill it without all of the side effects. The way normal T  cells communicate with other members of the immune system are something called cytokines. So, we will touch on that a little later, I think, but we also, again, interfere with that communication by engineering the cells.  

Katherine Banwell:

Which patient type qualifies for CAR T?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

In 2023, we currently have two approved commercial CAR T products and we do have a number of them in clinical trials. The two that are commercially approved specifically are targeted for patients who are in their fourth line of therapy, so the myeloma has learned to come back that four times.  

They’ve been exposed to all of the regular drugs, which by four lines most patients will have been at least once. We look for patients whose kidney function is at a safe level to tolerate the therapy. And other than that, it’s really having caregiver support and overall ability to come to a center that specializes in this.  

Katherine Banwell:

What’s the process for accessing the CAR T?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

The first important part is remembering they exist and having the referring physician remember to send patients our way. Once patients come to our center, they will meet with coordinators, both the clinic coordinators to make sure we have all of the testing, to make sure the heart is healthy enough, the lungs are healthy enough. There’s no infections brewing.  

Financial coordinators to take care of all of the organizing. If patients are coming from further than 30 minutes, setting them up for a place to stay in the city, transportation aid, all of those things. Once we decide to go ahead and have our collection date set, that sort of starts the actual process. Since most of our patients have had stem cell transplants before, there is that point of comparison. I think one of the most important things to remember is CAR T is not stem cells.  

So, while they’re both the cellular therapies, the patient experience is vastly, vastly different. It starts with a collection, where in stem cells you need several days of injections and maybe several days of collection. T-cell collection is a one-day event. We get what we get and then we are going to manufacture them and we can grow them in a Petri dish. There is no minimum and there is no instigating injections to get them going.  

Once they’re collected, the cells are then sent for manufacturing, which may take from four to eight weeks. During that time, patients usually receive what we call a bridging therapy, which is some kind of therapy to keep the myeloma at bay. Not to get rid of it but to keep it under control so that once the cells are ready the patient is also ready. Going into CAR T with growing myeloma can increase the side effects.  

Katherine Banwell:

Go ahead.  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

I will give you just the final bit. Once the cells are ready, then we plan to give chemotherapy to get the patient’s T cells to not put up a fight. That’s called lymphodepletion. We infuse the cells and they’re now with us for two weeks in the hospital and usually two weeks after.   

Katherine Banwell:

Okay. So, I was going to ask how long patients are in the hospital for the procedure. So, that explains that. So, it is about two weeks. What signifies that a patient is ready to be released and go home?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

The reason patients are in the hospital is a very classic expected toxicity experience. So, they’re in the hospital for us to observe, watch. If it happens, which about 80 percent of the time there will be some toxicity for us to address – one that toxicity has resolved, they’re then okay to go home.  

Katherine Banwell:

Okay. That is great advice. Thank you. Of course, we know that CAR T-cell therapy comes with some potential side effects. Let’s talk about some of those side effects and how they’re managed. You mentioned cytokine release syndrome earlier. Let’s start with that. What is it, exactly?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Yes. As I mentioned, cytokines are molecules that the cells of the immune system use to communicate with each other. With this therapy, we are asking the T cells that have been infused to expand, meaning make multiple copies of themselves, and sweep through the body looking for myeloma and basically picking a fight with them.  

So, CRS is what happens when the T cells are too good at their job and they overachieve and then picking a little fight kind of make a big ruckus. The result is what we call inflammation, which the patient will experience usually as a fever.  

But if it does not go – if it continues to go unchecked, that fever can be accompanied by low blood pressure because of these inflammatory markers, difficulty breathing or low oxygen levels. And all of these things are now vastly prevented. CRS is usually treated very quickly and doesn’t get to these higher grades, more complicated fields.  

Katherine Banwell:

How is CRS managed?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

We have a couple of very good antidotes. CRS by itself is not just a fever. Certainly, a fever in any patient who is undergoing these kinds of therapies, we will try to rule out any infections. But there are markers in the blood that we can follow. When the blood markers and the fever occur at the same time, we know that cytokines are driving that effect. If it seems to be driven by something we call IL-6, we use tocilizumab (Actemra). If it seems to be driven by IL-1, we use anakinra (Kineret). These are all drugs that are themselves monoclonal antibodies which then will shut down that overreaction and cool things down.   

Katherine Banwell:

Okay. Another possible side effect is neurotoxicity. Would you define that term for us?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Yes. That one is harder to define because neurotoxicity in itself is very broad. We usually think of something called ICANS, which is the neurotoxicity associated with the effector cells. That specific neurotoxicity tends to happen in conjunction with CRS.  

And while CRS probably occurs in about 85 percent of patients, the ICANS is usually in the order of 5 percent. So, much, much more rare. And the antidote for that, which most patients know, love, and hate, is steroids.  

Katherine Banwell:

Ah, yes.  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

I should mention there are other parts of neurotoxicity which I think the most concerning is something that has been known as Parkinsonian symptoms. It’s really just movement disorder. These are exceedingly rare and so we haven’t had a chance to learn very much because there are so few patients who have had this complication. We have learned from the first six patients who had this how to avoid it. And so, I think it’s now even more rare and it really goes into patient selection, to making sure, as I mentioned, that the myeloma isn’t growing very much.  

We monitor to see if the T cells grow too fast, if the CRS is of a high level. These are all predictors of delayed neurotoxicity.  

Katherine Banwell:

What are the signs of neurotoxicity in a patient?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Very specifically, for the ICANS, we have tool called the ICE tool, which is a series of questions to test memory and attention and ability to write and understand and speak. So, most commonly, it would be an inability to speak properly or, if someone is writing a sentence, it’s really a very classic finding. It is no longer spread across the page.  

These are not subtle findings. Part of, again, being in the hospital is to allow us to have this tool twice a day and look for these signs very early on, interfere with their development by giving the patients steroids – usually for a day or two – and resolving it.  

Katherine Banwell:

So, that’s how neurotoxicity is managed, then.  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:


Katherine Banwell:

And is there a potential for long-term issues associated with neurotoxicity?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Certainly, there is always the potential. But the vast majority – again, the ICANS tend to be self-limited while the patient’s in the hospital, and that is why we’re watching during that window. The delayed neurotoxicities, in addition to these very rare movement disorders, we do see some cranial nerve palsies. The seventh cranial nerve, usually recognized as Bell’s palsy, has happened a few times. We really don’t understand the mechanism of what is driving it. It’s inflammation but why there, why that way. So, we tend to use acyclovir, which is the classic treatment for Bell’s palsy and steroids.  

Katherine Banwell:

Dr. Rossi, a suppressed immune system is something that a patient undergoing CAR T-cell therapy should consider. What does it mean and what precautions should patients take?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

That is such a good question and it is specifically true for patients who are receiving therapies that target BCMA, which both commercial CAR Ts at the moment target.  

Because it is such an effective therapy at bringing down cells that express BCMA, your immune cells that make antibodies, one of the side effects is the immunoglobulins, which are the antibodies, are all very, very low. So, that is one level of immunosuppression.  

The other is the chemotherapy that we use to quiet the T cells can also lower all the blood counts. So, red blood cells and platelets may be low as well and those are not involved with immunity and can be transfused. So, that is a supportive mechanism. For the immune therapies, we usually use IVIG, which is intravenous immunoglobulins to support the patient until they’re able to make their own.  

We also protect them from viral infections with acyclovir or valacyclovir. Protect them from something called PJP pneumonia, which is a virus that specifically appears when you’re very immunosuppressed. Should their neutrophil count be low, that is another type of white blood cell – make sure they’re protected with antibiotics.  

Katherine Banwell:

Is there a typical timeframe for the immune system function to return?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

I would say a year is a good time but it’s a very unpredictable wave. So again, unlike stem cell transplant where you have a clear time where the cells are low, they recover, they stay recovered, we have noticed for some patients, they may have low blood counts just during the first month and then be recovered. Some will have no problems in the first month and it’s in the weeks to follow that suddenly either the reds, or the platelets, or the white count may need support.  

And in very rare instances, out to a year, they’re still needing support, sometimes say a growth factor injection once a week.  

Katherine Banwell:

So, how is it monitored over time?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

We monitor all those different levels of the immune system. So, we check on the CBC, which is the very common blood counts. We also look at what is called a lymph panel to look at the different types of T cells and make sure that they are recovering. Those usually take about three to six months to recover. The white count, again usually by Day 30, but there are some cases of delayed recovery. And the immunoglobulins, which is the antibody level, we also monitor monthly.  

Katherine Banwell:

What other side effects should patients who are considering CAR T-cell therapy be aware of?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Really, those are the big three. I would say others are very rare but the low blood counts is the one that lasts beyond the time in the hospital. And the rare neurotoxicities that are delayed.  

Katherine Banwell:

When should patients mention any issues they’re experiencing to their healthcare team?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Always. That is a very, very, short answer. Please don’t ever think you are bothering the doctor. I hear that a lot. “Oh, I didn’t want to bother you.” It is never a bother. This is why we are here. So, anything that is happening that is out of the ordinary, please let your healthcare provider know. If it is not something that needs our attention or we don’t need to worry about, we will tell you.  

Katherine Banwell:

Better safe than sorry.  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:


Katherine Banwell:

And how does a care partner factor into the process? It seems having a good support system is essential.  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

It absolutely is. I think the entire journey of myeloma really is what I would consider a team sport. It is not something we go through alone. And the more members of the team you have the better. So, as your medical team, we always value the caregivers. For CAR T specifically, since there is this concern for infections and neurotoxicity, caregivers are really essential. They should be well informed, know what to look for, and be the ones to reach out to us if anything is concerning. Again, any symptoms out of the ordinary, any fever, and really be a part of communicating with the medical team.  

Katherine Banwell:

Is there a period where patients are considered out of the woods from CAR T side effects?   

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Hard to say. Again, I like to emphasize that most patients by Day 30 or 60 are back to work, are feeling themselves, are recovered. Another contrast to stem cell transplants. It’s a much faster recovery. I have patients who within 30 days are eager to go back to work and don’t know what I was talking about or why I insist on seeing them so much.  

But some patients, again, out to a year, may still be requiring visits for support in either the IVIG for the immunoglobins, growth factor support for their counts. So, there are outliers at both extremes. We follow the model of 100 days for recovery.  

Katherine Banwell:

Do some patient types do better than others?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Well, always yes. And we are still endeavoring to figure out who they are and why that is. There are things that we don’t know, can’t predict. But things that we do recognize are again bringing patients whose myeloma is under good control.  

So, instead of having a lot of disease or disease that is in a growth phase, we try to use the bridging therapy to optimize the patient, not only to improve the response, but also minimize the toxicities. 

Katherine Banwell:

Does age have an impact at all?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Not as much. We actually have just finished an 88-year-old patient whose hospital course was remarkably unremarkable, as we would like. I think another difference from stem cells, it is not as rigorous. While each patient, I think, should be part of that decision and that conversation, reviewing what is now a growing number of options and see if it’s right for them as an individual. So, age is a consideration, but frailty will always be the more important.  

Katherine Banwell:

Dr. Rossi, we discussed the process of accessing CAR T-cell therapy, which can be a big undertaking. How do you counsel patients who are considering this treatment option? 

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Mostly, I want to make sure that they are well-educated and understand as much as we do and as much as we can convey. I am fortunate to be part of a big multidisciplinary team so there is social workers, clinical coordinators, other specialists, dentists, cardiologists, to give all of the perspectives. I like to make sure that they know what it is and also that they know what it isn’t. So, it is not a stem cell transplant and it is not another line of therapy that you just sign up for and go into blindly.  

So, making sure they’ve had all of their questions answered, and it’s not something they read on the Internet. They have spoken with one of the CAR T physicians, understand all of the steps of the process, and have questions to their very individual needs addressed.   

Katherine Banwell:

If a patient is interested in possibly doing CAR T-cell therapy, what questions should they ask their healthcare team?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

I think again making it personal to them. Does the team think they are a good candidate? Is this the right time? Because they may be a good candidate but not even need it at the moment. Or, again, there are things that we could do between now and the cells to optimize the success both in efficacy and toxicity.  

Understanding what side effects are expected for that individual because, again, we can usually judge these will be more likely or less likely. And then, do I have a plan in place to find the right center and continue the care and the monitoring near home after that?   

Katherine Banwell:

What are the alternatives if a patient decides CAR T is not right for them?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

I would say as part of this newest revolution and fairly comparable in novelty and method of action would be the bispecific antibodies. So, these are molecules.  

They are not cells. And they activate the patient’s own T cells and bring the T cells to the myeloma, causing very similar side effect profile and very similar effectiveness. The rates are a little bit lower but they are administered as mostly a subcutaneous injection that has to be dosed weekly or every other week. The contrast is it’s a continuous therapy, but it does allow us to adjust as we go, which the cellular therapy doesn’t.  

Katherine Banwell:

While there are approved CAR T-cell therapies for myeloma currently, there are also many others that are in clinical trials. Would you talk about some of the ongoing research in this area?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Absolutely. Again, while we celebrate the tremendous changes that these two CAR Ts have made to the field, they are both autologous, meaning we use the patient’s own T cells for manufacturing. They both target BCMA. And they are both what we call second generation T cells. So, other areas are to change the target. So, instead of just targeting BCMA, there are studies specifically targeting GPRC5D, which are coming down fairly soon. Rather than using the patient’s own T cells there are a number of products that use a healthy donor’s T cells, which are available immediately.  

So, we don’t need to go through the bridging therapy, and we don’t have to wait for the cells to be ready. And lastly, there are different manufacturing processes. As I mentioned, the ones we currently have may take up to eight weeks for manufacturing. There are some studies now where cells are basically manufactured, engineered, in 48 hours –  

Katherine Banwell:

Oh, wow.  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

– and are ready to be infused so that they actually grow in the patient rather than in a Petri dish. So, lots of areas of exploration and I look forward to, in five years, being able to look back and see again how the field has changed.  

Katherine Banwell:

And I’m sure it will, by the sounds of it. Are there any trials introducing CAR T-cell therapy as an earlier line of myeloma treatment?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

There are. So, both the products that are now commercially available for the fourth line are being studied in earlier and earlier lines. We actually just this year got results of the CARTITUDE-4 study, which was in one to three prior lines, and expect that that will lead to an earlier approval in the very near future.  

And we have a number of studies, again, with both products looking at patients who have either high risk disease or don’t respond as well as we would like to their frontline therapy, and actually being used as part of that first line.  

Katherine Banwell:

Dr. Rossi, what advice do you have for patients who may be hesitant to participate in a clinical trial?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Education. More than anything, understand what they are. Clinical trials come in all shapes and sizes. We have these exciting molecules that have to go into a first human at some point but we also have tried and true therapies that we know – for example, the CAR T – that is approved in these later lines. That same product is being now offered earlier. So, that has to be within a clinical trial because it’s not the approved indication.  

But it is a product that we know to be safe. We know that it works in advanced disease and are actually expecting that it will work even better in earlier lines. So, clinical trials is a very broad term. Understanding what the patient may be eligible for – meaning, what the study’s looking for – and then comparing that to what the patient is looking for. So, sometimes it’s even modes of therapy. So, if you’re specifically looking for an oral agent, there may be studies that don’t require injections or that many visits. So, really looking widely, speaking to your healthcare physician, and understanding what the options are.   

Katherine Banwell:

And if a patient is interested in possibly participating in a clinical trial, what sorts of questions should they ask?   

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Very, very good question. First, understanding what clinical trial. Each center will have their own combination. Some studies are available in multiple locations. Some studies are very institution specific. So, meeting with the research team and understanding what are the required testings, what is the required treatments, and what is the required follow-up, I think, is the first part.  

Clinical trials, in order for them to give us the power to generalize and learn lessons are very strict in trying to keep to the schedule just as specified and everything is much more contained. So, making sure that they again understand what they’re signing up for and what they’ll get out of it.  

Katherine Banwell:

What other myeloma research are you excited about?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Well, my focus is in CAR T and so I think, with bias, that is the most exciting part. But I did mention bispecifics. One of the things we need to concede is CAR T really requires you be at a cellular therapy center.  

Whereas, with the bispecifics, while for now experience is still building, the idea is that this is something that could be administered in any practice across the nation. So, being able to reach more patients and those also with different targets, different schedules, different combinations, was another very interesting field as well.   

Katherine Banwell:

As we close out this conversation, Dr. Rossi, I would like to get your take on the future of myeloma. What makes you hopeful?  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Just looking back, I think. Again, in the 20 years that I’ve been fortunate enough to participate and see the changes, we have gone through, as I mentioned, three of the four revolutions in the field. And the speed with which each step forward then begets three or four more. As I mentioned, in five years I think we’ll look back and say, “Oh, how quaint, what we were doing in 2023.” So, the speed and the number of wins we’re getting and how quickly that’s translating into direct patient experience is really incredible.  

Katherine Banwell:

Yeah. It seems like there’s a lot of progress and hope in the field.  

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

There absolutely is.  

Katherine Banwell:

Well, Dr. Rossi, thank you so much for taking the time to join us today.   

Dr. Adriana Rossi:

Absolutely. It’s been my pleasure.  

Katherine Banwell:

And thank you to all of our collaborators. To learn more about myeloma and to access tools to help you become a proactive patient, visit I’m Katherine Banwell. Thanks for being with us today.   

Cancer Patient Profile: Linda Ryan

As a survivor of thyroid cancer, adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix, and seven cancer recurrences, our PEN Gynecological Cancer Empowerment Lead Linda Ryan has learned a lot about cancer treatment and about life. She’s discovered the value of self-education, clinical trials, and friendships among many other things. 

Linda’s first cancer experience occurred in 2002 with her thyroid cancer diagnosis. She received successful treatment and then two years later, as a result of a routine pap exam, she was diagnosed with stage 0 adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix. Linda had a hysterectomy and no other treatment. And then seven years later, she found a lump on her neck that her doctors diagnosed as thyroid cancer recurrence. She had a radical neck dissection scheduled but found some lymph nodes in her groin area ahead of her surgery date. The sense of urgency for treatment increased considerably after the physician assistant knew Linda didn’t have thyroid cancer.

Linda learned that the standard of care option had a 15 percent response rate for her diagnosis, and the clinical trial was seeing  a 31 percent response rate. She chose the clinical trial since it increased her chances by 16 percent. She traveled from Florida to Houston for treatment, and she did that for eight rounds every three weeks and then had no evidence of disease.

Clinical trial participation wasn’t something that Linda would have known to ask about initially, but she’s participated in a few trials. Patients can find all clinical trials on “It’s important for patients to ask their doctors about trials and to do research on trials, knowing that they may not be eligible for certain ones if they don’t have certain cancer mutations or other treatment factors. Trials are available to patients in community settings and not just teaching institutions. I feel like I’m using them and getting the benefit of kind of cutting-edge medicine that isn’t available. So I think it’s important for people to seek out trials and educate themselves if there is something available for them.”

One key piece of advice from Linda is don’t give the cancer any more power than it deserves. “So I think it’s important to always remember you’re in charge, and you’re more powerful than the cancer. The words you use to talk about your cancer are very important. So knowing that when I exercise, I feel stronger than the cancer, even if I’m not lifting weights, but I’m moving.” She also recommends using mental exercises or spiritual practice as a way to keep your personal power during your cancer journey and to keep excessive anxiety at bay. 

At the beginning of her cancer journey, Linda asked her doctor if she could keep running. Her doctor advised her to keep moving as much as she could. A group of Linda’s friends decided to host a 5K in her honor. “The goal was just to get our community moving and to hear that message of the importance of exercise. And it gave me a lot of mental strength.”

Reflecting back on the initial 5K event, Linda and her friends set out with specific goals for the event. They wanted the community to hear their message and wanted 300 people to participate in the first race. They were simply overwhelmed with joy when 900 people registered. They only needed 300 people to register to cover the expenses. The large event turnout meant that they had plenty of money left to donate. 

And we had a small amount of money at that time, but we thought, “Well, we can do something good with this money.” And so we created a 501(c)(3) charity, and it became an annual event and an event for our small town in Florida to land, and Central Florida really embraced it. Fast forward to 2020, right before the pandemic we had 6,000 participants. It was just us five women running it. We all had different talents and decided it was time for someone else to take it over.”

Up until the time that the new organization took over in 2023, Linda’s efforts with her friends gave a little over $2 million. “So many good things came out of it, we’ve touched so many lives of people living with a cancer diagnosis and going through that process. But in addition to what the beneficiary money went to, the event united our community.”

While Linda was enduring her cancer journey, her whole town was looped in on what was happening with her. “When I would have a recurrence, I’d be in the grocery store in tears, because someone would know it was just like everyone knew. And so lightning in a bottle was such a great way to describe it. And then the other thing is because there aren’t a lot of recurrent cervical cancer survivors, especially six, seven-time survivors, I’ve been able to, hopefully, be a voice for other women.”

Linda has formed an educated opinion about cancer information. “Having more information can help all of us patients make better decisions and more informed decisions and talk to the doctors about things that they weren’t necessarily thinking would be specific to you. But getting more information can be a double-edged sword. Sometimes the more information we have, we can fall down rabbit holes and our cancer might not be this exact mutation, and we might read something on the Internet that isn’t necessarily relevant for our own situation. Make sure to talk with your doctor about information that you find.”

As for patients navigating their cancer journeys, Linda feels it’s important for patients to be empowered and to handle their cancer journey how they want to go through it. “Some patients may want someone else directing everything, but that’s their choice. Some people only tell their spouse. I think caregivers need to respect what the patient wants. That doesn’t mean the patient doesn’t need a reminder from time to time that they need to get up and put a smile on once in a while. I wouldn’t want to be the caregiver. It’s so hard for them, since they can fix the cancer.”

Last November, Linda had a scan that showed no evidence of disease, but she remained on pembrolizumab (Keytruda) as a precaution. “I receive it every three weeks through my port, but it’s super easy. I don’t have side effects. It’s 30 minutes. It’s not life-changing at all. So I hope to be on it for a really long long time, and I get scans every three months. I feel great.”

Though she never could have imagined enduring two types of cancer and seven cancer recurrences, Linda remains grateful for the good things that have come from her journey. “My prayer the last two years was, ‘Please let me live and use me as however I need to be used to help other people.’”