Tag Archive for: phase iv

What Happens in Each Phase of a CLL Clinical Trial?

What Happens in Each Phase of a CLL Clinical Trial? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What are the phases of clinical trials? CLL expert Dr. Michael Choi outlines the research purpose of clinical trials and what happens in each phase.

Dr. Michael Choi is a hematologist and medical oncologist at UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center. More information on Dr. Choi here. 

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Transcript:

Laura Beth:

Dr. Choi, can you please walk us through the phases of a clinical trial and what happens during each phase?  

Dr. Choi:

That’s a great question. Yeah, historically, trials have been divided into different phases. The way I think of it is when a drug is first being tested, we don’t want to expose too many people to it, because we’re still learning about the right dose and about its safety. And then, as we learn more and more and maybe get some confirmation that it’s doing what it’s supposed to do, then we have bigger trials and eventually, bring in some comparisons to existing standards.  

So, a Phase I trial is usually, I would say, a few dozen patients, getting the drug for the very first time or sometimes for the first time for this diagnosis. Oftentimes, the very first Phase I trials might have a dose escalation component where the first dose or the first group of patients might get a dose that is based on an assurance that it will be – or some confidence that it will be safe and well-tolerated.  

Then, as the trial goes on, a higher dose will be used once we see that the previous doses are safe. Now, sometimes, this dose escalation happens in between different groups of patients, and sometimes, some trials will escalate the dose for even within an individual patient. But the basic idea of it is to start at doses that we think will be safe and then to gradually escalate it, again, prioritizing the safety of the patients.  

I shouldn’t also – although Phase I trials are designed to determine the safety of a drug, there are many Phase I trials that show clinical activity and benefit to the patients, so I don’t think people should be altogether discouraged from enrolling in a Phase I trial either. 

I can also say that some Phase I trials are just looking at a combination of drugs that we have experience with already, but designed or written as a Phase I trial, because we have to confirm the safety of those two drugs. In those trials, the doses might not be that different than what’s used already, and there’s often more expectation of immediate clinical benefit. Phase II trials are where we’re principally looking or usually looking mainly at the response rate or some sort of clinical endpoint, how many patients get into a partial remission, or how many patients get into a complete remission and so on.  

And I would say these are usually our trials that are 20, 30, 50 patients, to that effect. And basically, from that group of patients, we can get a pretty good estimate of how effective a drug or a drug combination may be. And then finally, the third type of trial, Phase III trial, is when a new drug or a new combination is compared directly to a different – to what would be considered the standard of care at the time.  

So, this is a way that we can get more confidence that this new drug is indeed better than what we’ve been doing up until now.  

CLL Clinical Trials: What Are the Phases?

CLL Clinical Trials: What Are the Phases? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

CLL clinical trials have different phases, but what happens in each phase? CLL expert Dr. Adam Kittai explains the goal of each phase in relation to research and patient care.

Dr. Adam Kittai is a hematologist and an assistant professor at the The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – The James. Learn more about Dr. Kittai, here.

See More from CLL Clinical Trials 201

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Transcript:

Katherine:

Let’s talk a bit about how trials work, starting with the phases. What happens at each phase?  

Dr. Kittai:

There are actually four phases of clinical trials, although three phases are typically what’s talked about. So, Phase I is when we are first introducing the new medication, the combination, or the old medication in a new scenario for the first time in a human being.  

Phase one encompasses a lot of different things. It could be a first in-human phase one, where we’re giving the drug for the first time in a human being. It could be, as I said, the combination of drugs being used for the first time in a human being. Or it could be that we have this drug that works for this other cancer and we’re trying it out on this new cancer. So, we might have experience with this drug in another scenario, but not in the scenario we’re trying to do.  

And the primary purpose of the phase one clinical trial is to see if it’s safe. So, that’s the primary purpose of a phase one clinical trial – see if this new medication, this old medication in this new scenario, or this new combination is safe to use going forward.  

Katherine:

Right. 

Dr. Kittai:

We are able to see if it works to a small degree in the phase one trial, but typically these trials are very small with somewhere between 10 to 50 patients. And so, it’s hard to know how well this works by looking at such a small amount of patients.  

Once the Phase I trial goes forward, we usually go onto Phase II. So, one of the other points about Phase I is to determine the correct dose. Usually in phase ones, we increase the dose of the drug slowly until it meets some sort of toxicity cut-off for our patients. So, once that dose is discovered, then we move onto Phase II, and Phase II is usually a small study, usually about 50-100 patients where we’re looking at preliminary efficacy, to see if this drug, this new combination, or the drug in a new scenario, is actually working.   

And so, Phase II will tell us we think it’s working and if it looks good in phase two, it gets moved onto Phase III. Phase III is the final part of the drug development, where if it passes Phase III, it usually gets approved by the Federal Drug Administration. And Phase III is usually a randomized trial where you’re giving the new drug, the combo, or the old drug in a new situation, and you’re comparing it to whatever’s used as standard of care in that particular scenario.  

Katherine:

Right. 

Dr. Kittai:

And that’s usually a randomized study where patients are either getting the new thing or the old thing. And then, we’re determining which one works better. Lastly is Phase IV, and this is post marketing. So, after a drug gets approved, the drug company and the FDA requires just a wide scope of just data that’s collected to see how well the drug is working and if it’s safe once it’s brought out to the wider community.  

Trustworthy Resources to Help You Learn More About Lung Cancer

Trustworthy Resources to Help You Learn More About Lung Cancer from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Expert Dr. Martin Edelman shares credible resources to help lung cancer patients become informed and empowered.

Dr. Martin J. Edelman is Chair of the Department of Hematology/Oncology and Deputy Director for Clinical Research at Fox Chase Cancer Center. More about this expert here.

View more from Fact or Fiction? Lung Cancer


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Transcript:

Patricia:

Let’s talk a little bit about health literacy. What would you suggest patients use for online resources? What are good resources?

Dr. Edelman:

So, there are some excellent resources. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer has resources for patients. The National Coalition of Comprehensive Cancer Center Network (NCCN) has resources. American Society of Clinical Oncology has resources. So, those or American Cancer Society. So, there are some really reliable sources out there. And there’s a great deal that’s very unreliable – people’s Facebook pages. I’ve seen this.

Patricia:

It’s a big place.

Dr. Edelman:

Everybody always – and I think it’s important for people to understand. There will be people who will get something and have a fantastic response. I’ve used anecdotes.

The anecdotes I’ve used are to illustrate the potential hope of benefit. They’re not exceptions to the rule anymore. They’re the good case scenarios. I could have just as many anecdotes of people who didn’t benefit and stuff. And I think it is important going into this – and that’s why we are reassessing patients constantly and getting repeat scans because we don’t necessarily know always – even if something’s 90 percent effective, it means 10 percent of the time it’s not.

And each patient – we’re getting better at individualizing and personalizing therapy, but we’re not perfect yet. And we probably never will be. So, there will always be anecdotes. I think what’s – as a friend of mine puts it – the plural of anecdotes is not data. When I say, “Well, chemoimmunotherapy works.” It’s not because I have anecdotes of that, though anecdotes illustrate the magnitude of benefit.

I have data that shows that the chemoimmunotherapy regimen was compared to chemotherapy and was clearly and unequivocally superior. When I give a statistic that 60 percent of patients, 65 percent, can benefit from those types of regimens. That’s based upon prospective randomized control trials.