Tag Archive for: cancer

May 2022 Notable News

This month brings exciting and new information to help with the fight on cancer. As technology improves, knowledge gathered about cancer changes how the medical community views and approaches cancer treatment. Early screening is the key to dramatically reduce colon and rectal cancers in women. There is also a rise in esophageal cancers in middle aged adults, early screening plays a key role in patient outcome.

New Evidence Shows Cancer is not as Heritable as Once Thought

Scientists have found that cause of cancer is not primarily genetic as once thought. There are three causes of cancer: genetic (genome), environmental (exposome), and metabolic (metabolome). As cancer develops and spreads in the body, it creates its own environment and introduces certain metabolites. It becomes a self-fueled disease, reports MedicalXpress.com . Looking at how the cancer grows and survives in the body offers another more specific avenue of treatment for physicians to offer their patients. Simple changes to a patient’s metabolism and lifestyle can change the internal environment and prevent the cancer from growing. Scientists looking at all three causes of cancer opens more options for cancer prevention and treatment. Find more information here.

Starting Colon, Rectal Cancer Screening Earlier Reduces Risk in Women, Study Finds

Starting colon and rectal cancer screening at ages 45 to 49 has resulted in about a 50% reduction in cases of the disease diagnosed in women ages 45 to 60, compared with starting screening at ages 50 to 54 reports, UPINews.comColon and rectal cancers are the third deadliest cancers and there has been rising rates among younger people. In response to the rising rates of occurrence, earlier screening has been encouraged by physicians. The standard procedure for screening is a colonoscopy. During the colonoscopy, the doctor can identify and remove cancerous tumors at an earlier stage and remove polyps that could become cancerous. Find more information here.

Alarming Rise Found in Esophageal Cancer and Barrett’s Esophagus in Middle-Aged Adults

Adults ages 45 to 64 experienced a nearly doubled rate of esophageal cancer and a 50 percent increase in the precancerous condition Barrett’s esophagus between 2012 and 2019 reports MedicalXpress.com . This information has prompted doctors and scientists to look at the causes of this rise, is it due to an increase in screening or is it an actual rise in cancer. Doctors use endoscopy to guide a small camera down the patient’s esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Esophageal cancer is usually detected in later stages due to minimal symptoms in the early stages. People with elevated risk factors such as chronic acid reflux, male gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, and Barrett’s esophagus need to get earlier screening. Early screening is the best tool in prevention, often the endoscopy can be done at the same time as the colonoscopy. Find more information here.

May 2022 Digital Health Round Up

This month brings great strides in the advancement of technology available to physicians treating cancer patients. Scientists are using artificial intelligence to help physicians predict cancer reoccurrence for patients, helping patients have better outcomes. New imaging technology, using fluorescent probes, aids in tracking the patient’s cancer drug progress. Researchers have also developed a procedure using photodynamic therapy to help in the fight on colorectal cancer.

AI Tool Accurately Predicts Tumor Regrowth in Cancer Patients

Doctors and scientists have developed an artificial intelligence tool that can accurately predict how likely tumors are to grow back in cancer patients after they have undergone treatment reports, TheGuardian.com. Using this AI for the patients that are at highest risk of having the cancer reoccur helps with getting detection sooner and increases the patients’ chance of a better outcome. Cancer patients carry the burden of worrying about reoccurrence daily, and this AI can help decrease some of that anxiety. Accurate prediction of recurrence can decrease the amount of CT scans for patients, decreasing the amount of radiation that the patients are exposed to. This study tested the AI on lung cancer, but this artificial intelligence tool can be used for many other cancers throughout the body. Find more information here.

Fluorescent Probe Can Track Cancer Drug Progress, Study Shows

Researchers say the fluorescent probe can track how tumors are responding to the drugs, which harness the body’s immune system to fight disease. The light-sensitive technology is able to detect which key immune cells-a small group known as T cells- are involved in attacking tumors reports, MedicalXpress.com . This new imaging technology can show doctors how the patient’s body is responding to the treatment right away. The doctors can see the response through tissue or blood samples and make changes to treatment based on the findings. This imaging allows for a more personal approach to each cancer patient, improving patient outcomes. Find more information here.

Wireless Device to Provide New Options for Colorectal Cancer Treatment

Photodynamic therapy is a new tool available in the fight on colorectal cancer, the third most common cancer. The researchers will use photodynamic therapy (PDT) during surgery by using a photosensitizer- a drug activated by light- to kill the cancer cells. During this process, surgeons will be able to remove the bulk of the tumor, then fully irradiate the tumor bed when the photosensitizer is activated by the light reports, MedicalXpress.com . The primary treatment for colorectal cancer is surgery and chemotherapy, this allows for another option for treatment of this cancer. Using the photodynamic therapy helps the surgeon get out all the cancerous cells, helping to prevent reoccurrence of the cancer. This method of treatment also helps decrease the toxic side effects that chemotherapy has on the body. Photodynamic therapy can be used for treatment of other cancerous tumors throughout the body. Find more information here.

February 2022 Notable News

February brings more innovation in the field of oncology. This month there are many advances for cancer prevention. Scientists are developing a single test for women that can detect and predict the risk of getting four types of cancer. Thanks to new research, doctors have lowered the screening age for colon cancer from age 50 to 45. Finally, a decade long study has proven there is a link between alcohol and some deadly cancers.

Test for Four Types of Women’s Cancer

Scientists are developing a “revolutionary” test to predict a woman’s risk of four cancers using a single sample collected during cervical screening, reports TheGuardian.com . This test uses a cervical tissue sample to spot ovarian, uterine, cervical, and breast cancers. Patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer have the highest risk of death due to it typically being diagnosed in late stages. This cancer has subtle symptoms making it difficult to detect in early stages. Earlier detection could mean stopping the cancer before it even starts in some cases. This test could provide risk scores for patients by assessing genetic footprints that can be tracked over time. These risk scores allow for a more personalized approach to screening, prevention, and detection. Find more information here.

Earlier Screening for Colon Cancer

In the new study, researchers found that Americans in their 20’s and 30’s are seeing the steepest rise in distant-stage colon cancer— later-stage tumors that have spread to other sites in the body reports UPINews.com. The symptoms of colon cancer are changes in bowel habits, blood in stool, abdominal cramps that are persistent, and weight loss for unknown reason. There has been a delay in detection causing a higher mortality rate. Providers are reacting to this rise in colon cancer in younger people by lowering the screening age from 50 to 45. So far, there is not an obvious reason as to the increase in incidence of colon cancer in younger people. Doctors suggest there is a correlation with obesity and diabetes. Screening for colon cancer is a powerful tool for prevention, family history is an important part of this screening. Find more information here.

Link between Alcohol and Cancer

The roughly decade-long study, published last week in the International Journal of Cancer, has confirmed a link between certain types of cancer and the amount of alcohol a person consumes reports Survivornet.com. Cancers included in this study are esophageal cancers, and head and neck cancers. A person with one or both genetic variants show an increased risk. This variant reduces one’s tolerance to alcohol, causing the body to not be able to break down the alcohol. It is also noted that drinking alcohol in combination with smoking puts a person at a much higher risk for cancer. Doctors suggest considering moderation when it comes to drinking alcohol, limiting the number of drinks to four per week. Find more information here.

Cancer Awareness Calendar 2022

January

Cervical Cancer Awareness Month

Blood Donor Month


February

National Cancer Prevention Month

Gallbladder and Bile Duct Cancer Awareness Month

World Cancer Day (February 4, 2022)

National Donor Day (February 14, 2022)

Rare Disease Day (February 28, 2022)


March

Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month

International Women’s Day (March 8, 2022)

Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Day (March 3, 2022)

Kidney Cancer Awareness Month

Multiple Myeloma Awareness Month

Anal Cancer Awareness Day (March 21, 2022)


April

National Cancer Control Month

Esophageal Cancer Awareness Month

Minority Cancer Awareness Month

Minority Health Month

National Oral, Head, and Neck Cancer Awareness Week (April 3-9, 2022)

Testicular Cancer Awareness Month

World Health Day (April 7, 2022)

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Awareness Day (April 21, 2022)


May

Bladder Cancer Awareness Month

Brain Tumor Awareness Month

Cancer Research Month

Clinical Trial Awareness Week

Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness Month

Melanoma Monday (May 2, 2022)

Women’s Check-up Day (May 9, 2022)

Women’s Health Week (May 8-14, 2022)

Skin Cancer Detection and Prevention Month


June

Cancer Survivors Month

Cancer Survivors Day (June 5, 2022)

Men’s Health Week (June 13−19, 2022)


July

UV Safety Awareness Month

Sarcoma and Bone Cancer Awareness Month


 August

Summer Sun Safety Month

World Lung Cancer Day (August 1, 2022)


September

Childhood Cancer Awareness Month

Uterine Cancer Awareness Month

Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Month

Blood Cancer Awareness Month

MPN Awareness Day (September 8, 2022)

Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month

Prostate Cancer Awareness Month

Take a Loved One to the Doctor Day (September 20, 2022)

Thyroid Cancer Awareness Month


October

Breast Cancer Awareness Month

National Mammography Day (October 21, 2022)

Liver Cancer Awareness Month


November

Lung Cancer Awareness Month

National Family Caregiver Month

Carcinoid Cancer Awareness Month

Pancreatic Cancer Awareness Month

Stomach Cancer Awareness Month

January 2022 Digital Health Round Up

Technology has changed the face of healthcare; this new year begins with exciting advances that positively affect the patient and the provider. Providers embracing telemedicine are creating opportunities to change the entire patient experience. The use of AI (artificial intelligence) can take care of tasks that free up more time for providers to spend with the patients. AI is also being used to help identify patients with certain head and neck cancers, that would benefit from lower doses of radiation, decreasing radiation toxicity and side effects for patients.

Healthcare Technology

If you can achieve the right mix of high-tech, high-touch options, you’ve hit the sweet spot for improving equity and accessibility, patient engagement, health outcomes, loyalty, and profitability, reports MedCityNews.com. Telemedicine offers patients a way to seek medical care without missing work and often from the comfort of their own home. With proper education, telemedicine makes healthcare accessible to everyone regardless of language barriers or disabilities. Telemedicine does not replace the hands-on approach of medicine, but it offers interesting and convenient options for patients. During the pandemic, telemedicine has proven to be a powerful tool to stay in touch with patients and keep everyone safer. Find more information here.

Artificial Intelligence to Support Both Caregivers and Patients

In healthcare, as in all fields, the job of AI is not to replace humans, but rather to perform repetitive, tedious and time-consuming tasks so that people don’t have to – freeing time for tasks that require personal touch, reports Enterpeneur.com. AI uses algorithms to predict patient volumes for hospitals, anticipating appropriate staffing for caregivers. AI can quickly sort through images and information saving providers time to get them the appropriate information faster. Humans will always be the ultimate decision makers, but AI can be a tool to help them provide better care. With the increasing demands on providers, time with patients is the most important aspect of their job. Artificial intelligence allows for more efficient use of that time, allowing for better patient outcomes. Find more information here.

Artificial Intelligence to Help Patients Avoid Excessive Radiation

A Case Western Reserve University led team of scientists has used artificial intelligence (AI) to identify which patients with certain head and neck cancers would benefit from reducing the intensity of treatments such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy, reports MedicalXpress.com. The AI program analyzed hundreds of tissue samples from patients with a particular type of head and neck cancer. It was able to pick out some of those patients that could have done well with a lower dose of radiation. Reducing the level of chemotherapy and radiation can significantly reduce some of the toxic side effects of the treatments. Using Artificial Intelligence to achieve this can give the patient better quality of life. There is hope in the future that this application can be used in clinical trials and eventually with other types of cancer as well. Find more information here.

Technology is an important partner to healthcare providers and patients. Every day there are great advances in treatment due to artificial intelligence. The potential of telemedicine is expanding and helpful in our daily lives. Technology is an area of healthcare to follow and see all the benefits it will provide for patients and caregivers alike.

Managing Medical Mistrust: Creating a Healthy, Trust-Based System

If there’s anything “positive” that has come out of the pandemic, it’s that it has brought to light the many disparities that are still prevalent in healthcare. These have translated into disparities in the Covid world based on where people live, their education level and income, and their race, among others.

The same can be said about oncology specifically. Health disparities in the diagnosis and management of cancer can be described as being “higher cancer death rates, less frequent use of proven screening tests, and higher rates of advanced cancer diagnoses.” This was (and still is in some areas) exacerbated by the pandemic, where patients either opted to delay treatment or were told they couldn’t undergo treatment because of the surge of Covid patients in clinics and hospitals. Additionally, there have been delays in patients undergoing screenings for cancers, including colon, cervical, and breast cancers, especially among those of racial and ethnic groups, who already had a decreasing level of access to healthcare services at the beginning of the pandemic.

Undoubtedly, this has increased the level of mistrust in the healthcare system. How are patients supposed to get the care they need? How do providers increase their level of trust with their patients who are already at a disadvantage and have a greater risk of becoming infected with Covid or any other disease? Below are ways the healthcare system can bring patients and providers together to create a healthy, trust-based system:

Providers should:

  • Establish empathy and understanding of patients’ needs and values (and reiterate them back to the patient)
  • Offer different treatment options, if available. Be willing to discuss the pros and cons of each option, including recommendations
  • Discuss clinical trials as a treatment option, if applicable. Yes, healthcare is a business, but instead of a provider seeing it as “giving up” a patient, understanding that the patient’s health and well-being comes first is much more important
  • Work with the patient’s insurance, if necessary, for prior-authorizations on medications and procedures
  • Be honest with your patients. Gauge and/or ask about the amount of information they can handle when providing a diagnosis
  • Tell a patient if they don’t know something and/or if errors have been made. Being vulnerable and transparent in this regard demonstrates that you’re human

Patients should:

  • Be respectful of the physician’s (and other patients’) time during each appointment by bringing in a list of questions that need to be answered
  • Utilize patient portals!
  • Ask questions if unsure of anything spoken about during an appointment, especially medications
  • Be your own advocate when discussing your health (i.e. bring up why certain solutions are important to you)
  • Understand there are multiple patients being taken care of and no one patient’s needs are more or less important than another

Mind The Gap: How To Handle A Cancer-Related Absence In Your Work History

Are you looking for a new job after cancer treatment? Perhaps you left your last employment after your diagnosis, or maybe you are still in your current job but want a fresh start in a new position, one which offers you more flexibility or a new career direction.

If you had to leave a job to undergo treatment, this brings up the question of how to explain those missing months (or years) from your work history. How do you account for this time when updating your resume? Will you be expected to talk about it at an interview?

Let’s start with your resume.

For the moment, put aside any worries you may have about how to explain the gap in your job history. Instead, grab a pen and a piece of paper and list at least ten great qualities and skills you have. Ask your friends and family to help you brainstorm the list if you get stuck.

When it comes to writing your resume, forego the traditional chronologically based CV (listing job titles, companies and dates in chronological order), in favor of a more dynamic skills-based resume. If you really do need to add your work history include the number of years of service, rather than detailed dates.

Go through your list from earlier and circle any skills that relate to the job for which you are applying. Add your skills in bullet point format and under each bullet point, provide an example of an area of accomplishment related to this specific skill.

Review Your Digital Footprint

One of the things that I wish now I was more mindful of at the time of my own diagnosis, is the digital footprint I was leaving for future employers to find. Many of us turn to social media sites and blogs to keep our families and friends updated on our progress and to seek support during cancer treatment. But when your focus returns to work, you may not want your employer or prospective employer to know of your cancer history.

With an increasing number of employers googling prospective candidates, you may want to take some steps to protect your privacy online.

  • Google yourself to see what people who search for you online will find.
  • Set your privacy settings on sites like Facebook and Instagram to high so that nothing will be seen by people who aren’t on your friends and family list.
  • Delete what you can from your postings on Facebook and other media that talk about your cancer.
  • Set up a Google Alert to monitor mentions for your name online.

Create A Professional LinkedIn Profile

When it comes to your digital footprint it’s not all bad news. There is still one social network that you can turn to your advantage when it comes to job seeking. Spending time on creating a professional profile on LinkedIn can be enormously helpful to present the best online impression to prospective employers. Because of the way Google’s search algorithm works, an optimized LinkedIn profile will frequently show up in the first few places of a Google search for your name.

While you may already have a profile on the platform, is it optimized for a job search? LinkedIn profile optimization simply means that your LinkedIn profile is fully updated to maximize your visibility on the platform.

Here are some quick tips to optimize your profile:

  • Make your first visual impression count by displaying a high-quality professional photo.
  • Adding a background image directly behind your photo will help brand your profile. Think of it as your professional billboard.
  • Create a strong professional headline. This is a critical step because your professional headline is not just highly visible on LinkedIn, it’s also searchable by Google.
  • Nurture your LinkedIn relationships through regular engagement. This is not about making large numbers of contacts; rather, it’s about making meaningful connections.
  • Join industry-relevant groups. Job openings are often posted by recruiters in industry groups. You will find groups by clicking on Interests > Groups from your profile or searching keywords to identify groups with interests similar to yours.
  • Be strategic about when you’re active on LinkedIn. As a general rule, LinkedIn users are most active right before and after work (7–8 am and 5– 6 pm), as well as during lunchtime.

Handling The Job Interview

Congratulations, you’ve made it to the interview stage. Remember, you do not have to mention your cancer diagnosis during either the application or interview phase. If an interviewer draws attention to a gap in your career history, have a prepared explanation that you feel comfortable with – for example, you might put the gap down to personal issues that are resolved now. Then turn the conversation back to your strengths and suitability for the job. The more you prepare your answers prior to the interview, the more relaxed and at ease, you will come across during the interview.

Of course, you may decide to be upfront about your cancer diagnosis. Salivary gland cancer survivor and author of Travail et Cancer, [1] Magali Mertens de Wilmars, encourages job seekers to ask themselves “if you want to work for someone who would take the fact that you’re a cancer survivor as a weakness?”

What If You Decide Not To Conceal Cancer?

Everything I’ve written thus far supposes you have finished active treatment. What happens, if, you are, in the words of melanoma patient, Kay Curtin, “a cancer patient, who is well, but will always be in treatment,”? “Would we have the same resistance to disclose if say we were diabetic?” she asks. “How will I be perceived by potential employers, will they want to invest in me or is self-employment the lesser of two stressors?”

My own decision to start a blog after my breast cancer diagnosis sealed my fate for the future. It has forced me to be open about my cancer history, a decision which in turn catalyzed a new (self-employed) direction for my career. For me pivoting my career to patient advocacy is one of the more positive things to emerge from cancer. Perhaps this too will be an opportunity for you to reconsider how, instead of concealing your cancer history, you might use the experience to decide on a new direction for your own life.

Notes

[1] Travail&Cancer (travailetcancer.org)

Understanding the Oncology Care Model

Some of you may have received a letter from your oncologist notifying you that your oncologist is participating in a program called the Oncology Care Model. It was sent out to Medicare patients who are currently being treated by this provider. This letter informs you that you still have all the Medicare rights and protections including which health care provider you see. However, if you do not want to participate in this program, your opting out will require you to find a new provider. This can be very daunting for a patient that has been getting care and have a relationship established. Therefore, I want to give a brief overview of the Oncology Care Model, (OCM).

This program was developed by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (Innovation Center) which was established by the Social Security Act and added to the Affordable Care Act. Its purpose was to test innovative payment and service delivery models to reduce program expenditures and improve quality for Medicare, Medicaid, and Children’s Insurance Program beneficiaries. The practices participating in this program have committed to providing enhanced services to Medicare beneficiaries, which includes care coordination and navigation, and to using national treatment guidelines for care.

Because cancer is such a devastating disease and because a significant proportion of those diagnosed with cancer are over 65 years of age and Medicare beneficiaries, this provided the OCM, CMS, in partnership with oncologists, other providers and commercial health insurance plans, the opportunity to support better quality care, better health, and lower cost for this patient population. It is intended to improve our nation’s health by providing clear measurable goals and a timeline to move Medicare and the US healthcare system toward paying providers on the quality of care rather than the quantity of care that they give their patients.

OCM focuses on Medicare Fee for Services beneficiaries receiving Chemotherapy treatment and includes the spectrum of care provided to a patient during a six-month episode that begins with chemotherapy.

The benefit to the patient would include enhanced services, including

  • The core functions of patient navigation to find other patient-focused resources.
  • A care plan that that meets your needs
  • Patient access 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to an appropriate clinician who has real-time access to the practice’s medical records: and
  • Treatment with therapies consistent with nationally recognized clinical guidelines.

There is no additional cost to patients to participate in this program. Medicare will pay for the full amount of the services. There is however a survey that patients would need to participate in to provide feedback to help improve care for all people with Medicare.

To get a good understanding of this program so that you can make the best decision regarding your care, don’t hesitate to share with your treatment team any questions or concerns you may have. Visit online at www.innovation.cms.gov/initiatives/oncology-care or call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633-4227).

How the Physician Shortage May Affect People With Cancer

Cancer is a journey that no one wants to take. Yet every day, research is yielding new insights into this fierce adversary, technology is equipping patients with powerful new weapons with which to fight, and treatments are emerging which are boosting both survival rates and patients’ overall quality of life.

Because of this, cancer patients are more informed and more empowered than ever before. Unfortunately, however, there are still things about the cancer journey that are outside of the patients’ control. Among these is the persistent, and worsening, physician shortage.

Origins and Impact of the Physician Shortage

Health leaders, healthcare providers, and patients alike have long recognized that the shortage of primary and specialized care physicians is real, enduring, and detrimental to patients and care workers alike. Experts predict that, in the coming years, the field of oncology is likely to be especially adversely affected by the lack of cancer physicians.

According to recent estimates, the number of patients requiring chemotherapy treatment is expected to rise from 9.8 million to more than 15 million by the year 2040. But even as the demand for oncologists is predicted to surge in coming years, the supply of practicing specialists continues to shrink as current practitioners reach retirement age and leave the field.

The Impact on Cancer Patients

In the face of a physician shortage fueled by rising retirement rates and surging demand, cancer patients may expect some significant changes in how they receive treatment.

The Increasing Role of Nurses

As the physician shortage worsens, nurses are increasingly stepping in to fill the care gap. Not only are nurse practitioners gaining the authority to provide comprehensive patient care, but many nursing specialists including Doctors of Nursing Practice (DNP) are coordinating clinical practices, providing nursing training, and conducting advanced research to optimize patient care.

As healthcare providers turn to high-level roles other than that of the MD, cancer patients should expect to receive care from an array of practitioners, including experts in nursing practices. Cancer patients will benefit from this by having more options to tailor their treatment plans to their particular needs, goals, and values.

For example, DNPs are often strongly connected to clinical research. For patients who are also interested in participating in clinical trials, a DNP can empower patients by offering guidance, support, and access to experimental treatments that might otherwise not have been available through more traditional care methods.

The Ascendancy of Telehealth

In addition to receiving significant amounts of care from nurses and related specialists, the physician shortage is likely to also change cancer treatment through a greater emphasis on telehealth. Though telehealth long predates the outbreak of COVID-19, its efficacy as a treatment tool for the most vulnerable patient populations was truly revealed during the height of the pandemic.

For example, at-risk patients were able to access their healthcare team through virtual consultations from the safety of their own homes without risking exposure to the virus. During this process, many realized that telehealth could streamline healthcare processes and reduce pressure on the overall healthcare system.

As the physician shortage worsens, the healthcare system will likely turn increasingly to telehealth to ensure consistency and quality of care while driving system efficiency. In addition, technologies such as health apps and remote patient monitoring devices will allow healthcare teams to maintain a close watch over patients whenever and wherever needed, reducing the need for hospitalizations and clinical consultations.

The Impact of COVID-19

In addition to the rising tide of planned retirements, the devastating impacts of COVID-19 on healthcare providers are likely to contribute to the physician shortage. As new coronavirus variants emerge and the pandemic worsens, physicians are at significant risk of burnout due both to physical and emotional fatigue.

In light of this, cancer patients will likely notice an increased prioritization of infectious disease prevention in their treatment plan. For example, physicians are increasingly finding themselves battling vaccine hesitancy. For doctors who have dedicated their lives and careers to caring for cancer patients, misconceptions regarding the safety and efficacy of vaccines, and the loss of life such misinformation may lead to, can take a devastating toll on healthcare workers.

As a result, cancer patients are likely to find that vaccinations and boosters are strongly encouraged by healthcare providers as an essential standard of care. As vaccine acceptance rates grow, particularly regarding the COVID vaccine, not only will patients be more protected, but the psychological burden of care and risk of attrition for healthcare providers will also ease.

The Takeaway

The physician shortage is impacting patients and healthcare providers alike. However, cancer patients are likely to feel the impacts of this shortage most strongly. As a result of the shortfall, approaches to care will likely change to rely on specialty practitioners and telehealth technologies, and disease prevention will increasingly become a priority.

What Do You Need to Know About Metastatic Breast Cancer Genetic Testing?

What Do You Need to Know About Metastatic Breast Cancer Genetic Testing? from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Why is it important to ask about metastatic breast cancer genetic testing? Find out how test results could reveal more about YOUR breast cancer and could help determine the most effective treatment approach.

See More From INSIST! Metastatic Breast Cancer

Related Resources:

What Do Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients Need to Know About Genetic Testing

What Do Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients Need to Know About Genetic Testing?

How Can You Ensure You’ve Had Essential Metastatic Breast Cancer Testing (1)

How Can You Ensure You’ve Had Essential Metastatic Breast Cancer Testing?

What Questions Should Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients Ask Before Starting a Treatment Plan

What Questions Should Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients Ask Before Starting a Treatment Plan?


Transcript:

Why should you ask your doctor about metastatic breast cancer genetic testing?

The National Comprehensive Cancer Network – also known as the NCCN – recommends that every metastatic breast cancer patient undergo genetic testing. The test results can help predict how your cancer may behave and could indicate that one type of treatment is more effective than another.

This testing identifies specific gene mutations, proteins, chromosomal abnormalities, and/or other molecular changes that are unique to YOU and YOUR breast cancer.

There are two main types of genetic tests used in breast cancer:

  • Germline or hereditary genetic testing, which identifies inherited gene mutations in the body. These mutations are present from birth, can be shared among family members and be passed on to subsequent generations.
  • The second is somatic or tumor genetic testing, which identifies markers that are unique to the cancer itself. It is also commonly referred to as genomic testing, biomarker testing, or molecular profiling. Somatic mutations are NOT inherited or passed down from family member to family member.
  • Depending on your history, your doctor may order one–or both–of these types of tests.

So why do the test results matter?

  • If you have specific gene mutations – such as the BRCA1 or BRCA2 inherited gene mutations – it could indicate that a targeted treatment approach may be the most effective option. For example, there are two oral targeted therapies that are approved specifically for use in metastatic patients with BRCA1-positive or BRCA2-positive breast cancer.
  • Results of these tests may also help you to find a clinical trial that may be appropriate for your particular cancer.
  • Additionally, results from germline genetic testing may suggest that close family members should also be tested to determine their risk.

How can you insist on the best breast cancer care?

  • First, always speak up and ask questions. Remember, you have a voice in YOUR breast cancer care.
  • Ask your doctor if you have had–or will receive–genetic testing, including germline and somatic testing.
  • If you have already undergone genetic testing, bring a copy of your results to your current doctor, so they can understand your results and determine whether additional testing is needed.
  • Have a discussion with your healthcare team about the test results – including which markers were detected and how results may impact your care and treatment plan.
  • Ask whether your family members should meet with a genetic counselor or undergo testing to help gauge their risk of developing breast cancer.
  • And, finally, bring a friend or a loved one to your appointments to help you process and recall information.

To learn more about breast cancer and to access tools for self-advocacy, visit powerfulpatients.org/breastcancer

Ten Things You Should Never Say To A Person With Cancer…And One Thing You Should

I get it. People so often just don’t know what to say to someone with cancer.

It’s a shock when someone you care about has received a life-changing diagnosis. Our natural instinct at times of trouble is to rush in with well-meaning phrases and encouraging thoughts.

It may feel to the person saying these things that they are being supportive, but it’s all too easy to say the wrong thing.

So what should you avoid saying to a cancer patient? The following list includes some of the most common things that we in the cancer community have heard from well-wishers. At the end of the list I share the one thing I would have most liked to have heard instead.

1. You’ll beat this

Probably the top-most thing that people say when they want to be supportive is that you’re strong and will beat cancer. While we all hope for the best outcome, we cannot actually be sure of the outcome of the disease for anyone. As breast cancer blogger Nancy Stordahl writes in What Does Beating Cancer Mean Anyway? [1] ”Struggling to live up to some gold standard of what beating cancer means, adds to the already exhausting burden. We need to stop patronizing and judging cancer patients based on misguided battle talk analogies. Cancer isn’t an opponent in some war game you can stomp out by mindset or determination.”

2. You’re so brave

An extension of “you’ll beat this.” This can come across as quite patronizing – especially when it’s followed by a statement like “I couldn’t do it.” The truth is we don’t feel particularly brave, we just don’t have a choice. We do what we have to do to get through treatment the best we can. By promoting belief in bravery and stoicism in the face of cancer, society creates unfair expectations of cancer patients and deprives us of an outlet for our darker fears.

3. My aunt had the same cancer and she was cured

While I’m happy your aunt recovered from cancer, no two cancers are alike. Cancer is a complicated disease and chances are her cancer is not the same as mine. An alternative version of this statement concerns an aunt who died from the “same cancer”. Please don’t go there with us.

4. What’s your prognosis? What are your odds of surviving?

Never, ever ask anyone this question. It is highly personal, intrusive, and insensitive. Enough said.

5. Have you tried [insert latest miracle supplement or diet]. I hear it can cure cancer.

There’s no shortage of advice urging cancer patients to eat a particular food, juice religiously, or try a miracle supplement, however, there’s no scientific evidence that these work and many are downright harmful.

6. The stress of [your divorce, bereavement, job loss] probably caused your cancer.

This is a variation of the “you’re to blame” for getting cancer brigade. “Did you smoke?” asked of lung cancer patients. “Did you breastfeed?” directed at breast cancer patients. All said with the implication that you should/shouldn’t have done a certain thing and really it’s your own fault for getting cancer. In fact, using a statistical model that measures the proportion of cancer risk, across many tissue types, scientists from the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center published a study in 2015 which concluded that two-thirds of the variation in adult cancer risk across tissues can be explained primarily by “bad luck.” In other words, a major contributing factor to cancer is in fact beyond anyone’s control.

7. But you don’t look sick

This sounds almost accusatory. As if to be a card-carrying cancer patient you must look the part of a cancer “sufferer”. As cancer patients, we have good days and bad days. On the good days, we look just fine. Other days not so much. How we look is not a reflection of what we are going through.

8. It’s only hair, it will grow back

On the flip side of #7, there are those comments you receive when you do show signs of being a cancer patient. When you lose your hair after starting chemotherapy, you may find your distress dismissed with “it’s only hair, it will grow back” or “lucky you have a nice shaped-head – you can carry off the bald look”.

9. Look on the bright side, at least you will lose weight without having to diet

The crassness of this statement seems hard to believe – but yes, it has been said to cancer patients. Another variation on the looking on the bright side theme – breast cancer patients quite often have to deal with people saying to them “at least you’ll get a free boob job.”

10. You must stay positive

I’ve saved the best for last. Ok, I admit that I caved in when I was first diagnosed with breast cancer to the pressure to be positive because it reassured the people around me. While I accept that for some people, maintaining a positive attitude is a valid coping mechanism, for myself, and for many others, being asked to always show our sunny side is a denial of the times we are in pain, anxious, and afraid.

So what should you say to someone with cancer?

Sometimes there are no right words to say. Sometimes the best you can do is listen, without judgment, without offering any well-meaning advice.

Author Rachel Naomi Remen says it better than I ever could.

“Perhaps the most important thing we ever give each other is our attention…. A loving silence often has far more power to heal and to connect than the most well-intentioned words.”

Having listened first, you could then say something like the following:

“I can’t begin to understand what you are going through/ I am so sorry you have to go through this. I am here for you. What one thing can I do for you right now?”

Knowing we’ve been heard and understood opens up a space for us to feel freer to ask for what we truly need at this moment.


[1] Nancy’s Point What Does Beating Cancer Mean Anyway?

Tips for Navigating Your Rights as a Cancer Patient

According to the CDC, 650,000 cancer patients receive chemotherapy at outpatient clinics each year. Some have to go through different types of treatment along the way. Others need in-home care or prescription medications. Some might need more than the standard when it comes to rounds of chemo.

Whatever the case, when you’re a cancer patient, you’re more than a number. There is no “cookie-cutter” way of doing things, which is why it’s important to know your rights and stand up for them throughout the treatment process.

It’s understandable to feel nervous and even overwhelmed by a cancer diagnosis. But, if you choose to take charge of your rights and be an empowered patient, you’ll be more comfortable and encouraged throughout treatment. Let’s take a look at a few of those rights and how you can navigate through them to stay safe and informed.

The Right to Informed Consent

Information is your best friend as a cancer patient. That’s why it’s so important to work with a team of medical professionals you trust. With that, you have the right to informed consent about any suggested treatment option. The basics of informed consent include:

  • Explaining information so you can make a decision
  • Your ability to make a decision
  • Your understanding of the information
  • Your voluntary decisions about treatment

Nearly every scenario throughout your treatment process should require informed consent. Everything from surgeries to advanced medical testing should be thoroughly discussed before your healthcare provider does anything.

Not only will informed consent make you more comfortable with procedures, but it can also help to promote your safety. You have the right to feel safe as a patient. If there is a procedure you’re not comfortable with, it’s your choice to say no. Alternatively, you can ask for more information from your doctor. Don’t be afraid to participate in major decisions about your care. This is your life, after all.

Because of the constant improvements in healthcare and technology, you might end up being okay with a procedure that you were hesitant about. Give your provider the chance to explain those advancements to you by questioning things when you’re uncomfortable.

The Right to Privacy

Cancer can often feel like a very public thing. Families and friends regularly get involved. Some people even make groups on social media to show support throughout treatment. Those are great ways to feel surrounded by love and to gather strength from others.

But, not everything about your treatment should be public.

Thanks to the HIPAA act of 1996, you have the right to obtain your medical records. You also have the right to the privacy of those records. It’s up to you who can view them and who can obtain them (and for what purposes). Improper access can cause serious consequences. As a patient, it’s important to know who can legally view your records and who can’t.

Keep in mind that most medical records include everything from doctors’ notes to medical test results. Knowing who can see them and what they can be used for can offer you peace of mind and let you know they aren’t just being passed around to everyone for no reason.

The Right to Clear Information

Perhaps the most important and impactful right you have as a cancer patient is the right to clear and concise information. The other two rights listed here can easily fall under the umbrella of this one. Without being educated on every last detail of your treatment, you could go into it with fear, confusion, or without 100% certainty that it’s what you want.

Informed consent covers some of that. Your doctors should explain to you what you can expect from each step of treatment. But, clear information goes beyond the treatment itself.

You also have a right to know the details of every service and what it will cost. If you’re someone without insurance or if your plan won’t cover it, you might consider opting for something else. Unfortunately, medical care in this country isn’t currently an inherent right. That means there are some gaps in financial support that can impact your treatment. Some government assistance programs can help you fill in those gaps. For example, Medicare Part A covers:

  • Inpatient care
  • Skilled nursing care
  • Hospice care
  • Home services

Medicare Part B can also cover many of the prescription drugs often associated with clear treatment. If you happen to need multiple MRIs during your treatment, Medicare can also help as long as you’re in a hospital that accepts it. These are things to speak with your doctor about ahead of time. While your financial situation shouldn’t have to determine your treatment, it might come down to that for some people.

Cancer is a difficult thing to deal with, but it becomes even harder when you don’t fight for your rights. Keep these rights in mind as you navigate through treatment. Knowing what you deserve can help you to feel more empowered in a time where things might seem uncertain and overwhelming.

Which Metastatic Breast Cancer Treatment Is Right for You? What You Need to Know

Which Metastatic Breast Cancer Treatment Is Right for You? What You Need to Know from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

What do you need to know before deciding which treatment is best for YOUR metastatic breast cancer? Expert Dr. Jane Meisel reviews recent research news, discusses the role of key tests–including biomarker testing –in determining a treatment plan, and shares advice for self-advocacy.

Jane Lowe Meisel, MD is an Associate Professor of Hematology and Medical Oncology at Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University. Learn more about Dr. Meisel, here.

[Editor’s Note: On August 23, 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for individuals 16 years of age and older.]

Download Program Guide

See More From INSIST! Metastatic Breast Cancer

Related Resources:

 

What Could Advances in Breast Cancer Research Mean for You?

How Can You Advocate for the Best Breast Cancer Care?

Factors That Guide a Metastatic Breast Cancer Treatment Decision

 


Transcript:

Katherine:

Hello and welcome. I’m Katherine Banwell, your host for today’s program. In today’s webinar, we’ll discuss how you can access the most personalized metastatic breast cancer therapy for your individual disease and why it’s vital to insist on key testing. Before we meet our guest, let’s review a few more important details. The reminder email you received about this program contains a link to program materials.

If you haven’t already, click that link to access information to follow along during the webinar. At the end of this program, you’ll receive a link to a program survey. Please take a moment to provide feedback about your experience today, in order to help plan future webinars. And finally, before we get into the discussion, please remember, this program is not a substitute for seeking medical advice. Please refer to your healthcare team – Please refer to your healthcare team about what might be best for you.

All right, let’s meet our guest today. Joining us is Dr. Jane Meisel. Dr. Meisel, welcome. Would you please introduce yourself?

Dr. Meisel:

Absolutely and thank you so much for having me. My name is Jane Meisel and I’m a medical oncologist at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University. I’ve been here for about six years and before that, I did my training in Boston and at Memorial Sloan-Kettering in New York. And I specialize in breast cancer and have had a lot of great opportunities to treat amazing patients and participate in a lot of research.

And I’m looking forward to having this discussion with you today.

Katherine:

Thank you for joining us, we really appreciate it. So, let’s start by discussing the latest developments in treatment and research updates. Are there recent developments you feel breast cancer patients should know about?

Dr. Meisel:

Absolutely and I think it’s really been such a remarkable time because even during COVID, a pandemic, where I think a lot of people worried that research efforts would shut down or stall. We’ve still seen the approval of a number of drugs in the past year that’ve really already markedly changed lives. And a lot of important findings that’ve come out of other trials that they have opportunity to do that as well.

I think some of the biggest information that was presented at our most recent large meeting, which was the American Society of Clinical Oncology, or ASCO National Meeting in 2021, were a few things that pertain to the metastatic breast cancer population. One was two studies, the PALOMA-3 Trial and the MONALEESA-3 Trial, which looked at a class of drugs called CDK4-6 inhibitors along with anti-estrogen pills in metastatic estrogen-positive breast cancer.

And really confirm for patients that not only do these drugs improve the amount of time that people can stay on treatment before their cancer progresses, but actually improve how long people live. Even when they’re used very, very early on in treatment, they impact survival down the line for many, many years. So, it really confirms for physicians like me that this class of drugs should be used as the standard of care and first line for patients with estrogen-positive stage IV breast cancer, and I think that’s important for patients to know. Along those lines, there a drug called sacituzumab govitecan, or Trodelvy, which is a much easier to say name.

Katherine:

Yes.

Dr. Meisel:

A new antibody drug conjugate in triple-negative metastatic breast cancer. And we’ve also seen, since this drug was approved last year, it has markedly changed the lives of many patients with triple-negative disease. And the study called the ascent trial, which is what led to that drug’s approval was studied further and some of these additional results presented at ASCO this year.

And found that this drug not only improves again, how long people get before they have to move on to another treatment, but actually improves how long people live as well, even when given later on in the course of therapy. So again, really encouraging use especially in triple-negative metastatic disease, which is hard to treat. And I think another study that’s really worth patients and doctors taking a hard look at, was actually a study that looked at patient outcomes and patient experience. This is a study that actually talked with metastatic patients and gathered their views on treatment related adverse effects.

Talked to patients about what adverse effects they were experiencing from drugs. How they managed those adverse effects. And found that most patients, over 90%, will be willing to talk about reducing the dose of drugs or changing dosing schedules, in order to improve quality of life. And I think that’s really important because a lot of times, the doses of drugs that get approved are the doses that are the highest doses that don’t cause extreme toxicity. But sometimes people can have effective, really good outcomes on lower doses and have much better quality of life.

And in metastatic breast cancer where really the goal often times is to help people live as long as they can, but also as importantly, as well as they can, be able to have those open-ended conversations between patients and doctors about what’s really impacting your quality of life now and how can we make that better is important. And this study I think really highlighted that both for patients and physicians, how important that back and forth is to having a successful outcome. Both in terms of how life is lived, but in terms of quality of that life.

Katherine:

Right. Right. How can patients stay up to date on developing research?

Dr. Meisel:

It’s so interesting because there is so much coming out and I think it can be hard to figure out what Phase I study that looks exciting is really going to become something, versus what really could be important in my treatment today. And what I always tell people is actually, the NCI website. So, the National Cancer Institute, has a phenomenal page looking at advances in breast cancer research. So, if you Google “NCI advances in breast cancer research,” there’s a great page that comes up. And it’s impressively up to date and I think very patient-friendly.

Breaks things down into early stage and metastatic and then in the metastatic section, talks about estrogen-positive, HER2-positive, triple-negative, which we can talk about more today but are the three big subtype of metastatic disease that dictate how we treat them. And then have links to all the different research updates and talk about what these drugs are, what the classes are and what the settings are in which they’re studied.

And so, I think that’s a really great first stop and then the links can take you to all different stuff that’s on the page that you might want to look into more in depth. And then also, the Breast Cancer Research Foundation, which is a phenomenal organization. They have a great website, too and if you click around on the website, you can see not only who they’ve donated money to that’s doing promising research, they also have podcasts, they have a blog with science and research news. I think that’s a really great site for patients to use to stay updated.

Katherine:

Let’s shift gears for a moment and talk about another time sensitive topic, COVID. Now that vaccines are available, are they safe and effective for breast cancer patients?

Dr. Meisel:

Yeah, I think the short answer to that is yes, absolutely. I’m encouraging all my patients, no matter what their treatment status is to go ahead and get vaccinated. And we are seeing now this third surge in COVID with cases rising all over the country, and really among unvaccinated populations. And with the delta variant being more transmissible, I think it’s all the more time, even if you haven’t considered vaccination up until now, to really go ahead and strongly consider getting a vaccine.

I think some of the hesitations that some of the people have talked to me about is that there were not a lot of active cancer patients, if any, included in the initial trials. And whereas that is true, it’s still the case that now, so many cancer patients have been vaccinated. We haven’t really heard about adverse effects in vaccination being something that’s higher in patients who have cancer who are on active treatment. I think the one challenge is, if you have a compromised immune system because of cancer treatment, there’s the possibility that you might not mount the same immune response to the vaccine as someone who doesn’t have cancer or isn’t getting active treatment.

So, while I would say yes, definitely get vaccinated, I would also at the same time encourage caution in saying, because you might not mount the same, 95 percent or whatever immune response, it may still be a good idea to wear a mask when you go to the grocery store, taking those precautions because no one really knows what’s coming and it’s better to be safe than sorry. But I think we will get a lot of information as the months go on about, do we need boosters? Who might need boosters more soon than others and some of that will get clarified for us, but my short answer would be yes, vaccines for all.

Katherine:

Excellent, that’s very helpful.

Dr. Meisel:

Thank you.

Katherine:

Since this webinar is focused on metastatic disease, would you define metastatic breast cancer for us?

Dr. Meisel:

Absolutely. And I think metastatic breast cancer is one of those terms that as doctors, we throw around a lot and often times don’t stop to check understanding as to what that means.

And what metastatic breast cancer is and means, is breast cancer that is spread outside of the breast and surrounding lymph nodes to another organ system. So, metastatic breast cancer, some of the most common places where it spreads are to the bone, to the skin, to the lungs, to the liver, to the brain. There are other places it can spread to. I’ve seen it on the ovaries, in the GI tract. But basically, when breast cancer spreads outside of the breast and surrounding lymph nodes to another organ system, that’s when we consider it metastatic.

Katherine:

How can a patient ensure they are getting an accurate diagnosis?

Dr. Meisel:

Another good question. And I think the most important thing when you’re considering whether or not you have a diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer is to get a biopsy of that metastatic site. So, you wouldn’t want to assume, just based on a CT scan that shows something in the bone that you have metastatic disease. Ideally, we would biopsy that spot or some spot that was indicative of metastatic disease to actually prove that there is metastatic cancer in that distant site.

Because sometimes it’s nothing. Sometimes you get scans and a little bone abnormality, maybe a scar from a prior fall. And then also, sometimes if it is metastatic, sometimes the breast cancer, the hormone receptor status, for example, can change from the primary site to the metastatic site. And that might impact treatment. So, it’s important to both get a metastatic biopsy to confirm diagnosis. And also, to understand what the treatment plan might be. And I think also for patients, just to make sure that you understand what your stage is, ask your doctor.

Say, what is my stage? Because sometimes doctors think people understand and they don’t actually, so checking that understanding is important. But if your doctor or provider is not actively checking your understanding, you can check it with them to make sure that if you are metastatic or have Stage IV disease, which is another way we define metastatic or talk about metastatic cancer, that you make sure you have the definition right.

Katherine:

Right, right. So, once someone has been diagnosed with metastatic disease, are there key tests that’re used to help understand how their disease may behave and progress?

Dr. Meisel:

Absolutely. So, I think the first thing as I said is that metastatic biopsy. Another thing that’s very important is understanding the hormone receptor status and the HER2 status of the breast cancer. And probably for a lot of you listening, if you have listened to metastatic breast cancer webinars before or maybe know someone or have had a diagnosis yourself, you’re well versed in this. But for some who may not be, I think a quick overview is maybe helpful. Breast cancer can be divided into three different subtypes. So, triple-negative, estrogen-positive or HER2-positive. And estrogen-positive breast cancer is the most common kind.

That tends to be driven by hormones and often treated with what we call, endocrine therapy. So, anti-estrogen pills, things like Tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors are examples of that. And that’s one kind. And then there’s HER2-positive breast cancer, which is a type of breast cancer that over expresses a marker called HER2. And we now, since we know about that marker, have been able to develop a lot of different treatments that target HER2 selectively.

And can be used to treat that subtype. And then triple-negative is basically estrogen-negative, progesterone-negative and HER2-negative. And that type of breast cancer traditionally was treated essentially only with chemotherapy. But now we’ve had some breakthroughs, which we’ll talk about I think later in this program talking about immunotherapy and more targeted therapy for that. But those subtypes help determine how we treat patients. And it also can sometimes predict behavior.

I would say one of the other things that helps us predict behavior of metastatic disease is, if a patient had early-stage disease before, how quickly they developed metastatic disease. So, for example, someone who develops estrogen-positive metastatic breast cancer 12 years out from their original diagnosis is statistically more likely to have a slower progressing course of disease than someone who develops triple-negative metastatic disease very soon after their initial treatment. So, I would say that’s the primary thing we look at in terms of determining treatment plan and then predicting overall course.

Katherine:

Right. Well, let’s talk about treatment options for advanced disease.

Can you review the types of treatments available for metastatic breast cancer?

Dr. Meisel:

Absolutely. And what I’ll do is, I’ll give you a broad overview and then because there’s so much and this is such a rich environment, I mean, I give hour long lectures just about the treatment of metastatic triple-negative breast cancer to our fellows. So, there is so much meaty information here. But I’ll give an overview with some key buzzwords so then people can go look up things that matter more to them or interest them more. So, as I said, we start with thinking about, is this hormone receptor-positive or estrogen-positive breast cancer? Is this HER2-positive or is this triple-negative? And those factors really send us down different paths.

So, if someone is estrogen-positive, I had mentioned before the PALOMA and MONALEESA studies showing that CDK4-6 inhibitors, which is a class of drugs that the first one was approved in 2015 and then two others have been approved subsequently. So, relatively new drugs. But those drugs, which are pills, added to traditional anti-estrogen therapy which would be aromatase inhibitors or fulvestrant.

Are often great first-line options for these patients. And people can do well for years on just that alone, with estrogen-positive metastatic breast cancer. On average, about two years before people progress and need something new. And then after that, there are lots of trials ongoing looking at different ways in which an estrogen-positive breast cancer might progress on that regiment and how do we target that. So that there are multiple other anti-estrogen options down the line that people can use in estrogen-positive breast cancer before they need to even think about going on to something like chemotherapy.

So, really lots and lots of options for those patients, but probably starting with a CDK4-6 inhibitor plus anti-estrogen combination. And then in HER2-positive breast cancer, typically the first-line treatment would be what we call monoclonal antibodies directed at HER2. So, something like Herceptin and Perjeta, which you may have heard of. And often combined with chemotherapy. But again, this is one of those areas that is also very, I think the art of medicine is very important and patient dependent.

Some of these regiments depend a little bit on patient’s age and other medical problems and desires, whether to include chemotherapy along with that frontline anti-HER2 regimen. Or whether to think about something like anti-estrogen therapy if the patient is HER2-positive and estrogen-positive. And then there are a lot of other different things we’re also using in HER2-positive disease after patients progress on that initial therapy, so there are what we call, antibody drug conjugates, where a chemotherapy like drug is attached to an antibody that then brings the chemo to the HER2-positive cell and allows for chemotherapy penetration more directly.

And then a class of drugs called tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which are oral drugs that get directed at HER2. So, another really exciting area to treat and a place where we’ve seen so many advances. And then in triple-negative breast cancer, I’d mentioned that chemotherapy has really been the mainstay of treatment historically because there weren’t great targets. But recently we’ve seen that immunotherapy, along with chemotherapy drugs like Keytruda, which you may have heard of.

Or atezolizumab, which is Mesenteric, can be used along with chemo and patients that overexpress a molecule called, PDL1. And that can actually include not just how long patients spend on the first treatment, but how long they live. So, we’re seeing a lot of triple-negative patients being great candidates for immune-based regimen now. And then for patients who have inherited a BRCA gene mutation, which many of you may have heard of. That gene mutation can actually predispose a triple-negative patient to be more receptive to a class of drugs called PARP inhibitors.

So, drugs like olaparib (Lynparza) or talazoparib (Talzenna) are new drugs that’ve been approved in the last couple of years in triple-negative metastatic breast cancer for patients who carry a BRCA1 mutation or BRCA2 mutation. And then there are also antibody drug conjugates in triple-negative breast cancer as well. The Trodelvy that’s been approved and then of course others that are in clinical trials currently. So, as you can see, it’s complex. I mean, the treatment of metastatic breast cancer is complicated. And so, it’s important I think to really be able to have a dialogue with your provider about what they’re recommending for you and why.

And I think there are often lots of options. And so, as much as you can make your doctor aware of what matters to you in terms of what side effects are you most afraid of or would you like most to avoid, what dosing schedules would be idea for your schedule for the rest of your life. So that you can deal with taking kids to school or the job that you’re currently working on or whatever, I think helps your doctor help you come up with the right regiment for you.

Katherine:

Yeah. Yeah. So, what factors are considered when deciding on the best treatment approach for an individual patient?

Dr. Meisel:

So, I think certainly the tumor type that we were talking about. Is it estrogen-positive or HER2-negative or HER2-positive? I think response to past treatments, both in terms of if someone has had metastatic disease for a long time and has had a few treatments already, how long did they respond to those treatments and how completely did they respond to those treatments. Did they have stable disease for a while or did their cancer actively shrink?

And then I think other than that, it would be some of the things I touched on. Side effect profiles. Do patients have pre-existing neuropathy from other chemotherapy? If so, maybe you want to avoid a regiment that causes more neuropathy. Schedule. Some patients, it’s really important to be on a certain schedule, as opposed to a different schedule. I think whether there are clinical trials available instead of whatever the standard of care regiment would be is also important.

Because for some patients who are interested in pushing the envelope or who might be a great candidate for a particular trial, if there is one that they’re a candidate for that’s not horribly inconvenient from a logistics standpoint, then trials I think are also a great option to consider. So, I think from an effectiveness standpoint, you want to think about the tumor type response to past treatments. And then potentially, if the patient has had, what we call genomic profiling, where the tumor has been sent for basically genomic analysis, to see what genes might be mutated in the tumor that could potentially drive a response to a newer, different therapy.

All those things can be taken into account as we think about the cancer. But then there is the patient specific factors, and I think those would be mainly side effects, schedule, clinical trials and desire or not to pursue those. And then, just what the patient’s perspective is on the plan that you’re offering them.

Katherine:

What is biomarker testing and how do results impact treatment options?

Dr. Meisel:

Great question. So, I think people often confuse germline mutations and somatic mutations. So, I’ll talk about that a little bit as we talk ab out biomarkers. So, I think biomarkers in general are factors within the tumor that allow us to make treatment decisions. So, if a biomarker in the tumor can predict response to a certain type of treatment, we want to know what that biomarker is so we can better treat the patient and more elegantly design a regimen. So, for example, having an estrogen-positive tumor, estrogen positivity is a biomarker suggestive of response to anti-estrogen treatments, which is why we give anti-estrogen therapy to ER-positive breast cancers.

But more recently, we’ve been able to move a little bit beyond estrogen, HER2- and triple-negative as our subtypes and think a little bit more in some patients about more sophisticated biomarkers. And that’s where somatic mutation testing comes in. So, there are germline mutations, which are inherited mutations that’re present in every cell in your body. So, for example, if your mother was a BRCA mutation carrier and based that BRCA mutation down to you, you would have a germline BRCA mutation. So, your cancer would carry a BRCA mutation, but so would every other cell you have.

And that’s a biomarker. That would make you a candidate for something like a PARP inhibitor. But in cancers, which the genes in the cancer have gone awry by definition, there are often other biomarkers within that tumor that may make you a candidate for certain treatments. And so, those mutations that arise in the cancer itself are called, somatic mutations. Those are mutations in the tumor, can’t be passed down to your offspring or anything like that and were not inherited by your parents. But mutations that’ve accumulated over time as these cancer cells have gone awry.

And so, genomic testing, or biomarker testing can be done often on a metastatic specimen. So, to be specific about it, say you had a metastatic breast cancer to the liver. You could have a liver biopsy done and that tissue from the liver biopsy could be sent for genomic testing. There are a lot of companies that do this and there are also some larger cancer centers that actually do in house testing for genomics. So, this testing can be done and what it does then is, it helps you determine, do you have a biomarker that predisposes you to a certain treatment.

So, if that metastatic liver tissues, for example contained high levels of PBL1 expression for example and you were triple-negative, that would say to your doctor, “Ooh, this is a great candidate for immunotherapy along with chemotherapy.” Or if you’re estrogen-positive, for example, and your tumor contains a mutation in the gene called PIK3CA and that might make you a candidate for a drug called, alpelisib (Piqray). So, these mutations could often be paired to a drug or treatment options, or sometimes to a clinical trial to allow patients to come take advantage of more targeted therapies.

That sometimes, because they’re targeted, have fewer side effects than drugs that are a little more discriminate.

Katherine:

Marie sent in this question prior to the program. Are there some genetic tests that’re more accurate than others?

Dr. Meisel:

That’s a good question. I would say most genetic testing platforms have been heavily vetted and approved by national organizations and laboratories that’ve been tested multiple times before they’re allowed to be marketed. So, I wouldn’t say that one genetic testing program is necessarily better than another. I think that any of the commercially available platforms that’re used are probably pretty accurate.

Katherine:

Okay. How does symptom management play into the treatment decision?

Dr. Meisel:

I was just going to add one thing to that, if that’s okay. I was going to say that I think it’s important when you’re using genetic testing platforms though to know what you’re testing for. So, there are some platforms that will just test for say, the three most common mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 that Ashkenazi Jews have.

And so, if you get that testing back and you’re negative, you might think oh, I don’t have a mutation in those genes. Well, we know from that testing, just as an example, is that you don’t have a mutation in those three alleles of that gene. But if you haven’t had full gene sequencing, you could have a mutation somewhere else in that gene. So, I would say all genetic testing that’s commercially available is probably pretty accurate. But it is important when you get testing done to know what you’re testing for and what you’re not testing for so you can interpret your results accurately. And genetic counselors, as well as your doctors can help you do that.

Katherine:

Right, right. Okay, I’m going to ask the question, this question again. How does symptom management play into the treatment decision?

Dr. Meisel:

I think symptom management is huge, because like I said and I tell this to all my patients at the outset of treatment that most of the time, metastatic breast cancer becomes a chronic diagnosis for a patient. You’re dealing with it, essentially like a chronic illness for the rest of your life. And you’re on some form of treatment for the most part, for the foreseeable future.

And so, making sure quality of life is as good as it can be is critically important. And I think symptom management is a huge part of that and we know that if we can treat and manage symptoms well, people can live better and often live longer because then they can stay on treatment for more extensive periods of time comfortably. And so, I always encourage patients, don’t be a martyr.

Don’t think you have to just bounce in here and tell me everything’s okay if it’s not okay. If you’re having symptoms and side effects from treatment, or from the cancer, I want to know about them so that we can really aggressively manage those symptoms just like we’re aggressively managing the cancer. A lot of times oncologists can do that on their own. We are pretty well versed in managing a lot of symptoms and side effects.

But a lot of times also, there are teams of doctors either who do palliative care or here at Emory, we call it supportive oncology where they are specially trained in things like pain management and managing more common side effects like nausea, constipation, diarrhea, appetite suppression, that can go along with cancer and with treatment.

And then they often will co-manage patients with us as well, just to make sure there’s that really strong focus on maintaining as much of a low symptom burden as possible.

Katherine:

So, you mentioned earlier, clinical trials. When should patients consider participating in a trial?

Dr. Meisel:

I think it’s a great question and I think the answer is really, almost any time. There are trials in every setting. So, I think one of the common misconceptions about clinical trials is that you really only should be in a clinical trial, or your doctor might only mention a clinical trial if they don’t have other options for you or if you’re really in stage. And I think that perception is changing. But I think the reality is that there are clinical trials in every setting.

So, we have clinical trails looking at prevention of breast cancer. Clinical trials looking to optimize early-stage treatment of breast cancer. Clinical trials looking at secondary prevention, so once you’ve had breast cancer, how can we reduce your risk of recurrence. And then lots of clinical trials in the metastatic setting both for patients who are initially diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer.

And then in second, third, fourth line and even for patients who have had tons and tons of additional therapy that we’re looking at new drugs for. So, I think at almost any juncture where you’re making a treatment change, it’s probably appropriate to say, would there be a clinical trail that you can think of that would be good for me in this setting? And it may be that there’s a one that’s 12 hours away, and it’s not convenient for you or feasible.

And it may be that your doctor doesn’t necessarily know of one but then that prompts them to ask a colleague who may be more involved in clinical trial design and development. Or it may be that there is one, but you ultimately choose not to pursue it because you have a different option. But I think it’s always appropriate to ask, would there be a trail for me? Because if there is, then maybe that opens up an option you hadn’t thought about before.

Katherine:

Sure. For patients who aren’t familiar with the stages of clinical trials, would you give us a brief overview of the stages?

Dr. Meisel:

Yeah. Absolutely. So, in terms of clinical trials that’re being done in humans, we talk about Phase I, Phase II and Phase III typically. So, a Phase II clinical trial is typically an earlier stage trial.

Looking at either a drug that has not been tested in humans before or a drug that has not been tested in a particular combination in humans before. And so, those trials are done only in select institutions, usually academic institutions as opposed to private hospitals. And they often have what’s called a dose finding phase and then a dose escalation phase. So, the earliest part of those trials is actually looking at, what is the safest dose to give to patients?

So, they start the first patients at a low dose of the compound. And if those patients do well, the next patients that’re enrolled get enrolled at a slightly higher dose. And then up until they reach the highest dose they can find where people are tolerating it and doing reasonably well. And in those Phase I trials, doctors and investigators are also evaluating efficacy, is this drug working. But the primary goal of the early phase trial is actually to find the right dose to then study in larger groups. And so, if they find the right dose and there’s good biological rationale for the compound, then the trial would go on to a Phase II.

Which might be just what we call single arm Phase II study, where every patient is getting that experimental drug. And we monitor them to see, is the drug effective, or is it less effective than the standard of care? Or sometimes they’re what we call, randomized Phase II trials where patients are randomized to either get the experimental drug, or to get what the standard of care would be in that situation. I think a lot of people get afraid about the idea of a randomized trial because they’re afraid they’re going to be randomized to a placebo. And that is really not done in the metastatic setting, because it wouldn’t be ethical to give a patient with active cancer a placebo.

So, usually the randomization would be either to the study compound or to a standard of care drug. And then if things look good in a Phase II trial, then a Phase III study is done which is usually what the FDA requires to allow a drug to go on and be administered outside of a study for approval. And those Phase III trials tend to be larger studies that’re done in larger groups of patients with more statistical validity because of their size, to determine, is this drug really better than the standard.

Katherine:

Right. We have another question we received earlier, this one from Eileen. She asks, how will I know whether my treatment is working?

Dr. Meisel:

That’s a really good question. So, I think for patients who have symptoms from their cancer, they often will know the drug is working because their symptoms improve. Say if you have lung metastases and you are short of breath and your shortness of breath gets better. That’s a really good sign that the treatment is working. I would say that often what we are doing, and it depends a little bit on the regimen and what the patient is getting and how often they’re coming in.

But we’re checking labs as well and sometimes there are lab abnormalities when a patient is diagnosed with metastatic cancer that can then improve over time. So, for example, if someone has a heavy burden of bone involvement with breast cancer, there’s a lab value called the alkaline phosphatases that will often be elevated. If that starts elevated and comes down, that’s a really good sign. And some of their liver function tests that we check and if a patient has liver metastases, we often will see those come down if a patient is responding.

There are also, what we call tumor markers that we can check in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Those would be proteins in the blood basically that can be made by the breast cancer in abundance. And those are called CA27-29 and CA15-3. Some doctors check both of them. Some will just check one depending on which one their laboratory at their institution is running. But typically, I will check those at diagnosis of metastatic disease. And then if it’s elevated, I know it’s a good marker to follow for my patient. And then I’ll follow that monthly or every three weeks, depending on when the patient is coming in to see me.

And if I see that marker start to go down, it’s not an absolute, but it can be a good early indicator of improvement with the treatment. And then I think it varies a little bit from practice to practice and based on patient preference. But often there will be scans done when a patient is initially diagnosed to determine the extent of the disease. So, usually a CT scan of the chest and the abdomen and the pelvis or a PET scan, which some of you may have heard of. Either one of those is good.

And that can be done about every 12 weeks usually in the beginning, to make sure a patient is responding and once you feel confident that they are, those can be done sell frequently. So, I would say the scans and the lab work and then the patient’s overall condition are usually the way that we look to see, are we having a response or not.

Katherine:

We’ve talked about several key tests. Some patients may be confused about whether they’ve received these tests. So, what questions should they ask their physician to make sure they’re getting appropriate testing?

Dr. Meisel:

I think it’s probably useful because not everybody needs every test, and I think there are often things you hear about online or from friends or even in a webinar like this, and there may be a good reason why you haven’t had that particular test. So, I wouldn’t assume that if you haven’t had everything that we’ve talked about today even, that someone’s made a mistake or that you need that and aren’t getting it. But I would ask. I think it’s always helpful to know more, knowledge is power. And so, if you have never had a CT scan or a CA27-29 level or a genomic testing.

I think it’s not a bad thing if you’re curious about it, to just ask your treating team, “Hey, I heard about genomic testing, is there a reason I haven’t had that? Or have I had that?” Maybe you have, and they called it something else. I think it is complicated, but I think it helps to understand what you’ve had done and what you haven’t had done. And sometimes, asking about something like that may prompt the team to do things that my benefit you.

Katherine:

Before we wrap up, Dr. Meisel, how do you feel about the future of breast cancer research and what would you like patients to know?

Dr. Meisel:

Yeah, I think one of the most important things and I actually said this to a family this morning where a loved one had received a new diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer is that the field has evolved so much over the past five years. I think often when people get a diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, it’s the most dreadful feeling they ever had. They remember that day for the rest of their lives. But we are seeing so many people do so well for so long now and tolerate treatments well because the treatments are better tolerated.

And there’s I think more attention being paid now to symptom management. That people really can do so much better than they’ve been doing. And I would say really, every year, even every six months, when I go to give a lecture on a topic in metastatic breast cancer, I can’t just give the same talk. I’m always having to update my slides because there’s so many new things coming out, so much new research on the table.

And we’re seeing so many new drug approvals now that we’re starting to unlock some of these new mutations and reasons for progression and understanding new drug classes. So, really think it is a bright time to be in breast cancer research, and there’s never been a better time to be a patient if you have to fall into that category.

Katherine:

It all sounds so promising, Dr. Meisel. Thank you so much for joining us today.

Dr. Meisel:

You’re so welcome. Thank you for having me.

Katherine:

And thank you to all of our partners. If you would like to watch this webinar again, there will be a replay available soon. You’ll receive an email when it’s ready. Also, don’t forget to take the survey immediately following this webinar. It will help us as we plan future programs.

To learn more about breast cancer and to access tools to help you become a proactive patient, visit PowerfulPatients.org. I’m Katherine Banwell, thanks for joining us.

 

Navigating Relationships and Your Mental Health After a Diagnosis

The moment you receive a cancer diagnosis, it can feel like everything in your life flips upside down. It’s one reason why 15-25% of cancer patients experience depression. We’ve become a society that focuses on so many stereotypes and “what ifs” when it comes to cancer that it can take a toll on your mental health.

It can also impact your relationships and how you move forward in your life.

Obviously, how your mental health is impacted can depend on the severity of your diagnosis. In any case, however, it’s important to make your mental wellbeing and your relationships a priority. Yes, taking care of your physical health is crucial. But now, more than ever, being in the right mental state and having people you love around to support you will make a big difference.

So, how can you navigate relationships and your mental health after a diagnosis?

Accepting Your Emotions

It’s not uncommon for people who receive a life-changing diagnosis to go through a whirlwind of emotions. But, you might feel as though you have to keep them hidden. There are so many things to go through after a cancer diagnosis. To keep looking forward and pushing ahead with treatment, you might think that you don’t have time to acknowledge your emotions.

That kind of attitude can be damaging. It can lead to depression, anxiety, or even PTSD. To effectively cope with your diagnosis, you have to allow yourself to feel.  Face your emotions,  no matter what they are. When you don’t, you’ll start to notice things like muscle tension, fatigue, or more aches and pains than usual. You might also start to recognize that certain things trigger powerful emotions more than others, and they become harder to bottle up.

When you try to push your emotions down, you’ll add more stress to your life. As a result, your mental state can continue to spiral, and it can cause even more turmoil in your relationships. Whether you’re married, dating, or dealing with friendships, your mental health state can have a big influence on how you feel about those relationships and how you treat people who love you.

Recognizing Problems in Your Relationship

It’s not uncommon for people with mental health conditions to feel tension or strain in their relationships. If your mental health is suffering after your diagnosis, you might already be noticing some changes. Some common issues that tend to occur include:

  • A lack of communication
  • Distractions
  • More frequent arguments
  • Misunderstandings

It’s also common to experience a lack of intimacy when you’re struggling with mental health issues. For example, anxiety can cause pain during intercourse for women and may contribute to erectile dysfunction for men. Depression can lead to a decreased interest in physical intimacy or even emotional closeness.

Take a look at your actions and attitude. Are you pushing people away or playing the role of the victim? Whether you’re in a romantic relationship with someone or you’re thinking about how you act around family and friends, any connection can struggle with the wrong attitude. You have to be willing to adapt to your diagnosis, highlight your best assets, and let the people in your life surround and support you.

You should always be on the lookout for issues in your relationship after a diagnosis. If you’re experiencing problems, consider your mental health state, and how the two might connect. Having strong relationships is important for your overall well-being, and you’re going to want someone there with you as often as possible so you’re not alone on this new journey.

Seeking Support

Another reason strong relationships are so important after a diagnosis is because of support. Having a support system can help you to:

  • Continue with a sense of normalcy
  • Maintain your emotional stability
  • Keep a positive attitude
  • Get the rest you need while having things looked after for you

Friends, family, and even a spouse or partner should all be a part of your support group. If you allow yourself to reach out for help, you might be surprised by who is willing to be there for you.

If you find that your mental health is still suffering, consider talking to a therapist, counselor, or psychiatric nurse. There is currently a mental health care provider shortage across the country, though options like telehealth and community initiatives are making providers more accessible to everyone. Talking to a mental health professional will make it easier to open up and expand on your feelings. You’ll get to the root cause of your anxiety or depression and learn the skills necessary to manage your symptoms.

When you receive a cancer diagnosis, you’ll need to put your time, energy, and drive into beating the physical disease. To do that, however, you might need to focus on the strength of your mental state, first. Keep these ideas in mind for navigating relationships and your mental health, and your entire treatment experience can be a more positive one.

NCCN Guidance on Safety and Effectiveness of COVID-19 Vaccines for Cancer Patients

NCCN Guidance on Safety and Effectiveness of COVID-19 Vaccines for Cancer Patients from Patient Empowerment Network on Vimeo.

Is the COVID-19 vaccine recommended for people living with cancer? Dr. Erin Roesch shares recommendations from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) for those undergoing cancer treatment, including guidance on mask wearing and advice for family members.

Dr. Erin Roesch is a breast medical oncologist at the Cleveland Clinic. Learn more about Dr. Roesch here.


Transcript:

Katherine: 

Many cancer patients have questions about the COVID vaccine. Is it safe? Do we need to continue wearing masks? Here to address these questions is cancer expert, Dr. Erin Roesch. Dr. Roesch, would you introduce yourself?

Dr. Roesch: 

Hello. And thank you for inviting me to participate in this very important conversation. My name is Erin Roesch. I am a breast medical oncologist at Cleveland Clinic.

Katherine: 

Excellent. Thank you so much for joining us today. I’d like to run through a list of concerns that cancer patients have about vaccines in general and the COVID vaccine specifically.

So, let’s start with a basic question. Should people get vaccinated if they have cancer?

Dr. Roesch: 

Yes. All individuals diagnosed with cancer should get the COVID-19 vaccine as recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network or NCCN.

An immunocompromised state makes many people with cancer at higher risk of serious COVID-19 illness. Those who are vaccinated are less likely to become sick with COVID-19. And, also, vaccinated people who do get COVID-19 are much less likely to become seriously ill.

I would also mention that those living in the same household as a person diagnosed with cancer and caregivers or other close contacts should also get vaccinated.

Katherine: 

Another common question is whether people with cancer should wait for any reason to get the COVID-19 vaccine.

Dr. Roesch: 

Most people with cancer should get the vaccine as soon as they can with a few exceptions according to NCCN.

People in the process of receiving stem cell transplant or cellular therapy should wait at least three months after they finish treatment to get vaccinated.

Those diagnosed with certain forms of leukemia should also wait a few weeks after receiving treatment to allow their immune system to recover so the vaccine can be effective.

It’s not been clearly defined exactly how chemotherapy affects responses to COVID-19 vaccines. But some data suggests that immune responses may not be as robust. However, it is still recommended that those receiving chemotherapy and also immunotherapy and radiation should get vaccinated whenever they can.

Katherine:

I think a lot of people are concerned too about whether one vaccine is better than another. What would you say to them?

Dr. Roesch:

And that is a common question that I often get in my clinic. And I advise my patients to receive or take whatever vaccine they are offered.

We don’t really have any studies or data at this point suggesting one being better than another in cancer patients.

Katherine: 

Some people are wondering if the vaccine can give a person COVID-19. How would you address that?

Dr. Roesch: 

I would say that as none of the currently available vaccines are made with a live virus, the vaccine itself can’t give a person COVID-19. By getting vaccinated, actually, those who are immunocompromised are really helping society to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Immunocompromised people who get COVID-19 may be more likely to infect others due to prolonged shedding of the virus after infection.

Katherine:

What about side effects? Are the vaccine’s side effects worse for people with cancer?

Dr. Roesch:  

No. Side effects do not appear to be worse for those diagnosed with cancer. Results to date suggest that the vaccine’s side effects in people with and without cancer are really no different.

These side effects, as we have seen, may include arm soreness, rash, fatigue, chills, fever, headache, for example.

Katherine: 

And, finally, can cancer patients stop wearing a mask after they’ve been vaccinated?

Dr. Roesch:

Cancer patients should continue to wear a mask post-vaccination. Many people with cancer may have a harder time actually fighting infections and may not respond as well to vaccines. So, people diagnosed with cancer and their close contacts should get vaccinated and then continue to follow precautions, which include wearing masks, social distancing, hand hygiene.

Katherine:

Is there a certain length of time that people need to continue wearing a mask after being vaccinated?

Dr. Roesch:  

At this time, I would recommend patients continue to follow the CDC guidelines that are currently in place. And at this point, I don’t think we have a projected end time for that yet.

Katherine:    

Is there anything else you’d like to share with cancer patients who may be concerned about vaccinations?

Dr. Roesch:    

I would encourage those diagnosed with cancer to not only themselves get vaccinated but to also really voice and stress the importance of vaccination to those that surround them, including, again, members of their household, close contacts, and even beyond their inner circle.

I would also advise people to try and avoid letting the concern of possible side effects related to the shot deter them from getting it. The symptoms of COVID-19 can be much worse and potentially serious for some compared with the relatively minor side effects that we’ve seen with the vaccine itself.

I also would mention I’ve had personal patients that have expressed concern about functioning of their immune system while receiving chemotherapy and how this might affect their response to the vaccine. I do emphasize to them that even though responses might not be as strong as they may be in the absence of active treatment, I feel like the potential benefits of the vaccine still outweigh the risks in my mind.

Katherine:   

Thanks so much for joining us today, Dr. Roesch.

Dr. Roesch:

Thank you for having me.